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THE  LIBRARY 

OF 

THE  UNIVERSITY 
OF  CALIFORNIA 

LOS  ANGELES 


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HAYA 


V  A 


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T^"^ 

">Vi'fltT3UHSteT  Alalbf-y  to  i:ir 
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Sir    fVp'O  Fwp  I'loroif^k    K.J5, 

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r 

THE 


Chronicle, 


FOR   1809: 

CONTAINING  A 

GENERAL  AND  BIOGRAPHICAL  HISTORY 

OF 

THE  ROYAL  NAVY 

OF   THE 


WITH  A  VARIETY  OF  ORIGINAL  PAPERS  ON 
NAUTICAL  SUBJECTS. 


UNDER  THE  GUIDANCE  OF  SEVERAL 

LITERARY  AND  PROFESSIONAL  MEN. 


VOL.  XXI. 

(FROM  JANUARY  TO 


AS  YOU  VALUE  THE  GLOnY  AND  SAFETY  OF  BRITAIN,  SUPPORT  THE  SPANIARD* 
WHILST  THliBE  REMAINS   A  PATRIOT  STANDARD  TO  BALLY  BOUND. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED  AND  PUBLISHED  BY  AND  FOR  JOYCE  GOLD,  SHOE-LANE; 

And  sold  by  Messrs.  Longman,  Hurst,  Rees,  and  Orme,  Messrs.  Wilkie  and  Robinson,  Messrs. 
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hill;  Messrs.  Black,  Parry,  and  Kingsbury,  Leadenhall-strtet ;  Messrs,  Crosby  and  Co. 
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' 


P  JR  E  F  A  €  E 

TO  THE  TWENTY-FIRST  VOLUME. 


"  Magna  est  veritas." 

vv  E  sliall  endeavour  to  make  the  NAVAL 
"  CHRONICLE  an  useful  and  interesting  library  of 
"  itself  to  seamen,  and  an  acceptable  work  to  every 
"  one  who  partakes  of  the  glory  acquired  by  our  own 
"  countrymen  on  their  own  element,  or  experiences 
"  the  security  derived  from  their  valour. 

"  Our  leading  principle  will  be  to  adhere  strictly 
"  unto  truth  ;  to  render  justice  unto  naval  merit,  pre- 
"  sent  and  departed,  both  when  it  has  met  with  suc- 
"  cess,  and  also,  (which  is  of  the  greatest  importance) 
"  when  it  has  unsuccessfully  struggled  with  unfavour- 
"  able  events.  We  shall  not  palliate  enormities, 
"  should  any  such  present  themselves  to  our  view  in 
"  the  course  of  our  labours;  nor  shall  we  permit  pre- 
"  judice,  unnoticed,  to  overwhelm  misfortune  when 
"  tin  aggravated  by  misconduct." 

This  is  the  engagement  we  contracted  with  the 
public  in  the  introduction  of  our  first  Volume,  on 
New  Year's  Day,  1799  ;  and  after  mo  re  than  ten  years 
have  revolved,  we  confidently  appeal  to  the  suffrages 
of  our  professional,  as  well  as  of  our  literary  patrons, 
whether  we  have  redeemed  our  pledge  ;  and  whether 
we  have  not  contributed  abundantly,  as  well  as  usefully, 
towards  the  naval  annals  of  our  country  during  that 

•     i  Jo 

period. 

Conscious  of  the  rectitude  of  our  intentions,  and 
(we  will  venture  to  add)  of  our  merit  in  their  execu- 
tion, we  shall  detain  the  reader  by  only  one  more 
general  remark. 


Vl  PREFACE. 

The  committee,  appointed  by  the  Royal  Society  to 
direct  the  publication  of  the  Philosophical  Transac- 
tions, never  omit  annually  to  repeat  the  declaration, 
that  it  is  an  established  rule  of  the  Society  never  to 
give  their  opinion,  as  a  body,  upon  any  subject  that 
comes  before  thein.  And  therefore  the  thanks  fre- 
quently given  to  the  authors  of  such  papers  as  are 
read  at  tkeir  accustomed  meetings,  or  to  the  persons 
exhibiting  projects,  inventions,  or  curiosities  to  the 
Society,  are  to  be  considered  in  no  other  light  than 
as  a  civility  due  for  those  communications,  without  the 
Society  pretending  to  answer  for  the  certainty  of  the 
facts,  or  propriety  of  the  reasonings  contained  in  their 
'publication;  which  must  rest  on  the  credit  or  judg- 
ment of  their  respective  authors. 

We  beg  leave  in  our  humbler  sphere  to  make  appli- 
cation of  the  preceding  notice,  mutatis  mutandis,  to 
the  NAVAL  CHRONICLE  ;  as  our  apology  for  freedom 
of  discussion,  with  reference  either  to  persons  or 
things,  and  as  our  justification  for  the  apparent  con- 
tradictions by  which  the  pages  of  our  work  are  occa- 
sionally checquered  ;  by  the  insertion  of  lucubrations 
in  some  instances  trivial,  of  arguments  not  always 
tenable,  or  of  criticism  not  always  just.  At  least 
controversy  is  maintained,  and  that  is  generally  no 
less  effectual  to  establish  truth,  than  the  collision  of 
flint  and  steel  is  to  produce  light.  Our  object  is  the 
advancement  of  knowledge  on  practical  subjects ;  and 
the  dissemination  of  authentic  information.  In  re- 
cording facts  relative  to  the  dead  or  the  living,  we 
seek  not  to  violate  the  sanctity  of  the  tomb,  nor  to 
wound  the  individual  feelings  of  our  contemporaries. 
TRUTH,  we  must  again  repeat,  is  the  object  to  which 
our  compass  points;  and  while  the  NAVAL  CHRO- 
NICLE will  ever  vindicate  the  liberty  of  the  English 
press,  against  any  living  authority  or  influence,  it  shall 
never  incur  tha  reproach  of  shewing  an  example  of 
its  license. 

In  the  succeeding  sheets,  many  subjects  of  consider- 
able importance  to  the  British  navy  have  been  occa- 
sionally discussed,  and  with  much  ability,  by  our  Cor- 
respondents. The  letter  by  our  friend  A.  F.  Y.  is 


PREFACE.  Vli 

admirably  written,  and  like  bis  otber  communications 
reflects  great  credit  on  this  Correspondent.    We  trust 
he  will  long  continue  to   honour   the   pages   of  the 
CHRONICLE.     His  remarks  have   in  a  considerable 
degree  served  *  to  elucidate  the  true  and  national  na- 
ture of  discipline  in  the  various  gradations  of  rank  in 
our  service.     An  ample  field  of  untrodden  interest  is 
still  open  to  this  Correspondent.     Our  worthy  friend 
E.  G.  F.  in   the  next  place,   claims  our  thanks  and 
apologies,  (page  35.)     We  never  intended  what  we 
presumed  to  say,  in  the  literal  sense  he  has  taken  it. 
His  bark  is  neither  old  nor  crazy,  or  at  least  if  old,  it 
seems  like  the  Old  Billy  at  Spithead,  whose  timbers, 
of  nearly  the  standing  of  a  century,  are  still  sound. 
We  only  meant  to  direct  the  attention  of  this  Cor- 
respondent entirely  to  naval  subjects  ;    and  in  con- 
sidering the  Parliamentary  Duties  of  Naval  Officers, 
we  wished  him  to  confine  himself  to  such  remarks  as 
were  alone    connected  with  naval  men ;    and  much 
anecdote  and  interesting  observation  will  be  found  by 
him  in  that  line.     If  this  Correspondent  would  allow 
us  to  suggest  an  improvement  in  his  plan,  it  would 
be  by  recommending  him,  to  take  any  leading  or 
important  naval  speech  in  either  House  of  Parliament, 
and  to  form  his  letters  by  commenting  on  some  of  the 
most  important  features  in  the  speech.    He  would  thus 
render  a  most  essential  service  to  the  CHRONICLE, 
since,  owing  to  the  press  of  other  articles,  we  are  often 
obliged  to  compress  or  neglect  the  naval  debates. 

Our  new,  and  valuable  Correspondent,  Raleigh, 
is  eminently  entitled  to  our  thanks,  for  his  excellent 
account  of  Naval  Transactions  on  the  Coast  of  Por- 
tugal, (page  377). 

Our  thanks  are  also  due  to  an  anonymous  Corres- 
pondent, who  rendered  our  pages  essential  service, 
by  his  description  of  Captain  JBolton's  Jury  Mast, 
(page  399-)  Nauticus,  at  page  401,  communicated 
more  correct  information  than  had  before  appeared 
respecting  South  America.  The  well  written  letter  of 
F.  F.  F.  (page  408)  on  catamarans,  fire  devils,  &c. 

*  Sec  page  201. 


PREFACE. 

will  be  perused  with  much  pleasure  by  naval  men. 
Captain  Rickets's  valuable  communications  are  inserted 
at  pages  38,  211,  398;  and  Sir  Joseph  Senhouse's 
important  communication  respecting  his  discovery  of 
a  species  of  timber  to  which  the  salt  worm  will  hot 
adhere,  is  given  at  page  113.  There  are  likewise 
many  other  Correspondents,  whose  assistance  we  are 
unable  to  notice  as  it  deserves. 

We  feel  particularly  indebted  to  the  friends  of  those 
Officers,  (whose  Memoirs  are  inserted  in  this  Volume) 
for  their  kind  assistance  in  furnishing  us  with  mate- 
rials for  drawing  up  the  same. 

The  naval  part  of  an  eventful  period  is,  in  some 
measure,  comprised  within  the  present  Volume  of  our 
CHROMCLE.  The  efforts  of  our  tars  have  accom- 
plished some  great,  glorious,  and  important  objects  ; 
and,  though  no  second  victory  of  Trafalgar  has 
crowned  their  dauntless  spirit  of  enterprise,  they  may 
boast,  that  they  have  given  the  enemy  ample  cause  to 
remember  their  prowess,  in  the  earlier  parts  of  1 809- 

Our  squadron  in  the  West  Indies  has  particularly 
distinguished  itself,  by  the  capture  of  Martinique, 
(page  323)  and  of  the  Saints  (page  50Q).  The  Wrest 
Indies  have  also  been  the  scene  of  several  brilliant 
actions,  on  a  smaller  scale.* 

The  embarkation  of  the  British  troops  at  Corunna 
(page  79)  ;  the  reduction  of  Cayenne,  (page  337)  ; 
the  taking  of  Vigo  (page  333)  ;  and,  though  last,  not 
least,  the  destruction  of  the  French  Fleet,  in  Basque 
Roads  (page  344) ;  are  all  services,  of  a  nature,wcll  cal- 
culated to  support,  and  elevate,  the  character  of  the 
British  Navy. 

Of  the  single  actions  recorded  in  this  Volume,  none 
ranks  superior  to  that  between  the  Amethyst  and  the 
Niemen  (page  343)  ;  in  which  the  gallant  Captain 
Seymour,  who,  but  a  few  months  before,  had  signa- 
lised himself  by  the  capture  of  the  Thetis,  again  proved 
himself  superior  to  the  most  determined  efforts  of  the 
enemy. 

Communications,  &c.  intended  for  insertion  in  the  NAVAL  CHRONIGLC, 
are  rcq  listed  to  he  sent  to  Mr.  GOLD,  103,  Shoe-lane,  London. 

*  See  the  account  of  the  capture  of  the  Topaze,  (page  318)  and 
of  le  d'llautpoult,  (page  436.) 


The  above  engraving,  by  Xffibit,  is  from  a  drawing  by  Pocock.  It  is  an  accurate  reprt* 
scntation  of  The  Bow  of  the  fforge,  a  Danish  ship,  of  74  guns.  Fora  more  particular  dtscrip- 
lion  we  refer  to  one  of  the  Anecdotes. 


MEMOIR  OF  THE  PUBLIC  SERVICES 

OF 

CAPTAIN   HUGH  DOWNMAN, 

OF    THE    ROYAt    NAVY. 


"  Thesf  are  thy  triumphs,  Britain  !    Thine  alone, 

Great  guardian  of  the  altar  and  the  throne, 

To  speak  in  thunder  to  the  world  around, 

And  grasp  the  trident  of  the  deep  profound." AKO\. 

CAPTAIN  HUGH  DOWNMAN,  a  brief  memoir  of  whose 
public  services  is  here  submitted  to  the  reader,  is  descended 
from  a  respectable  family  in  Devonshire,  of  which  his  father  was  a 
younger  branch.  His  great-grandfather  was  a  man  of  considerable 
property  in  that  county  ;  and  he  is  related  to  Dr.  Dowmnan,  of 
Exeter,  to  Colonel  Downr.ian,  of  the  artillery,  and  to  Mr.  Down- 
man,  the  artist.  To  the  two  last  mentioned  gentlemen  he  bears  the 
relationship  of  first  cousin,  and  of  second  to  the  first. 

He  was  born  near  Plymouth,  about  the  year  1765  :  and,  in 
October  1776.  at  the  early  agu  of  eleven,  he  entered  into  the 
navy,  under  the  auspices  of  Captain  Michael  Graham,  in  the 
Hcl.  XXI.  » 


ft  MEMOIR   Of   THE    PUBLIC    SERVICES    of 

Thetis  frigate.  IIo\v  long  he  remained  in  that  ship,  or  on  wlist 
station  he  was  employed  in  her,  we  are  uninformed. 

In  August,  1778,  he  joined  (he  Arethusa,  Captain  Marshal ; 
in  which,  in  the  month  of  March  following,  lie  had  the  misfortune 
to  be  cast  away,  on  the  coast  of  France.  The  Arethusa  was  lost 
upon  the  rocks,  near  Ushant,  while  in  pursuit  of  an  enemy  ;  but 
the  crew  were  all  saved,  and  experienced  the  most  humane  treat- 
ment from  the  French. 

Mr.  Downman  remained  a  prisoner  in  France  till  the  month  of 
January,  1780,  when  he  was  exchanged.  On  his  return  to 
England,  he  embarked  with  his  former  captain,  Marshal,  in  the 
Emerald,  and  continued  with  him  till  May,  1782  ;  when,  on 
Commodore  Hotham's  hoisting  his  broad  pendant  On  board  the 
Edgar,  of  74  guns,  he  removed  into  that  ship.  He  was  conse- 
quently present  at  the  memorable  relief  of  Gibraltar,  in  which 
Cotfmiodcrc  Hotham  commanded  the  van  squadron.* 

In  the  Edgar,  Mr.  Downraan  continued  till  the  peace  of  1783, 
•when  that  ship  was  paid  off. — He  next  served  three  years  with 
Admiral  Montagu,  in  the  Queen  ;  and  afterwards  with  Lord 
Hood  in  the  Triumph  and  Barficur. 

In  the  mouth  of  February,  1789$  shortly  after  Commodore 
Cornwallis  had  bee;i  appointed  comrnander-in-chief  in  the  East 
Indies,  Mr.  Downman  sailed  with  that  officer,  in  the  Crown, 
The  nature  of  the  service  in  which  he  was  employed,  on  the  India 
station,  will  be  seen  in  our  biographical  memoir  of  the  commander- 
in-chief,  t  It  was  not  such  as  afforded  the  young  seaman  any  par- 
ticular opportunity  of  distinguishing  himself.  There  is  no  doubt, 
however,  that  he  conducted  himself  with  the  strictest  propriety, 
and  attention  to  the  duties  of  his  profession ;  as,  on  the  5th  of 
March,  1790,  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant,  in  the 
Perseverance. 

He  returned  to  England  in  the  Crown,  in  May,  1792,  and,  for 
some  months,  was  on  half  pay.  In  January,  1793,  he  was 
appointed  fourth  lieutenant  of  the  Alcide,  Captain  Linzee,  and! 
went  to  the  Mediterranean.  In  this  ship  he  was  engaged  in  somg 
yery  smart  service.  Captain  Linzee,  soon  after  his  arrival  in  the 

*  Vide  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  IX.  page  350, 
4  Ibid.  Vol.  VII.  page  17. 


HUGH 


.  fyJ.Gold.2e3, 


CAPTAIN   HUGH   DOWNMAN.          ,  3 

Mediterranean,  was  made  a  commodore  ;  and,  at  the  pressing 
solicitation  of  General  Paoli  to  Lord  Hood,  for  assistance,  he  was 
despatched  to  Corsica,  with  the  following  squadron  :— 

Ships.  Guns.  Commanders. 

.,  -,  .  ("Commodore  Robert  Linzee. 

Alcide 7M  , 

(.Captain  J.  Wooclley. 

Couragcux  .....  74  J.  Mathews. 

Ardent . .  64  • —  R.  M.  Sutton. 

Lowestoffe   ,  , 3<2 W.  Wolseley. 

Nemesis  ... ,  28 Lord  A.  Beauclerc. 

On  the  2!ri  of  September,  the  squadron  entered  the  gulf  of  St. 
Fiorenzo  •  iud  on  the  30th,  before  day-break,  the  ships  brought 
up  in  their  stations,  and  opened  a  heavy  cannonade  on  the  redoubt 
of  Fniuelli,  which  continued  without  intermission  till  nearly  eight 
o'clock.  At  that  time,  no  visible  impression  had  been  made  on  the 
enemy's  works;  and  the  ships  (particularly  the  Ardent)  were  so 
much  damaged,  by  a  heavy  raking  fire  from  the  town  of  Fiorenzo, 
whence  Commodore  Linzee  had  been  given  to  understand  he  was 
out  of  the  range  of  shot,  that  he  found  himseif  obliged  to  retire. 
In  this  action,  the  Alcide  had  nine  of  her  men  wounded  j  and  the 
squadron  altogether  sustained  a  loss  of  16  killed,  and  39  wounded. 

One  cause  of  the  failure  of  this  attack  was  the  want  of  co- 
operation on  the  part  of  the  Corsicans,  who  had  promised  to  stornx 
the  posts  on  the  land  side. 

From  Corsica,  Commodore  Linzee  sailed  to  Tunis,  with  the 
intention  of  seizing  le  Duquesne,  a  French  ship  of  74  guns,  and 
some  gun-boats,  which  were  lying  there;  but  on  his  arrival,  ha 
found  that  the  Bey  would  not  permit  the  neutrality  of  his  port  to 
be  violated,  and  he  was  obliged  to  return  without  accomplishing 
his  object. 

On  the  llth  of  April,  1794,  Commodore  Linzee  was  promoted 
to  the  rank  of  rear-admiral  of  the  white  squadron  ;  and  when,  in 
consequence  of  his  promotion,  he  hoisted  his  flag  in  the  Windsor 
Castle,  Mr.  Downman  went  with  him  into  that  ship,  as  second 
lieutenant. 

In  the  month  of  October  following,  he  was  reraored  into  the 
Victory,  Lord  Hood's  flag-ship,  and  returned  to  England  with  his 
lordship,  in  December. 

Jli  the  ensuing  spring,  Lord  Hood,  aa  we  have  stated  in  our 


4  MEMOIR    OF   THE    PUBLIC    SERVICES    OP 

memoir  of  that  distinguished  officer,*  had  prepared  to  resume  his 
command  in  the  Mediterranean,  \vithare-enforcement,  when,  most 
unexpectedly,  on  the  2d  of  May,  he  was  ordered  to  strike  his  flag. 
The  Victory,  however,  in  which  Lieutenant  Downman  remained, 
immediately  proceeded  to  the  Mediterranean,  as  a  private  ship. 
Soon  after  her  arrival  on  that  station,  .she  received  the  flag  of  Sir 
John  Jervis,  who  had  sailed  from  England  in  a  frigate,  to  super- 
sede  Admiral  Hotham,+  as  commander-in-chief. 

Lieutenant  Downman  retained  his  appointment,  in  the  Victory, 
and  had  the  satisfaction  of  participating  in  the  glorious  battle  of 
the  14th  of  February,  1797.  j 

On  the  removal  of  Sir  John  Jervis  into  the  Ville  de  Paris,  Mr. 
Downman  accompanied  him,  as  first  lieutenant ;  and,  on  the  4th 
of  June  following,  he  was  made  commander  in  the  Speedy  sloop. 

All  the  time  that  he  commanded  that  ship,  he  was  stationed  off 
Oporto,  to  protect  the  tradj  ;  and  he  had  the  satisfaction  of  taking 
and  destroying  a  number  of  small  privateers,  and,  in  one  instance, 
of  beating  off  an  enemy  of  superior  force.  This  was  on  the  3d 
of  February,  1798.  While  cruising  off  Vigo,  the  Speedy  fell  in 
with  a  French  brig  privateer,  which  Captain  Downman  afterwards 
learned  was  le  Papillon,  pierced  for  18  guns,  and  mounting  14, 
ten  and  twelve-pounders,  with  a  complement  of  160  men.  A 
Tery  sharp  action  ensued,  in  which  the  Speedy  had  five  of  her  crew 
killed,  and  five  badly  wounded.  Amongst  the  former  were 
Lieutenant  Dutton,  and  Mr.  Johnstone,  the  boatswain.  The 
Frenchman  at  length  succeeded  in  crippling  the  Speedy,  and  then 
effected  his  escape,  by  superiority  of  sailing.  At  the  commence- 
ment of  the  combat,  ^Captain  Downman  had  a  prize  in  company, 
•which  the  privateer  took,  but  he  afterwards  recaptured  her. 

The  credit  which  he  acquired  on  this  and  on  other  occasions 
•was  such,  that  he  received  the  thanks  of  the  factory  at  Oporto, 
accompanied  by  a  piece  of  plate,  as  an  acknowledgment  of  his 
services.  The  following  letter,  with  its  subjoined  enclosure,  was 
transmitted  to  him,  by  Mr.  Whitehead,  the  British  Consul : — 

*  Vide  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  II.  p.  45. 
t  Ibid.  Vol.  IV.  p.  32. 

+  For  the  particulars  of  this  memorable  action,  the  reader  is  referred  t* 
the  IVtli  volume  of  the  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  page  35,  et  »ej. 


CAPTAIN  HUGH  DOWNMAJJ.  5 

«  *rn,  "  Porto,  5th  Jtfay,  1798. 

"  I  send  with  pleasure  a  resolution  of  the  Factory,  taken  this  day  at 
their  meeting.  I  am,  Sir> 

"  Your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 
H.Dozcnman,Esq.  "  J.  WHITEHEAD." 

"  RESOLVED,  "  Meeting,  Porto,  5th  May,  1798. 

*'  That  our  thanks  be  given  to  Captain  Hugh  Downnaan,  of  his  majesty's 
f.1iip  Speedy,  for  the  protection  of  our  trade,  and  particularly  for  his  late 
gallant  action,  in  engaging  and  beating  off  a  privateer  of  the  enemy  of 
superior  force  ;  and,  as  a  token  of  our  gratitude,  we  beg  his  acceptance  of 
a  piece  of  plate,  of  the  value  of  fifty  pounds. 

"  Mr.  Consul  is  requested  to  send  a  copy  of  this  resolution  to  Mr.  Secre- 
tary Nepean, 

"  J.  WHITEHEAD,  Consul." 

'*  Stafford,  Swanns,  Kjiowsley,  and  Stafford. 

Bearsley  and  Webb. 

Quarles,  Harris,  and  Co. 

Perry,  Frend,  Nassau,  and  Thomson. 

Proc.  of  Samuel  Abbott, 

William  Nassau. 
Thompson,  Croft,  and  Co. 
Campion,  Offley,  Ilesketh,  and  Co. 
Pennel,  Smith,  and  Co. 
Babington,  Tedswell,  and  Co. 
Warre  and  Co. 
Stephenson,  Searle,  and  Son. 
George  Wye  find  Son. 
Newman,  Land,  and  Hunt, 
Charles  Page. 
Thomas  Snow  and  Co. 
Lambert,  Kingston,  and  Co. 
Proc.  of  H.  Burmester,  Nash,  and  Co. 

James  Butler." 

For  his  services  in  the  Speedy,  Captain  Downman  was  also  made 
post  in  the  Santa  Dorotea  frigate,  on  the  1st  of  September,  1798  ; 
in  which  ship  he  continued  to  be  actively  employed,  in  the  Medi- 
terranean, and  on  the  coast  of  Portugal,  till  the  peace  of  1801, 
when  he  went,  as  Sir  James  Sauniarez'  captain^  into  the  Cassar. 

Amongst  the  captures  which  he  made,  while  commanding  the 
Santa  Dorotea,  may  be  mentioned  the  following  : — On  the  28<h 
of  November,  1798,  in  company  with  the  Strombolo,  Perseus,  and 
J3ull  Dog,  he  took  the  Spanish  corvette,  San  Leon,  of  16  guns, 


$  MEMOIR    OF   THE    PUBLIC   SERVICES    O* 

and  88  men  ;*  on  the  IHh  of  January,  1800,  by  the  exertions  of 
the  ship's  boats,  he  cut  out  a  brig,  laden  with  wheat,  from  under 
the  batteries  of  Bordiguera  ;  and,  on  the  llth  of  the  succeeding 
month,  he  cut  out  the  Santa  Anna,  armed  ship,  mounting  ten  guns, 
from  under  the  batteries  of  Hospitallier.  Several  other  ships,  we 
"helieve,  were  taken  by  him  in  a  similar  manner  ;  but  his  services, 
respecting  the  two  which  we  have  last  mentioned,  were  acknow- 
ledged by  the  following  very  handsome  letter,  from  his  Commander- 
in-chief,  Lord  Keith : — 

«  SIR>  "  Audacious,  Leghorn  Roads,  3d  April,  1800. 

"  I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  29th  January  last,  acquainting  me 
with  your  having,  on  tlie  llth,  cut  out  a  brig  loaded  with  wheat,  from 
under  the  batteries  of  Bordiguera  ;  and  also  that  of  27th  February,  to  Cap- 
tain Louis,  of  the  Minotaur  (which  has  been  by  him  transmitted  to  me) 
acquainting  him  of  your  having,  on  the  night  of  the  llth  of  that  month,  cut 
out,  from  under  the  batteries  of  Hospitallier,  the  armed  ship,  Santa  Anna, 
of  ten  guns. — I  am  much  pleased  with  your  success  on  these  occasions,  and 
with  the  good  conduct  of  Lieutenant  Aubridge,  and  your  boats'  crews  ;  and 
am  sorry  for  the  loss  which  was  sustained  in  the  execution  of  these  ser- 
vices. I  am,  sir, 

"  Your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 
«  Captain  Vownman,  "  KEITH." 

Sanla  Dorotea" 

In  the  spring  of  1800,  subsequently  to  the  loss  of  the  Queen 
Charlotte,  by  fire,+  Lord  Keith  proceeded  with  part  of  his  fleet 
off  Genoa.  Captain  Downman  accompanied  his  lordship  on  this 
occasion,  and  assisted  in  the  blockade  of  Genoa,  which  was  then 
besieged  by  the  Austrian  general,  Melas,  till  the  beginning  of  June  ; 
•when,  reduced  by  famine,  the  French  army  evacuated  that  city,  andi 
the  whole  of  the  Genoese  territory.  £ 


*  Vide  NAVAT.  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  I.  p.  337. 

t  Ibid.  Vol.  X.  p.  22. 

+  Whilst  the  blockade  of  Genoa  was  kept  up,  the  city  and  Mole  were 
frequently  bombarded  by  the  British  flotilla.  In  one  of  these  assaults, 
Captain  Philip  Beaver,  of  tin;  Aurora,  in  a  most  spirited  and  gallant  man- 
ner, under  a  smart  fire  of  cannon  and  musketry  from  the  Mole  and  the 
enemy's  armed  vessels,  attacked,  boarded,  carried,  and  brought  off  their 
largest  galley,  la  Prima,  of  50  onrs,  and  f<;57  men,  armed,  mounted  with. 
two  brass  3b'-pounders,  and  30  brass  swivels  in  her  hold.  In  pcrfonnioj 
rhis  service,  only  four  men  \v«re  wounded. 


CAPTAIN    HOail   DOWNMAIO.  7 

During  a  part  of  this  time,  however,  Captain  Downman  was 
employed  on  what  might  be  considered  a  detached  service  ;  as,  in 
company  with  the  Neapolitan  brig,  Strombolo,  Captain  Settimo, 
and  the  Chamelion,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Jackson,  ho  was 
entrusted  with  the  blockade  of  the  important  fortress  of  Savona, 
which,  having  been  reduced  by  famine,  surrendered  on  the  16th  of 
May.*  On  this  occasion,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  following  letter 
from  Lord  Keith,  Captain  Downir.an,  as  the  senior  officer,  signed 
the  articles  of  capitulation  : — 

«  SIR,  "  Minotaur,  off  Genoa,  16th  May,  1300. 

"  The  fortress  of  Savons  having  surrendered  to  the  allied  forces,  and  the 
articles  of  capitulation  having  been  seen,  and  approved  of  by  me,  I  have  to 
desire  that  you  sign  the  same,  on  ray  authority,  as  the  commanding  ollicer 
of  his  majesty's  ships  in  Vado  Bay,  Major-general  Compte  de  Sc.  Julian 
kaving  first  signed,  us  an  ofiicer  of  superior  rank  to  you. 

"  I  am,  sir, 

"  Your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 
"  Captain  Dcvcnjium^  "  KEITH.*1 

or 

"  The  Senior  Officer  cfhis  Majesty's  Shipt 
and  Vessels  in  Vado  B«y.''t 

Notwithstanding  the  exertions  of  the  British  and  Austrian  forces, 
the  French  were  destined  to  b^  successful  ;  and,  in  the  month  of 
October  following,  in  consequence  of  the  loss  of  the  fatal  battle  of 
£larengo,  Leghorn  and  the  whole  of  Tuscany  again  fell  under 
their  dominion.  After  the  surrender  of  Genoa  to  the  French* 
Captain  Downman  was  sent  to  destroy  the  fortifications  at  Port 
Aspeccio ;  a  service  which  he  executed  in  the  most  satisfactor/ 
manner.  He  also  preserved  the  valuable  gallery  of  Florence  from 
falling  into  the  hands  of  the  euemy,  by  receiving  it  on  board  the 
Santa  Dorotea,  and  conveying  it  in  safety  to  Palermo.  Hott  well 
he  executed  this  mission,  will  best  be  seen  by  the  following  grateful 
and  highly-flattering  testimonials : — 

*  Savona,  situated  2<2  miles  west-south-west  from  Genoa,  was,  next  cu 
tlue  capital,  the  best  belonging  to  the  republic.  Besiries  its  regular  fortifi- 
cations, it  was  defended  by  a  citadel,  standing  on  a  high  rock ;  and  the  har- 
bour had  been  partly  choked  up,  to  hinder  the  approach  of  large  ship*. 

t  Vado  Bay  is  situated  three  miles  to  the  south 


S  MEMOIR    OF   THE    PUBLIC   SERVICES    OP 

(TRANSLATIONS.) 

«'  Palermo,  November  18,  1800. 

"  I  beg  of  you,  Captain  Downman,  to  accept  one  hundred  zecchins,  to 
distribute  among  your  seamen,  as  a  trifling  acknowledgment  of  the  trouble 
which  my  equipage  occasioned  them. 

"  In  regard  to  yourself,  it  has  already  been  my  care  to  take  advantage  of 
an  extraordinary  courier  sent  by  the  imperial  ambassador  to  Vienna,  to 
inform  my  sovereign  of  the  important  service  you  have  rendered  to  him  and 
to  Tuscany,  by  placing  the  most  valuable  possessions  of  his  royal  gallery  in 
safety ;  and  I  feel  assured  that  his  royal  highness  will  publicly  testify  hie 
thanks. 

"  On  my  own  account,  I  owe  you  much  more.  You  have  preserved 
reliques  which  have  formed,  and  will  continue  to  form,  much  of  my  happi- 
ness, and  you  also  entertained  me  while  on  board  with  unexampled  polite- 
ness and  urbanity.  For  the  present,  be  assured  of  my  lively  and  sincere 
acknowledgments.  In  more  happy  times,  I  may  recompense  the  obligation 
at  Florence,  where,  in  appreciating  the  works  of  art  which  you  have  pre- 
served, you  will  be  sensible  of  the  importance  of  your  services,  and  the 
weight  of  my  obligations. 

"  In  this  hope  I  remain,  with  perfect  esteem,  respect,  and  gratitude, 
"  Your  friend  and  servant, 

«  TOMMASO  PUCCINI." 

"Vienna,  March  3,  ISO  I. 

"  The  assiduous  attention  with  which  Captain  Downman,  of  the  English 
frigate,  Santa  Dorotea,  has  conveyed  from  Leghorn  to  Palermo,  various 
valuable  effects  belonging  to  his  royal  highness  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tus- 
cany, my  sovereign,  which  were  accompanied  by  Signor  Tommaso  Puccini, 
has  been  stated  to  his  royal  highness. 

"  His  royal  highness,  understanding  that  orders  to  this  effect  were  given 
by  Admiral  Lord  Keith,  desires  me  to  request  you  will  convey  to  the  same 
his  royal  thanks. 

"  It  will  also  be  gratifying  to  his  royal  highness,  if  you  will  condescend 
to  forward  to  Captain  Downman  a  diamond  ring,  which  will  be  conveyed 
to  jrou  by  Signor  Brigadier  Giovanno  del  Bava,  as  a  testimony  of  the  high 
sense  which  his  royal  highness  has  of  the  delicate  attention  with  which 
Captain  Downman  executed  this  commission. 

"  It  remains  that  I  should  assure  your  excellency,  that  my  royal  master 
i\  persuaded  that  your  official  ..orders  have  not  a  little  contributed  to  influ- 
ence Admiral  Lord  Keith,  to  take  especial  care  for  the  safe  conveyance  of 
the  above-mentioned  effects.  His  royal  highness  has  therefore  deigned, 
in  his  commands  dated  6th  February,  to  signify  to  me  those  acknowledg- 
ments of  obligation  which  I  have  the  honour  of  declaring  to  you. 

"  Mr.  JTyndham:'  «  G.  RAIXOLDI* 


CAPlAIN    HUGH    DOWN  SI  AN*.  9 

"MOST  ILLUSTRIOUS  SIGNOR,  "  Trieste, March  20,  1801. 

"  I  have  received  the  honour  of  your  note,  accompanied  by  a  diamond 
ting,  which  his  royal  highness  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany  condescends  to 
present  to  Captain  Downman,  of  his  Britannic  Majesty's  frigate,  Santa 
Dorotea,  for  the  care  with  which  he  conveyed  various  effects  belonging  to 
his  royal  highness  from  Leghorn  to  Palermo  ;  and  I  feel  myself  happy  in. 
being  deputed  to  testify  to  my  brave  and  worthy  friend  so  honourable  a  tes- 
timony of  his  royal  highness  s  approbation. 

"  I  shall  not  fail  to  send  it  to  him,  with  a  copy  of  your  Excellency's 
letter,  by  the  first  courier  that  sets  out  for  London,  being  very  uncertain 
where  the  Santa  Dorotea  may  be  met  with  at  sea. 

"  I  shall  do  myself  the  honour  of  writing  to  Admiral  Lord  Keit!  > 
announcing  to  him  those  professions  of  acknowledgment  from  the  Grand 
Duke,  which  cannot  fail  to  be  highly  gratifying  to  him,  and  to  impress  him 
with  sentiments  of  respect  and  gratitude. 

"  Respecting  what  his  royal  highness  has  desired  you  to  signify  to  me 
concerning  the  official  orders  that  may  have  contributed  to  the  safety  of  the 
effects  in  question,  I  beg  of  you  to  assure  his  royal  highness  of  my  hearty 
acknowledgments,  and  to  testify  to  him,  that  I  cannot  experience  a  greater 
satisfaction,  than  when  my  time  and  my  actions  are  employed  in  his  ser- 
vice ;  having  a  respectful  attachment  to,  and  high  veneration  for  his  royal 
highness,  and  the  royal  family. 

"Accept  my  thanks  for  the  gracious  and  polite  manner  in  which  you 
have  executed  the  commands  of  your  royal  master,  and  I  request  you  to 
believe,  that  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c.  &c.  &c. 

"  Sigwr  G.  Rainoldi."  "  W.  WYNDHAM." 

At  the  same  time  that  Captain  Downman  took  the  Florence 
gallery  on  board  his  ship,  he  also  received  the  present  king  and 
queen  of  Sardinia,  and  suite,  and  landed  them  at  Naples.  For  his 
very  sedulous  and  obliging  attentions  during  the  passage,  her 
majesty  presented  him  with  a  handsome  diamond  ring;  and  the 
king,  then  Duke  of  Savoy,  wrote  to  him  the  following  letter^ 
gratefully  expressive  of  his  obligations  :  — 

(TRANSLATION.) 
"SIR, 

"  I  cannot  sufficiently  express  the  extent  of  my  gratitude,  and  that  of  my 
wife,  for  the  extraordinary  care  and  trouble  which  you  have  so  willingly 
taken,  during  our  passage  from  Leghorn  to  Naples.  It  is  to  your  solicitude; 
in  shortening,  as  much  as  possible,  the  sufferings  which  the  bad  weather 
might  have  occasioned  to  a  woman,  in  the  ninth  month  of  her  pregnancy, 
that  my  wifV  is  indebted,  for  not  having  eventually  suffered  from  those 
shocks,  which  might  perhaps  have  occasioned  an  irreparable  loss  to  our 
family,  had  she  been  exposed  to  them  twenty-four  hours  longer.  Our  gra- 

.  er&ron.  (Hot*  XXI.  c 


10      MEMOIR.    OF    THE    PUBLIC    SERVICES    OF    CAPT.    DOW.VMAN. 

tittidc  will  consequently  be  proportionate  to  the  obligation  which  you  have 
conferred  upon  us-;  and  it  will  always  be  with  pleasure  that  we  shal. 
remember  our  acquaintance  with  an  officer  of  merit  and  capacity,  in  all 
respects  like  yourself. 

"  I  flatter  myself  that  you  will  be  convinced  of  the  sincerity  of  tliese  sen- 
timents; as  well  as  of  the  constant  interest  which  I  shall  take,  in  every 
tiling  that  may  concern  you  ;  and  that  I  shall  esteem  myself  happy  in  being 
able  to  distinguish  you  upon  every  occasion. 

"  It  is  with  these  sentiments  that  I  am,  sir, 

"  VICTOR  EMANUEL  DE  SAVOIE." 

At  the  peace,  as  has  been  already  stated,  Captain  Downman, 
after  his  return  from  the  Mediterranean,  went  into  the  Caesar,  as- 
Sir  James  Saumarez'  captain.  He  remained  in  that  ship  till 
August,  1802,  when  he  was  paid  off,  and  was  not  employed  againr 
till  January,  1804.  He  was  then  appointed  to  the  Diomede,  the 
flag-ship  of  his  former  admiral,  Sir  James  Saumarez,  in  which  he 
served  fourteen  months  on  the  Guernsey- station,  lie  was  after- 
wards employed  on  the  North  Sea  station,  in  the  same  ship,  till 
the  sailing  of  Sir  Home  Popham's  expedition  against  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  at  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1805  *  Captain  Down. 
man  joined  the  expedition,  we  believe,  at  Madeira  ;  and,  Sir  Home 
Popham  having  hoisted  his  broad  pendant,  as  commodore,  in  the 
Diadem,  he  sailed  with  him  in  that  ship,  as  his  captaim  He  was- 
consequently  at  the  capture  of  the  Cape,  and  was  sent  home'Vith 
the  despatches,  announcing  that  event,  in  the  Espoir.  Having 
executed  that  mission,  he  sailed  fur  South  America,  and1  resumed 
the  command  of  his  old  ship,  the  Diomede,  in  the  River  Plate. 
After  the  capture  of  Monte  Yidea,  he  returned  to  England,  and 
was  paid  off,  in  June,  1807. 

We  have  only  to  add,  that,  in  the  month  of  August  or  Septem- 
ber following,  he  was  appointed  to  the  Assistance  prison-ship,  at 
.Portsmouth,  and  has  since  been  removed  into  the  Vreugeance  at 
the  same  port,  where  he  at  present  remains. 

The  subjoined  is  a  fac-simile  of  Captain  Downman's  hand 
writing. 


*  Vile  NAVAL  CURONI-CL r,  Vol.  XVf.  page  372. 


11 

NAVAL  ANECDOTES, 
•COMMERCIAL  HINTS,  RECOLLECTIONS, 


NANTES    IN    GURBITE    VA3TO. 


THE    LATE    CAPTAIN    HAUDIXGE. 

THE  notices  we  have  received  in  honour  to  the  memory  of  the 
lata  Captain  Hardingc  are  so  numerous,  and  so  well  authen- 
ticated, that  our  difficulty  is  where  to  choose  ;  but  we  can  ven- 
ture to  assert,  that  nothing  has  transpired  since  the  country  was 
deprired  of  that  hero,  more  to  his  honour,  and  more  brilliant  in 
itself,  than  a  letter  which  has  just  been  received  from  a  correspon- 
dent at  Bombay.  It  is.  we  apprehend  (and  forms  one  glory  of  the 
incident),  a  circumstance  of  the  first  impression,  that  a  gentleman, 
holding  the  supreme  judicial  office  in  a  district  of  such  opulence  and 
weight  in  our  settlements,  has  taken  so  high-spirited  a  part  in  a 
public  appeal  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  community,  for  the  purpose 
of  suggesting  honours  to  a  naval  hero's  memory  and  fame. 

But  the  mode  of  the  appeal  improves  even  upon  its  principle^ 
'for  it  will  be  found,  by  the  severest  critics  of  taste  and  of  eloquence, 
that  more  spirit,  grace,  and  effect  were  never  compressed  into 
such  brevity  of  expression,  or  touched  with  such  interesting  sim- 
.plicity. 

We  congratulate  Bombay  on  its  possession  of  such  powers,  and 
such  feelings,  upon  a  judicial  seat  of  criminal  justice. 

(COPY,) 
«   To  the  EtUtor  tf  the.  Bombay  Courier. 

"  SIR,  "  Bombay,  March  SI,  1808. 

"  Yielding  to  the  first  impulse  of  those  feelings  which  the  heroic  death 
>>f  Captain  HAUDIXGE  has  impressed  upon  me,  I  take  the  liberty  of  pro- 
posing to  the  British  inhabitants  of  this  presidency,  a  subscription  for  his 
monument  in  the  church  of  Bombay. 

"  A  generous  and  grateful  nation  will  doubtless  place  his  monument  by 
the  side  of  that  of  Nelson,  But  tlte  memorials  of  heroic  valour  cannot  be 
too  multiplied. 

"Captain  HARDIXGE  fell  for  Britain;  but  more  especially  he  fell  for 
British  India. 

"  I  should  feel  myself  ashamed  of  presuming  to  suggest  reasons  for  such 
fi  measure.  They  will  abundantly  occur,  to  the  honour  of  their  country. 

(Signed)  «  JAMES  MACKINTOSH' 

Upwards  of  two  thousand  pounds  sterling  had  been  raised  whea 
the  last  advices  were  scut, 


12  NIVAL    ANECDOTES, 

u  From  the  Bombay  Courier,  of  April  23,  1808. 

"  We  yesterday  witnessed,  but  with  mixed  feelings  of  regret  and  pride, 
the  animating  and  gratifying  spectacle  of  la  Piedmontaise  entering  the  har- 
bour, under  tlie  charge  of  the  St.  Fiorenzo. 

"  She  came  in  under  jury  masts,  and  was  towed  in  by  the  boats  of  the 
tnen-of-war  from  the  mouth  of  the  harbour  to  her  mooring  ground.  The 
flags  of  all  the  vessels  in  the  harbour  were  hoisted  half-mast  high,  and 
minute  guns  corresponding  to  the  age  of  the  excellent,  brave,  and  lamented. 
Captain  Hardinge,  were  fired  from  the  flag-ship,  the  Powerful.'' 


"  Extract  from  a  Letter  of  a  Merchant  at  Colombo,  to  a  natal  Captain 
just  returned  from  the  East. 

"  Colombo,  March  25,  1808. 

"  The  great  sensation  here  is  the  late  action  between  the  San  Fiorenzo 
and  Piedmontaise,  which  is  allowed  on  all  hands  to  have  been  the  hardest 
fought  that  was  ever  known. 

"  I  yesterday  visited  the  two  ships,  and  was  really  confounded  at  their 
shattered  condition.  The  San  Fiorenzo  was  damaged  most  in  her  hull,  and 
I  counted  on  her  larboard  side  alone  eleven  great  shot-holes,  between  wind 
and  water,  which  they  were  busily  patching  up  with  sheet  lead. 

"  The  Piedmontaise  had  every  mast  shot  away  ten  feet  above  the  deck, 
and  all  three  of  them  cut  at  near  the  same  height. 

"  But  it  was  dreadful  to  see  the  effect  of  the  grape  shot  on  both  shins—- 
the whole  of  their  sides,  from  stem  to  stern,  stuck  thick  over  with  them; 
£iul  in  contemplating  them,  one  is  amazed  how  any  one  exposed  to  so 
destructive  a  fire  could  have  remained  alive," 


WHIMSICAL     ECCENTRICITIES     OF    THE    LATE    CAPTAIN    MONTAGUF. 

PrjTlHE  Hon.  Captain  William  Montague,  familiarly  called  Mad 
-^-  Montague,  was  distinguished  by  an  eccentricity  of  conduct, 
of  which  the  following  instances  arc  highly  amusing  : — 

In  coming  up  the  Channel,  during  the  time  that  he  commanded 
the  Bristol,  about  the  year  }746  or  1747,  he  fell  in  with  a  very 
numerous'  fleet  of  outward-bound  Dutch  merchantmen.  He  fired 
at  several  in  order  to  compel  them  to  bring  to,  q,  measure  autho- 
rised by  custom  and  his  general  instructions.  The  Dutch,  aided 
by  a  fair  wind,  hoped  by  its  assistance  to  escape  the  disagreeable 
delay  of  being  searched  or  overhauled,  and  held  on  their  way: 
Captain  Montague  pursued,  but,  on  overtaking  them,  took  no  other 
satisfaction  than  that  of  mapning  and  sending  out  his  two  cutters 
Sviih  a  carpenter's  mate  in  each,  ordering  them  to  cut  off  tweiva 


COMMERCIAL   HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  13 

of  the  ugliest  heads  they  could  find  in  the  whole  fleet,  from  among 
those  with  which,  as  it  is  well  known,  those  people  are  accustomed 
to  ornament  the  extremity  of  their  rudders.  When  these  were 
brought  on  board,  he  caused  them  to  be  disposed  on  brackets  round 
his  cabin,  contrasting  them  in  the  most  ludicrous  manner  his  vein 
of  humour  could  invent,  and  writing  under  them  the  names  of  the 
twelve  Caesars. 

Another  anecdote  is,  that  being  once  at  Lisbon,  and  having  got 
into  a  night  affray  with  the  people  on  shore,  he  received  in  the 
scuffle  what  is  usually  termed  a  black  eye.  On  the  succeeding  day, 
previously  to  his  going  on  shore,  he  compelled  each  of  his  boat's 
crew  to  black  with  cork  one  of  their  eyes,  so  as  to  resemble  a 
natural  injury ;  the  starboard  rowers  the  right  eye,  the  larboard 
rowers  the  left,  and  the  cockswain  both  :  the  whimsical  effect  may 
be  easily  conceived. 

When  under  the  orders  of  Sir  Edward  Hawke,  in  1755,  he  soli- 
cited permission  to  repair  to  town.  The  admiral,  aware  of  the  im- 
propriety of  such  a  request,  and  at  the  same  time  wishing  to  palliate 
reftis.il  by  imposing,  on  his  permission,  a  condition  he  conceived 
impossible  to  be  undertaken,  even  by  a  man  of  Mr.  Montague's 
harmless,  though  extravagant  turn  ef  mind,  jestingly  said,  *'  The 
complexion  of  affairs  was  so  serious,  that  he  could  not  grant  him 
leave  to  go  farther  from  his  ship  than  where  his  barge  could  carry 
him."  Mr.  Montague,  not  to  be  foiled  or  abashed,  is  said  to  have 
immediately  repaired  to  Portsmouth,  where  he  gave  orders  for  the 
construction  of  a  carriage  on  a  truck,  to  be  drawn  with  horses,  on 
which  he  meant  to  row  his  barge  ;  and  having  previously  stored  it 
with  provisions  and  necessaries  requisite  for  three  days,  to  proceed 
to  London.  Having  lashed  it  to  the  carriage,  the  crew  was 
instructed  to  imitate  the  action  of  rowing  with  the  same  solemnity 
as  if  they  had  been  actually  coming  into  the  harbour  from  Spit- 
head.  Sir  Edward,  as  it  is  said,  received  intelligence  of  his  inten- 
tion soon  after  the  boat  and  its  contents  were  landed,  and  imme- 
diately sent  him  permission  to  proceed  to  London  in  whatever 
jnanner  he  thought  proper. 

LORD    CHARLES    FITZGERALD. 

(From  (he  Naval  Aialantis,  Part  2 ;  by  Nauticus  Junior, published  in  1789J 

THIS  gallant  young  nobleman  is  descended  from  the  great  Earl 
ef  Jvildare,  in  the  kingdom  of  Ireland,  and  is  next  brother  to  the 
present  Duke  of  Leinster.  His  lordship  made  a  very  conspicuous 


f4  KAYAt,    ANECDOTE*, 

figure  daring  the  late  war,  in  the  several  ranks  of  lieutenant,  mas- 
ter and  commander,  and  post  captain,  in  the  royal  navy.  Captain 
Marshall  had  the  satisfaction  to  receive  Lord  Charles  as  junior 
Jieutcnant  on  board  the  Arethusa  frigate,  which  ship  had  the 
honour  to  strike  the  first,  blow  last  war,  in  an  engagement  with  the 
Belle  Poule  French  frigate,  now  in  the  British  service;  during; 
which  action,  his  lordship  displayed  all  the  native  bravery  of  his 
illustrious  ancestors,  but  was  unfortunately  wounded.  We  next 
find  his  lordship  employed  as  commander  of  his  majesty's  cutter 
ihe  Tapageur,  which  had  been  recently  captured  from  the  enemy. 
This  vessel  gave  Lord  Charles  the  rank  of  master  and  commander, 
and  she  was  sent  to  the  West  Indies  with  despatches  for  Lord 
Rodney,  but  had  the  misfortune  to  strike  upon  the  rocks  in  the 
careenage  at  St.  Lucia,  where  she  was  lost;  but  happily  his  lord- 
ship and  the  crew  were  saved.  Not  long  after  this  accident  he 
•was  made  post  into  the  Sphynx,  of  24  guns,  which  was  for  some 
lime  an  attendant  frigate  on  the  Leeward  Island  squadron.  Rear, 
admiral  Parker  being  ordered  home,  hoisted  his  flag  in  the  Med- 
vay,  which,  with  the  Centurion  and  Sphynx,  convoyed  to  England 
a  very  valuable  fleet  of  merchant  ships.  The  same  fatality  which 
happened  to  his  lordship  on  the  rocks  of  St.  Lucia,  had  nearly 
befallen  him  on  those  of  Scilly,  from  which  he  had  a  miraculous 
escape.  Such  was  the  ardour  of  this  distinguished  youth,  that  he 
scarcely  allowed  himself  time  to  visit  his  noble  family  and  numerous 
friends,  before  he  obtained  the  command  of  the  Sybil  frigate,  and 
immediately  returned  to  the  great  theatre  of  war  in  the  West 
Indies,  where  he  rendered  himself  active  at  the  capture  of  Saint 
Eustatius,  particularly  in  chasing  the  Dutch  admiral  and  the  ships 
•which  were  endeavouring  to  escape,  and  which,  by  the  exertions 
of  his  lordship  under  the  captains,  Reynolds  (now  Lord  Ducie) 
and  Harvey,  were  added  to  the  number  of  prizes  taken  in  the  road 
of  Statia.  The  various  gallant  actions  of  Lord  Charles  Fitzgerald 
arc  too  eminently  on  record  to  need  any  further  praise  ;  but  there 
is  one  in  particular,  which  reflects  so  much  honour  on  his  lord- 
ship's bravery  and  humanity,  that  it  would  be  injustice  to  withhold 
the  knowledge  of  it  from  the  public.  It  unfortunately  happened, 
that  a  sailor  fell  from  the  main  yard  into  the  sea,  when  the 
ship  was  absolutely  going  through  the  water  at  a  great  rate  ;  his 
lordship  observing  the  circumstance,  pulled  off  his  coat,  imme- 
diately jumped  overboard,  and  heroically  saved  the  man's  life,  at 
the  extreme  hazard  of  his  own  ;  thereby  illustrating  in  its  fullest 
force,  the  motto  of  the  Leinster  family,  "  (Joom  a-boo,"  which 
signifies  "  Help  in  distress." 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    UECOLLECTIOXS,    &C.  15 

It  is  needless  to  say  more,  than  that  Lord  Fitzgerald  is  a 
nobleman  of  the  most  social  virtues,  and  an  officer  of  the  most 
distinguished  merit. 

THE   LATE    LOHIT  ROBERT    MANN  CHS. 

(From  the  same.) 

IN  forming  this  heroic  nobleman,  nature  combined  every  mentaf 
grace  with  the  most  captivating  elegance  of  person.  Laurels 
gathered  round  his  ripening  years  so  thick,  that  h'eaven  itserf  was 
envious  of  his  worth,  and  snatched  him  in  early  youth  from  the 
height  of  this  world's  fame,  to  place  him  on  that  immortal  pinnacle 
of  glory,  where  godlike  heroes  only  are  enthroned. 

Lord  Robert  "  inherited  all  his  father's  virtues."  He  was  the- 
second  son  of  the  late  Marquis  of  Granby,  and  only  brother  to  the- 
late  Duke  of  Rutland.  As  soon  as  he  was  capable  of  judging 
vhich  line  to  pursue  in  the  career  of  military  fame,  he  made  choice 
of  the  navy  ;  and  so  great  was  hi§  lordship's  attachment  to  that 
profession,  that  instead  of  engagiag  in  those  fashionable  scenes  of 
pleasure  for  which  he  was  so  eminently  formed  by  his  birth,  years 
and  accomplishments,  he  devoted  all  his  time  to  nautical  study  and 
practical  seamanship,  in  which  he  excelled  most  of  his  youthful 
to  rape  Li  tors. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  late  war,  this  lamented  hero  served- 
as  a  volunteer  in  the  Victory,  with  Admiral  Keppel ;  and  although 
the  success  of  that  fleet  did  not  equal  the  sanguine  expectations  of 
the  nation,  Lord  Robert  nevertheless  displayed  during  that  period 
those  promising  seeds  of  growing  ardour  which  so  rapidly  shot  up 
into  maturity. 

His  lordship-'s  further  progress  to  the  rank  of  post  captain,  and 
afterwards,  was  marked  with  a  thirst  of  fame  and  disregard  of 
life,  which  certainly  accelerated  the  period  of  his  days,  and  laid 
him  so  early  in  the  bed  of  honour  ;  for  during  the  action  on  the 
glorious  12th  of  April,  in  the  West  Indies  (on  which  occasion  his 
lordship  received  his  death  wound,  when  commanding  the  Resolu- 
tion, of  74  gaus)  such  was  his  extraordinary  regard  for  the 
•wounded  seamen  of  his  ship's  company,  who  all  adored  their 
gallant  captain,  that  he  would  not  suffer  his  own  wounds  to  be 
dressed  until  theirs  had  been  under  the  surgeon's  hands  ;  by  which 
amiable  attention  (having  then  lost  a  leg  and  an  arm)  the  British 
navy  eventually  sustained  an  irreparable  loss;  he  lived,  however, 
to  Hear  the  shouts  of  victory,  and  then,  like  the  immortal 
declared  he  should  die  con  teat, 


IS  NAVAL    ANECDOTIC 

Some  slender  hopes  were  entertained  by  tlie  naval  physician  and 
surgeons  of  saving  his  life,  provided  he  could  be  conveyed  soon  to 
England;  for  which  purpose  his  lordship  was  removed,  "with 
trembling  care,"  by  his  weeping  crew,  on  board  the  Andromache' 
frigate,  commanded  by  his  amiable  and  gallant  friend,  Captain 
Byton,  who  was  ordered  home  with  the  account  of  the  defeat  of 
the  French  fleet. 

Captain  Byron's  assiduous  and  humane  attention  to  his  noble 
friend,  gave  his  lordship  occasionally  such  spirits,  that  he  would 
humorously  say,  if  his  relations  did  not  provide  for  him  when 
arrived  in  England,  he  should  make  a  capital  figure  as  a  beggar  in 
the  streets  of  London,  with  a  wooden  leg  and  crutches,  &c. 
However,  in  one  fatal  moment  on  his  passage,  his  heroic  soul  took 
its  flight  into  eternity,  with  that  serenity  and  resignation,  whicli 
the  afflicted  Byron  declared,  made  such  a  death  truly  enviable. 

Thus  Great  Britain  lost,  in  the  bloom  of  youth,  arid  fulness  of 
glory,  one  of  her  brightest  ornaments,  -whose  actions  alone  are 
sufficient  to  perpetuate  his  memory  ;  a  grateful  nation  has  never- 
theless thought  fit  to  strengthen  the  remembrance  of  his  virtues  by 
a  magnificent  monument,  which  is  now  erecting  in  Westminster 
Abbey,  in  honour  of  his  lordship,  and  the  Captains  Bayne  and- 
Blair,  who  fell  in  the  same  action. 

Let  the  young  patricians  who  thirst  for  fame,  go  imitate  the 
godlike  Manners ! — "  Pour  y  parvenir."* 

GALLANT    ACTION    IN    THE    WEST    INDIES'. 

THE  Cornwallis  packet,  Anthony,  recently  arrived  from  the 
West  Indies,  on  her  outward-bound  voyage,  sustained  a  most 
gallant  action  with  a  large  French  schooner  privateer.  On  the 
24th  of  September,  in  lat.  13  deg.  41  min.  long.  56  deg.  13  min. 
Barbadoes  distant  about  200  miles,  the  schooner  fell  in  with  the 
packet  at  daylight,  and  immediately  gave  chase.  Captain  Anthony, 
finding  the  schooner  came  up  fast,  and  being  all  prepared  for 
action,  shortened  sail,  and  fired  a  shot  at  the  schooner,  which  was 
returned  by  a  broadside.  The  action  then  commenced,  and  was 
continued  for  two  hours  and  a  quarter  with  great  fury,  when  the 
schooner,  having  had  enough  of  it,  sheered  off,  leaving  the  packet 
a  complete  wreck,  with  her  main-mast  cut  through  by  a  double- 
headed  shot,  and  almost  all  the  shrouds  on  that  and  the  fore-mast 

*  The  motto  of  the  Rutland  family. 


COMMERCIAL   HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,  &C.  17 

carried  away,  her  braces,  and  nearly  all  the  running  rigging  and 
sails,  cut  to  pieces,  with  two  men  killed,  and  the  mate  and  a 
passenger  \vounded. — Captain  Anthony  would  have  pursued  the 
privateer,  if  he  had  not  been  so  much  cut  up  in  his  rigging.  The 
packet  arrived  at  Barbadoes  next  day,  and  repaired  her  damages. 
A  handsome  subscription  was  collected  by  the  merchants  at  Bar- 
badoes, and  presented  to  the  gallant  crew  of  the  Cornwallis,  whose 
bravery  merits  every  reward  they  can  have. — On  the  packet's 
arrival  at  Dominica,  two  captains  of  vessels  who  had  just  arrived 
there  from  Martinique,  informed  Captain  Anthony,  that  the  pri- 
vateer which  he  had  engaged  was  called  la  Duquesne,  of  1 1  guns, 
and  one  long  18-pounder  on  a  traverse.  She  arrived  at  Marti- 
nique in  a  very  shattered  state ;  and  acknowledged  her  loss  to  be 
14  killed  and  30  wounded. 

CAPTAIN    ANTHONY. 

A  FEW  merchants  of  Barbadoes  have  transmitted  631.  for  a  silver 
cup,  to  be  presented  to  Captain  Anthony,  of  the  Cornwallis 
packet,  as  a  testimony  of  their  high  sense  of  his  very  gallant  con- 
duct in  the  defence  of  his  ship,  when  attacked  to  windward  of  that 
island  by  a  French  schooner  privateer,  of  very  superior  force,  on 
the  24th  September  last.  We  hope  the  committee  of  the  West 
India  merchants  will  follow  the  example,  and  vote  a  handsome  sum 
to  Captain  Anthony  and  his  gallant  crew. 

THE    LATE    ADMIRAL    MACBRIDE. 

THE  following  characteristic  sketch  of  this  gallant  officer,  whilst 
he  was  a  captain,  appeared  in  the  Westminster  Magazine  for 
March  1779,  shortly  after  the  memorable  trial  of  Admiral  Keppel, 
by  a  court  martial  :  *— 

"  Captain  Macbride  is  a  most  liberal,  brave,  and  spirited 
officer,  accounted  so  from  proof,  and  not  from  conjecture,  and 
whose  conduct  on  the  late  occasion  did  him  singular  honour.  The 
regard  and  the  reverence  he  professed  for  the  injured  admiral,  was 
such  as  made  him  the  friend  of  every  good  man.  He  saw  through 
the  cabal  that  was  formed  against  him,  and  he  spoke  of  it  with 
that  warmth  of  indignation  which  such  conduct  was  likely  to  arouse 
in  the  bosom  of  a  brave  honest  nian.  He  considered  the  attempt 

*  Vide  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  VII.  page  304  and  &$9- 
.  Bol.  XXI.  j> 


18  NAVAL    ANECDOTES, 

on  the  honour  of  Admiral  Keppel  as  a  blow  levelled  ultimately,  .at 
the  sacred  character  of  the  British  navy  in  general  ;  and  he  jus.tly 
considered  it  so,  reflecting  on  the  hand  from  whence  it  came,  and 
remembering  the  many  attempts  of  a  similar  nature  that  the  same 
board  had,uiade  before.  The  unprecedented  attack  they  had  made 
on  the  honour  of  the  navy,  -when  they  strove  to  put  the  navy 
board  before  the  royal  captains  in  the  precession  at  the  naval  re- 
view ;  the  resistance  they  had  made  to  the  increase  of  the  half.pay 
of  captains  and  lieutenants  ;  and  a  thousand  other  instances, 
equally  strong,  pressing  upon  his  mind,  convinced  him  it  was 
another  secret  blow  darted  at  the  whole  navy,  and  he  resisted  it 
with  a  spirit  becoming  the  dignity  of  a  British  seaman."* 

GALLANTRY    OF     THE     CREW   OF    AN    ENGLISH    MERCHANT    SHIP    I!t 
THE    TEAR    16'96. 

I.v  the  year  1696  an  English  merchant  ship,  of  ten  guns,  belong- 
ing to-  London,  arrived  in  the  river  Thames  from  FayalJ1,  and 
entered  at  .the  Custom-house,  being  laden  with  wines  ;  she  was 
manned  when  she  went  out  with  fifteen  men  and  two  boys,  but 
three  of  them  ran  away  at  Fayall. 

In  her  voyage  home,  about  three  leagues  from  the  Lizard,  she 
met  ami  fought  a  French  privateer  belonging  to  St.  Maloes,  of  six 
guns,  four  partercroes,  and  sixty-four  men.  The  first  broadside 
she  made  at  the  Caper  split  one  of  his  guns,  killed  the  gunner, 
and  wounded  nine  others.  Then  the  French  bore  up  close,  and 
boarded  the  English  ship  with  thirty  men,  of  which  number  was 
the  lieutenant  and  the  owner's  son.  However,  the  English,  though 
they  consisted  but  of  twelve  men 'and'  two  boys,  maintained  a  fight 
of  two  hours  with  them,  by  which'  they  had  killed  twenty-four  of 
the  enemy  that  were  put  on  board  them,  and  made  the  other  six 
prisoners,  among  which  was  the  lieutenant  and  the  owner's  son. 
And  they  had  killed  six  more  on  board,  and  wounded  twenty, 
eight,  so  that  of  all  the  French  crew  there  were  but  six  that  were 
not  killed  or  wounded.  Upon  which  the  privateer  was  satisfied 
with  the  conflict,  and  begun  to  sheer  off,  leaving  the  merchant  ship, 
iu  peace  to  pursue  her  voyage. 

When  the  French  lieutenant  saw  his  captain  bearing  away,  he. 
called  to  him  to  take  him  oft';  he,  shaking  his  head,  replied  he  had. 

*  A  jxjrtrait  and  biographical  memoir  of  Admiral  Macbride  are  given  in. 
fhe  XlXth  volume  of  the  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  page  265  ;  and,  at  jjage  473. 
•;';!;•_'  same  volume,  arc  some  additional  particulars  relating  to  him,. 


COMMERCIAL   HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  19 

enough  of  it,  and  did  not  dare  to  attempt  it.  Then  the  Frenck 
lieutenant  prayed  the  English  commander  to  give  him  one  broad- 
side, for  if  you  do,  said  he,  the  dog  will  strike;  but  the  English  cap- 
tain did  not  look  upon  it  to  be  his  business  to  follow  him,  but  ra- 
ther to  bring  in  his  ship  safe,  and  so  he  steered  his  course  straight 
home.  The  French  lieutenant  was  so  enraged  at  last  against  his 
officer,  that  he  desired  he  might  have  a  musquetoon  to  make  one 
shot  at  the  cowardly  dog,  as  he  called  him. 

During  all  this  heroic  and  brave  action  the  English  had  not  one 
rnan  killed;  the  captain  was  wounded  in  the  right  hand,  but  he 
took  up  his  sword  in  his  left,  and  fought  very  boldly.  The  super- 
cargo man  had  three  shots  through  his  hat,  and  a  hand  granado 
fell  upon  his  shoulder,  but  as  it  fell  down,  he  clapped  his  hand  upon 
the  fuse  before  it  burst,  without  any  other  hurt  than  burning  his 
liand  a  little ;  another  of  the  crew  had  both  his  hands  shot  off,  and 
one  was  shot  in  the  belly. 

Extracted  from  an  old  book  in  possession  of  your  occasional 
correspondent,  ROBUll. 

PROVIDENTIAL    PRESERVATION    Oi1    A    SEAMAN. 

THE  following  miraculous  preservation  of  a  seaman  (says  Mr. 
Clarke,  in  his  Naufragia)  occurred  whilst  his  majesty's  ship  the 
Jupiter,  Commodore  J.  W.  Payne,  was  waiting  off  Cuxhaven  for 
the  Princess  Caroline  of  Brunswick.  Being  myself  on  b'oard,  I 
can  vouch  for  its  accuracy  :— 

•C£  On  the  9th  of  March,  1795,  .the  severe  weather  we  had 
endured  became  more  moderate  ;  and  during  the  day,  a  poor  sea- 
man was  taken  from  off  a  piece  of  ice  that  had  floated  out  to  sea 
by  one  of  the  Blackness  pilot  boats.  Being  "brought  on  shore  at 
Cuxhaven,  he  gave  the  following  account  of  his  sufferings. — lie 
had  belonged  to  a  Hambro  trader,  laden  with  groceries,  bound 
from  London  to  the  above  place.  During  the  passage,  his  vessel 
was  lost  .(January  28th)  amidst  the  ice,  on  a  sand  bank,  off  Cux- 
haven. The  master,  with  a  boy,  and  this  sailor,  got  upon  the 
sand,  at  that  time  covered  with  ice;  ajid  preserved  life  with  some 
wine  and  biscuit,  which  they  had  saved  from  the  wreck.  At  the 
end  of  eleven  days,  the  master  and  boy  died.  The  survivor,  with, 
an  unshaken  resolution  and  reliance  on  Divine  Providence,  would 
not  allow  himself  to  despond.  Every  night  he  reposed  upon  one  of 
the  dead  bodies  of  his  shipmates,  and  put  the  other  corpse  over 
IKta :  the  intense  raid  kept  them  from  being  offensive.  4a  this 


20  WAVAfc    ANECDOTES, 

forlorn  and  melancholy  state  he  slept ;  and  declared,  that  he  con- 
stantly received  great  consolation  from  dreams,  which  invariably 
promised  his  deliverance. 

The  wine  and  biscuit  being  at  length  consumed,  he  discovered 
§onie  cockles  on  a  part  of  the  sand  not  covered  with  ice,  upon 
•which  he  existed  until  the  month  of  March  ;  when  Providence  sent 
lino.  thS  following  relief.  In  the  morning,  when  he  awoke,  to  his 
utter  dismay  he  found  the  mass  of  ice  on  which  he  had  so  long 
sojourned  was  separated  from  the  rest,  and  drifting  out  to  sea. 
Jlis  anguish  cannot  be  described.  When  lo  !  the  very  means  by 
•which  he  appeared  hurried  on  to  destruction  evenfually  caused  1m 
deliverance.  He  was  thus  carried  within  sight  of  the  Blackness 
fUhing  boats,  who  immediately  hastened  to  his  succour. 

On  his  iirst  landing  at  Cuxhaven,  the  warmth  of  the  house  in 
which  he  was  received  created  an  agony  of  pain,  and  it  was  some 
time  before  the  above  facts  could  be  detailed.  Nor  did  his  narra- 
tive gain  credit  from  many,  before  he  had  produced  the  bills  of 
lading,  and  had  reminded  them  of  a  vessel  answering  the  description 
he  gave  of  his  own,  which  they  knew  had  been  wrecked. 

ACCOUNT  OF  THE  NEWFOUNDLAND  FISHERY. 

As  the  nature  of  the  Newfoundland  Cod  Fishery,  which  employs 
many  thousands  of  people  from  England  and  Ireland,  and  is  of 
vast  importance  to  the  nation,  is  not  generally  understood,  the 
following  short  account  of  it  may  be  found  acceptable  :  — 

After  crossing  the  Atlantic  with  every  requisite  necessary  to  pro- 
ceed  on  the  fishing  voyage  (leaving  England  about  the  beginning 
of  March),  the  ships  generally  come  to  single  anchor,  on  what 
are  termed  "  the  Banks  of  Newfoundland,"  in  the  month  of 
April,  which  are  in  length  from  150  to  200  miles ;  in  breadth, 
they  may  be  considered  narrow.  There  arc  two  fishing  banks,  the 
outer,  and  the  inner;  the  outer  bank  is  about  150  miles  or  more 
off  the  land;  the  inner  is  from  80  to  100  miles  off  the  shore. 
They  seldom  fish  on  the  outer  bank,  from  the  great  depth  of 
water,  being  from  90  to  100  fathoms  deep,  unless  it  is  when  they 
cannot  find  any  fish  on  the  inner  bank.  They  generally  cast 
anchor,  and  fish,  in  about  45  and  50  fathoms  of  water,  with  two, 
and  some  with  three  lv>oks  to  each  line,  and  dreadful  work  it 
is,  at  so  early  a  period  of  the  year,  from  the  severity  of  the 
climate,  the  great  fogs  natural  to  that  part  of  the  world,  and  the 
yjteose  coldness  of  the  water,  they  being  obliged  to  haul  the  fish, 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,     &C.  21 

from  such  a  depth  as  40  and  50  fathoms. — There  are  pounds  or 
enclosures  made  on  the  deck,  for  each  fisherman  to  throw  in  what 
he  catches;  the  best  places  for  fishing  aresupposed  to  be  the  larboard 
how  and  the  larboard  quarter:  at  the  latter  place  the  mate   fishes, 
and  the  boatswain  on  the  bow.     A   little  stage  is   erected   in  the 
midships  of  the  vessel,   on  the  starboard   side,   at  which  sit  in  a 
barrel  the  headder  and   splitter^  men  who  are  engaged  for  that 
very  purpose,  and   who  do  not  fish  ;   the  headder  cuts  open  the 
fish,  tears  up  its  entrails,   and  forcing  the  fish  against  the  edg(3  of 
the  stage,   breaks  off  its  head,   and  drives  the  fish  over  to  the 
splitter  opposite  him,  who  immediately, '  with  his  sharp  splitting 
knife,  lays  it  dexterously  open,  and  cuts  up  the  sound  bone  from 
the  back  of  the  fish,  when  he  lets  it  slip  off  from  the  stage  on  a 
shoot,  which  conveys  them  down  into  the  hold  of  the  vessel,  where 
there  is  a  man  stationed  ready  to  receive  them,  who  is  termed  the 
saltcr ;  he  immediately  lays    them  spread  out  regularly  in  rows, 
and  throws  strong  bay  and  St.  Ubes  salt  on  them,  in  which  they 
generally  lie  about  a  month,  or  until  the  vessel  has  a  good  cargo  of 
them.     The  liver  is  separated  from  the  fish  on  the  platform,  and 
falls  through  the  stage  into  large  casks,   to  make  oil  from.     The 
head,   garbage,   and  sound   bones   fall   beneath  the    platform  or 
stage,   and  are  kept  on  the  deck  until  they  become  a  burden  by 
their  weight,  in  causing  the  vessel  to  heel  much  on  her  side,  and 
when  there  is  a  great  sea  running,  they  make  the  vessel  ride  at  her 
anchor  very  disagreeably.     It  is  usual,  when  they  throw  this  offal 
overboard,  to  weigh  anchor,  and  run  two  or  three  miles  from  it ; 
for  if  they  throw  it  overboard  where  they  fish,  the  fish  will  follow 
what  is  thrown  overboard,  prey   upon  it,  and  neglect  the  bait 
which  the  fishermen  use  to  decoy  the  fish  to  the  hook.      When  the 
vessel  has  got  a  sufficiency,   she  comes  into  her  port  to  get  rid  of 
her  burden.     The  fish  are  thrown  into  what  is  called  a  ram's-honi 
(a  square  wooden  thing,  perforated  with  holes,  to  admit  the  water 
to   pass),  when  the  fish   are  tumbled   about   and    well    washed, 
afterwards  thrown  up  on  a  stage  or  wharf,  and  laid  out  again  by 
men  employee!  in  the  fishery  on  the  shore.     After  the  fish  has  lain 
some  little  time  on  the  stage,   it  is  taken  on  hand-barrows,   and 
carried  on   the  flakes,    places   erected  about  nine  feet  above  the 
ground,  so  as  to  admit  a  current  of  air  to  pass  under,  and  covered 
over  with  fir-boughs  and  other  branches   of  trees,   on  which  it  is 
placed  to  dry,  day  after  day,  until  it  becomes  sufficiently  cured  and 
solid,   so  as  to   keep  for  a  considerable  period  of  time.     Every 
night,  during  its  process;  it  is  brought  into  round  piles,  covered 


22  NAVAL    ANECDOTIC 

over  with  birch-rinds,  -with  weights  on  it,  to  keep  the  wet  and 
damp  out.  It  is  curious  to  see  how  extremely  busy  the  people 
are  when  it  is  likely  to  rain,  or  on  a  shower  coming  on,  to  gather 
Tip  the  fish,  as  the  rain  materially  injures  it.  The  vessels  generally 
stay  but  three  days  in  the  harbour,  before  they  go  out  again  on  the 
tanks  to  prosecute  their  voyage.  They  make  about  four,  some 
fivej  trips  for  cargoes  during  the  season,  which  usually  closes  about 
the  latter  end  of  September.  The  equinoctial  gales  frequently  put 
a  stop  to  it,  by  causing  the  loss  of  cables  and  anchors,  and  other- 
wise disabling  the  vessels ;  as  the  sea  runs  in  those  gales  tremen- 
dously high,  and  many  vessels  have  been  known  to  founder  at  their 
anchors  at  this  closing  season  of  the  year. 

The  poor  fellows,  in  some  vessels,  fish  from  four  o'clock  in  the 
morning  till  eight  at  night,  and  then  keep  watch  regularly  after- 
wards;  so  that  when  fish  are  plentiful,  they  are  almost  worn  out; 
for  those  who  keep  watch,  whilst  the  other  party  sleep  the  little 
time  they  have  to  go  below,  fish  during  the  night. 

In  other  vessels,  where  the  captain  is  a  humane  man,  he  will  let 
the  fishermen  have  their  proper  rest  by  night,  and  fish  by  day,  ex- 
cepting a  small  watch  that  must  be  kept  up,  to  see  whether  the 
vessel  drives,  by  the  anchor  giving  way. 

On  Sunday  (a  day  which  ought  to  be  devoted  to  pious  exercises 
and  religion),  the  men  are  employed  in  regulating  and  fixing  their 
fishing  tackle  during  the  morning,  and  in  the  afternoon  go  to  their 
cabins,  or  else  catch  squids,  a  squalid  kind  of  fish,  which,  during 
the  latter  part  of  the  fishing  voyage,  is  used  to  bait  the  cod  lines 
•with. 

The  diet  which  these  hardy  men  have,  is  nearly  the  same  every 
clay  (during  the  time  they  arc  on  the  fishery),  namely,  what  is 
called  chozctlet'y  for  breakfast,  dinner,  and  supper.  This  is  made 
in  the  following  manner  :  a  fish,  just  caught,  is  hung  up,  and  the 
fins  stripped  off';  it  is  then  skinned,  cut  up  in  large  pieces,  and  put 
into  a  kettle,  under  which  is  laid  some  rashers  of  salt  pork  or  beef, 
and  some  broken  pieces  oi"  biscuit;  then  the  whole  is  just  covered 
with  water,  and  boiled  about  ten  minutes,  with  some  dry  herbs,  if 
they  have  any,  and  a  little  thickening.  This  mess  is  palatable,  and 
extremely  nutritious ;  and  the  men  employed  in  the  fishery  get  very 
fat  upon  it. 

Sundays  they  are  allowed  some  beef  and  pudding,  but  the  beef 
is  generally  Irish,  excessively  salt,  and,  when  boiled,  dry  and 
hard,  having  scarcely  any  fat  to  it.  In  some  vessels  they  aru 
allowed  this  on  Thursdays. 


COMMERCIAL  HINTS,  RECOLLECTIONS,  &c.  *%$ 

There  is  what  is  called  the  shore  fishery ;  which  is  carried  on  by 
large  open  boats,  called  shallops,  which  go  out  and  return  nearly 
every  day,  and  fish  very  near  the  shores :  the  fish  which  these  boafs 
take  are  small  in  size,  well  cured,  and  are,  in  general,  flic  best. 
Though  the  bank  fish  are  much  the  largest,  they  are  not  so  muck 
esteemed  as  those  which  are  caught  close  to  the  shores. 

Those  vessels  which  go  to  the  land  early  iu  the  year,  have  to 
make  their  way  through  islands  of  ice,  and  sometimes  are  in  great 
danger,  through  the  great  beds  of  ice  which  float  along  that  iron- 
bound  shore  to  the  southward. 

The  island,  on  approaching  it,  has  a  rough  appearance,  rugged 
and  mountainous  ;  at  the  same  time  covered  with  thick  wood,  and 
scarcely  a  field  to  be  seen  all  along  the  shore. 

DIFFERENCE    BETWEEN    FRENCH    ANI>   ENGLISH    GUNPOWDER. 

IN  the  summer  of  1808,  a  comparison  was  made  at  Bombay,  of 
the  qualify  of  British  and  French  powder,  used  in  the  late  gallant 
•Action  of  his  majesty's  ship  San  FLorenzo.  with  the  French  frigate  la 
Piedmontaise  ;  and  we  are  happy  to  exhibit  a  decisive  proof  of  the 
superiority  of  the  former,  so  essential  an  ingredient  in  British, 
thunder.  From  a  7-inch  brass  mortar,  with  three  ounces  of  pow- 
der, a  GOlb.  brass  ball  was  projected,  at  an  angle  of  45  deg.  and 
an  average  of  three  trials  gave  595  feet  to  the  San  Fiorenzo,  and 
516  feet  to  la  Piedmontaise,  making  a  difference  in  favour  of  the 
British  powder,  of  79  feet.  After  such  an  experiment,  it  must 
appear  singular  that  the  French  should  be  so  partial  to  a  long 
<but. 

SEVERE    ACTION'    BETWEEN    HIS  MAJESTY'S   SHIP    TEUPSICHOJIE    AND. 
A    TRENCH    TRIG  ATE,    IN    THE    INDIAN    SEAS. 

(From  the  CEYLON"  GAZETTE.^) 

e*  CAPTAIN  MONTAGUE  left  Point  de  Galle  on  the  llth  of 
March,  for  Madras,  and  on  the  16th  fell  in  with  a  French  frigate, 
which  from  her  appearance,  having  14  ports  on  a  side,  was  sup- 
posed to  be  the  Canonier,  and,  by  disguising,  the  Terpsichore  was 
fortunate  enough  to  bring  the  enemy  to  action  at  seven  P.M.  when, 
after  lying  six-and-fifty  minutes  close  alongside,  and  at  the  very 
moment  that  Captain  Montague  imagined  his  exertions  had  been, 
crowned  by  the  most  complete  success,  the  enemy's  fire  having  for 
the  last  20  minutes  considerably  slackened^  and  at  times  wholly 


24  NAVAL    ANECDOTES, 

ceased,  he  experienced  the  mortification  of  seeing  her  make  sail, 
lie  endeavoured  immediately  to  follow,  but  found  that  the  enemy's 
fire,  which  had  been  principally  directed  at  the  masts  and  rigging, 
had  nearly  reduced  the  Terpsichore  to  a  perfect  wreck;  her  fore 
and  main-stays,  top-mast-stays,  and  many  of  her  lower  and  top- 
mast-shrouds, her  braces,  bowlines,   tacks,   and  sheets,  without  a 
single  exception,  were  each  cut  in  several  places  ;  the  leach-rope 
of  the  main  and- main-top-sail  cut,  and  the  sails  split  across,  besides 
many  others  for  a  time  rendered  useless.     The  enemy,  perceiving 
the  ungovernable  state  of  his  majesty's  ship,  bore  across  her  bows, 
the  wind  blowing  fresh  from  N.E.     The  Terpsichore  immediately 
wore,   and  endeavoured  to  close)   which  was  carefully  avoided. 
At  nine  she  had  every  thing  set  in   chase,   the  enemy  continuing 
under  all  sail  before  the  wind,  and  keeping  up  an  occasional  fire 
from  her  stern  chasers,  till  out  of  gun-shot,  which  she  effected  by 
10  P.M.     The  next  morning,   finding  she  had  not  gained  much 
on  them,  Captain  Montague  continued  after  her,  in  hopes  some 
fortunate  event  might  again  enable  him   to  get  alongside,  but  she 
kept  running  with  a  fresh  wind  to  the  southward.     On  approach- 
ing the  line,  they  experienced   light  winds  and  partial  squalls, 
which  sometimes   brought  the  Terpsichore  nearly  within  gun-shot 
before  the  enemy  derived  the  smallest  advantage,  but  when  she  did, 
she  left  them  immediately.     On  the  20th,   during  a  heavy  squall, 
they  got  close  to  jier  ;  she  commenced  a  fire  from  her  stern  chasers, 
and  cut  away  her  boats,  and  from  several  of  her  ports   floating 
past,  Captain  Montague  was  led  to  imagine  she  must  have  thrown 
some  of  her  guns  overboard.     The  light  winds  again  commencing, 
she  ran  ahead  considerably  during  the  night  of  the  20th,   which 
was  dark  and  squally,  and  was  entirely  lost  sight  of.     At  two 
o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  21st,  they  discovered  a  sail  ahead, 
which  was  supposed  to  be  the  chase,  but  on  firing  the  first  gun  she 
hove  to,  and  on  boarding  proved  to  be  the  brig  Cadry,  prize  to  la 
Picdmontaise,  which  was  taken  possession  of,  and  sent  to  Madras. 
At  daylight,   being  unable  to  perceive  any  thing  of  the  enemy, 
Captain  Montague  hauled  to  the  eastward. 

"  Captain  Montague  speaks  in  the  highest  terms  of  the  verj 
able  assistance  he  had  met  with  from  every  officer  under  his  com- 
mand ;  and  of  the  spirited  and  persevering  conduct  of  the  whole  of 
the  ship's  company.  Their  loss,  we  are  sorry  to  say,  has  been 
very  considerable ;  Lieutenant  C.  Tanes  and  '20  men  killed,  and 
22  men  wounded,  two  of  whom  are  since  dead. — The  Terpsichore 
has  returned  to  Point  d»  Ga!Ie." 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,     RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  25 

Another  account  adds,  that  during  the  action  a  gun  burst  on 
board  the  Terpsichore,  by  which  20  of  her  crew  were  killed  and 
wounded. 

THE   ISLAND    OF    CAPRI. 

SOME  of  the  nesvspapers  have  affected  to  disguise  the  importance 
of  the  late  successful  attack  of  the  enemy  on  the  island  of  Capri, 
in  the  gulf  of  Naples.  One  of  them  actually  made  the  follow  ing 
fcomment  on  the  French  account : — '•  A  pompous  description  is 
given  in  the  French  papers  of  the  capture  of  the  inland  of  Capri, 
a  station  we  never  before  heard  of,"  &c.  Now,  any  school-boy, 
who  has  ever  read  Tacitus  or  Suetonius,  has  heard  of  Capra?  ;  its 
more  modern  history  is  to  be  found  in  Swinburne  and  Brydone  ; 
and  as  a  test  of  its  actual  importance,  we  shall  only  observe,  that 
Buonaparte  and  his  generals  do  not  waste  their  means,  in  useless 
enterprises  ;  and  what  furnishes  matter  for  exultation  at  Paris,  may 
be  pretty  generally  deplored  in  London.  We  shall  annex  to  these 
remarks  a  summary  sketch  of  the  circumstances  leading  to  and 
attending  our  occupation  of  the  island  in  question,  selected  from 
original  correspondence  : — 

On  the  9th  of  May,  1806,  a  small  squadron,"  utu!er  the  com- 
mand of  Rear-admiral  Sir  Sidney  Smith,  left  Gaeta  (then  besieged 
by  the  French),  and  cruised  for  a  day  off  the  gulf  of  Naples.  On 
the  llth,  the  rear-admiral  sent  a  summons  to  the  French  com- 
mandant of  Capri  to  surrender  the  island,  offering,  in  case  it  was 
given  up  before  midnight,  that  the  garrison  should  not  be  made 
prisoners  of  Avar.  This  was  answered  in  the  negative.  The 
marines  of  the  squadron  were  immediately  landed,  to  the  number 
of  250,  supported  by  his  majesty's  ship  Eagle,  of  74  guns,  Captain 
Rowley,  clearing  the  beach  by  repeated  broadsides  of  grape  and 
rannistcr  shot.  After  a  contest,  which  lasted  from  8  P.M.  till 
half-past  1 1,  in  which  we  lost  one  seaman  and  one  marine,  and  the 
French  about  ten  men,  besides  their  commandant  (who  was  killed 
hand  to  hand  by  Captain  Stanntis,  of  the  Athenienne's  marines), 
the  surviving  commander  claimed  the  condition  contained  in  the 
admiral's  summons,  and  surrendered  a  few  minutes  before  twelve 
o'clock.  The  enemy's  force  was  found  to  consist  of  about  200 
men.  Sir  Sidney  Smith  placed  a  temporary  garrison  of  about  100 
marines  and  sailors  in  the  island,  and  remained  there  till  the  18th, 
in  order  to  augment  the  means  of  defence  ;  during  which  time,  our 
officer*  made  several  excursions  on  shqrc,  aod  the  following  i*  tho 
result  of  their  observations  : — 

£?atj.  Cfcrou,  QoLXXI.  E 


2C  N.1V.YJ.     ANU.DOTtS, 

Capri  is  a  desirable  place  of  rendezvous  for  a  fbct,  during  fhe~ 
occupation  of  the  Neapolitan  territory  by  an  enemy,  there  being 
an  excellent  watt-ring  place.  It  is  also  tlie  only  place  of  shelter 
for  gun-boats, /6-///tm?,  speronarocs,  and  other  coasting  craft,  all 
the  way  from  Gaeta.  The  approaches  to  it  are  very  difficult,  and 
defensible  by  a  very  few  men  :  but  the  terror  struck  into  the 
enemy  by  the  Eagle's  broadside  at  first,  the  circumstance  of  night, 
and  the  death  of  the  commandant,  gave  us  possession  of  what  (by 
daylight)  five  times  the  number  .of  the  besiegers  could  not  have 
effected.  In  short,  it  was  well  that  the  French  surrendered  as 
they  did,  for  their  position  was  almost  inaccessible.  The  island 
produces  wine  of  a  good  quality,  and  oil  ;  there  are  some  curious 
remains  of  antiquity  upon  it  :  and  several  palaces  are  still  extant, 
•whither  Tiberius  used  to  retire  to  indulge  in  his  debaucheries. 
Coins  and  medals  of  the  Roman  emperors  are  frequently  picked 
up.  Quails  are  so  abundant  in  the  season,  as  not  only  to  afford 
amusement  to  the  sportsman,  but  an  important  addition  to  the  sub. 
sistence  of  the  islanders,  who  are  a  hardy  race  of  mariners  and 
fishermen.  There  is  a  Carthusian  monastery,  whose  prcsen  tinha- 
bitants  were  found  by  our  travellers  to  be  generally  composed  of 
liberal,  enlightened,  as  well  as  devout  characters.  Some  antique 
alabaster  vases  of  exquisite  beauty  are  in  possession  of  these 
monks. 

AMPHITRITE   ISLAM)    AND    SI1OAL3. 

THE  following  extract  from  the  log-book  of  the  brig  Voador 
marks  the  situation  of  a  dangerous  shoal  which,  not  being  laid 
down  with  certainty  in  any  chart,  may  furnish  an  acceptable  piecp 
of  information  to  those  wrho  have  occasion  to  navigate  the  China 
seas :  — 

"  The  brig  Voador  left  Macao  roads  the  13th  of  July,  1807r 
and  on  the  '20th  of  July  was  in  lat.  17  deg.  4  min.  N.  long,  by 
chronometer,  112  deg.  00  min.  E.  Accot.  Ill  dcg.  41  min.  ran 
15  miles  S.  by  W.  7  S.W.  by  S.  when  the  Amphitrite  island  bore 
east  about  eight  miles.  From  hence  she  ran  38  miles  about  S.S.E. 
and  saw  breakers  from  the  deck,  bearing  S.E.  to  S.S.W.  hauled  to 
the  northward,  and  stood  JNT.  £•  E.  about  3G  miles,  when  the 
Amphitrite  island  bore  E.  15  miles'.  During  that  time  no  bottom 
was  attained  at  70  fathoms  ;  there  was  a  heavy  swell  from  the 
eastward.  The  Amphitrite  island  has  only  one  tree  on  it,  which 
looks  like  a  ship  at  anchor,  and  is  seen  before  the  land  is  made. 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  27 

There  appear  to  be  five  low  islands,  three  of  which  are  covered 
with  herbage;  the  two  smallest  are  barren  sand,  which  is  of  a  dark 
red  on  the  beach.  The  largest  island  is  about  three  miles  long  ; 
they  be.ir  of  each  other  N.  by  E.  and  S.  by  YV.  and  are  divided  by 
small  channels  of  half  or  three  quarters  of  a  mile  in  width." 

DESCRIPTION    OF    THE    HEAD    OF    THE    DANISH    SHIP    NORGE.* 

THE  bow  of  this  ship  is  finished  round  to  the  stem,  without  a. 
square  forecastle,  the  deck  of  which  is  carried  over  the  bows,  to 
the  scrowl  at  the  top  of  the  knee  of  the  head,  and  forms  a  platform 
over  it.  The  rails  of  the  head  have  little  spread,  and  allow  the 
bow  gun  on  the  main  deck  to  be  used  in  chase. 

The  bowsprit,  being  some  feet  higher  than  usual,  slips  on  the 
main  instead  of  the  lower  deck,  and  has  not  so  much  stove  as  is 
usual. — The  sheild  displays  the  arms  of  Norway.  The  whole  head 
appears  particularly  light  and  handsome,  and  the  high  bow,  fur 
strength  and  pitching  in  a  deep  sea,  whether  at  anchor  or  under 
way,  is  certainly  preferable  to  the  square  forecastle ;  but  it  is 
attended  by  considerable  inconvenience  to  the  ship's  company. 
This,  however,  may  be  easily  removed,  by  letting  the  people  go 
over  the  bows,  as  is  the  practice  in  our  East  Indiamen  ;  which 
would  be  attended  by  the  advantage  of  keeping  dry  the  sick  bay, 
and  main  deck  in  general,  and  of  preventing  the  perpetual  con- 
course of  people  from  passing  through  the  galleys,  which  all  na\al 
onlcers  know  to  be  a  very  great  nuisance. 

DESTRUCTION    OF    THE    SHIP    ALBIOX,    BY    FIRE. 

THE  Albion,  Captain  James  Robertson,  was  burnt  at  Whampoa, 
in  China,  in  December,  1807,  under  the  following  circumstances : 
« — On  the  morning  of  the  4th,  the  Hon.  Company's  treasure  left 
Canton,  and  Captain  Robertson  proceeded  down  the  river  with  a 
quantity  of  money  belonging  to  the  owners,  but  did  not  reach  the 
ship  until  about  half-past  six  in  the  evening.  Going  over  the 
gangway,  he  observed  (o  the  officer,  who  at  this  time  was  employed 
in  receiving  the  Hon.  Company's  treasure,  and  had  then  upwards 
of  one  million  and  a  half  of  dollars  on  board,  that  (here  was  a  strong 
smell  of  fire.  He  went  below  to  discern  if  possible  \\hence  it  pro- 
ceeded ;  and,  observing  the  people  at  work  in  the  main  hatch  ,vay, 
he  inquired  whether  or  not  they  perceived,  any  smell  of  fire  :  to 

*  Vide  page  1,  the  vignette  head-piece  cf  the  volume. 


28 

•which  they  replied  in  the  negative.  Captain  R.  then  went  to  the 
fore  hatchway,  uncovered  it,  and  removed  the  hatches,  when  the 
flame  burst  forth  with  great  fury,  so  high  as  the  main  stay.  He 
ordered  the  hatches  to  be  put  on  again,  and  used  every  endeavour 
to  smother  the  flames,  but  without  effect.  At  three  A.M.  of  tho 
5th,  the  ebb  tide  having  made,  she  went  over  on  her  broadside: 
the  decks  by  this  time  were  so  much  heated,  as  to  oblige  the  peo- 
ple to  quit  her.  At  four  in  the  afternoon  she  was  completely 
burnt  to  the  water's  edge.  Such  was  the  fury  of  the  flames,  that 
the  treasure  between  decks  was  run  into  masses  of  from  two  to  ten 
thousand  dollars  weight.  Suspicion  of  misconduct,  or  careless- 
ness, fell  on  the  people  on  board,  and  it  was  said,  that  a  scacunny 
had  dropped  a  candle  in  the  fore-hold,  and  concealed  the  accident 
through  fear  ;  but  as  there  was  no  desertion  among  the  people, 
this  was  not  believed.  A  later  account  states  authentically,  that 
the  loss  of  the  Albion  was  not  occasioned  through  carelessness,  as 
had  been  conjectured,  but  in  consequence  of  some  paper  umbrellas^ 
received  on  board  as  cargo,  packed  up  not  thoroughly  rfry,  which 
had  caught  fire  in  the  hold.  Similar  accidents  have  occurred 
through  the  same  means^ 


CORRESPON  DENCE. 


PRESENT  MANAGEMENT  AND  DISCIPLINE  OF  THE  NAVY, 

LtTTER   X. 
SIR, 

FROM  the  sentiments  expressed  in  my  foregoing  letters,  I  trust 
that  it  will  appear  that  I  ain  a  zealous  friend  not  only  to 
necessary  discipline,  but  to  genuine  and  rational  liberty,  and  that 
my  great  aim  has  been  to  inculcate  the  advantages  which  will  arise 
from  giving  full  effect  to  the  latter  without  infringing  upon  the 
former.  If  then  I  shall  ever  appear  to  use  any  argument,  or 
maintain  an  opinion  which  seems  to  militate  against  either  of  these 
separately,  I  roust  request  my  readers  not  to  attribute  it  to  any 
derilection  of  opinion  or  principle,  but  to  the  unavoidable  imper- 
fection of  all  human  establishments. 

That  the  house  of  a  British  subject  is  his  castle,  has  ever  sinco 
the  glorious  days  of  Magna  Charta,  and  the  more  glorious  epoch 
•when  the  revolution  had  nearly  reduced  it  into  solid  practice,  been 
a  Briton's  boast.  How  devoutly,  Mr.  Editor,  is  it  to  be  wished. 


eORRF.SPONDE.VCE.  29 

•that  the  reality  of  this  boast  had  never  been  infringed  upon,  and 
still  more  seriously  threatened  ;  that  our  taxes  could  be  levied 
without  the  humiliating  disgrace  of  having  onr  windows  counted 
by  circumambulating  surveyors,  and  our  cellars  w::tched  by 
intruding  excisemen!  \Vhen.  shall  we  see  a  patriot  statesman 
arise,  who  while  his  duty  obliges  him  to  enforce  the  levy  of 
millions,  his  feelings  as  a  Briton  will  rouse  his  energies  to  tho 
adoption  of  a  plan  winch  will  apply  to  our  purses  without  wound. 
ing  our  minds,  and  ukimately  degrading  our  characters,  by  a  gra- 
dual submission  to  intrusions  which  the  spirit  of  freedom  revolts 
at.  This  is  the  object  so  devoutly  to  be  wished  for.  We  will  load 
our  guns  with  our  gold  and  silver  rather  than  suflbr  a  tyrant  or  a 
conqueror  to  soil  the  British  shores  ;  but  let  us  entreat  those  who 
direct  the  ample  means  and  generous  hearts  in  the  sister  island,  to 
guard  as  much  as  possible  against  any  system,  which,  while  ic  re- 
duces the  one,  may  degenerate  the  other. 

Another  digression,  Mr.  Editor;  butyou  know  that  liberty  and 
old  England  is  our  motto,  and  that  "  England  expects  every  man 
to  do  his  duty  ;"  we  mast  therefore  not  only  act,  but  on  all  occa- 
sions, think,  speak)  and  -xrite  with  the  freedom  such  a  motto  and 
such  a  sentiment  imposes  on  our  character. 

I  was  writing  on  the  subject  of  every  Briton's  liouse  being  his 
castle,  when  I  was  led  into  the  foregoing  digression.  I  was  about 
fo  regret  that  this  principle  cannot  be  carried  into  practice  in  the 
Anterior  of  a  shin  of  war,  to  such  a  degree  as  British  feelings  lead 
us  to  wish.  J  am  led  into  reflection  on  this  feeling  by  observing 
a  great  mistake,  some  (otherwise)  excellent  officers  have  fallen, 
into.  When  retired  into  their  berth,  their  cabin,  or  even  ward- 
room, it  has  been  conceived  that  the  same  unbounded  liberty  of 
speech  may  take  place,  as  if  they  were  in  their  houses  on  shore. 
It  may  be  desirable  (hat  we  could  contrive  bulkheads  or  screens, 
which  were  as  impervious  to  sound,  as  they  are  to  light,  or  that  the 
servants  to  officers,  and  the  sentjnels  near  their  cabins  and  mess 
places  could  be  selected  from  the  unfortunate  deaf  persons  in  his 
majesty's  dominions.  But  these  valuablfc  ideas  cannot  be  realised. 
Space  will  not  admit  of  mm-transmittiug  bulkheads,  and  my  worthy- 
friends  of  the  cockpit  or  wardroom  love  full  well  to  be  heard  by 
their  attendants,  whether  they  .«///£•  cut  to  have  their  hammocks 
Lung  up,  or  a  fresh  bottle  drawn  oil'  from  the  trusty  supporters  of 
the  wardroom  store.  I  must  therefore  give  up  my  beautiful  sys- 
tem, and  earnestly  advise  all  the  parties  concerned,  to  reflect  upon 
vhe  vast  mischief  that  may  ensue;  and  indeed  that  has  ensued,  from 


30  CORRESPONDENCE. 

officers  speaking  with  disrespect  of  their  superiors,  or  grumbling 
at  their  destinations  before  the  servants  and  sentinels.  A  good 
officer  will  here  submit  to  the  most  difficult  of  all  disciplines,  that 
of  the  tongue.  If  at  table,  an  officer  finds  fault  with  the  order  or 
regulations  of  his  captain,  while  perhaps  a  midshipman  is  at  table 
•with  him,  and  half  a  score  marines  and  boys  attending  round  it  ; 
lie  from  that  moment  ought  not  to  think  it  a  fault,  if  the  gentlemen 
of  the  cockpit  make  equally  free  with  his  conduct  in  the  station  he 
may  fill,  nor  feel  surprise,  though  he  may  shame,  if  he  hears  that 
the  messes  between  decks  have  retailed  what  has  been  reported  from 
ihe  wardroom,  or  officers'  berths.  No  rank  is  privileged  while  on 
service  to  shew  anger,  contempt,  or  discontent  at  the  conduct  of 
its  superiors;  and  the  officer  who  would  severely  reprobate  the 
seaman  who  was  to  utter  a  disrespectful  word  of,  or  to  him,  has  no 
more  right  than  the  seaman  to  speak  in  a  disrespectful  way  of  his 
superiors  in  rank.  Yet  I  fear  that  the  contrary  conduct  is  too 
common,  and  what  would  have  been  styled  mutiny  in  seamen  and 
marines,  has  often  been  the  conversation  of  the  wardroom  and 
quarter-deck,  and  conceived  <o  bo  only  a  proper  freedom  of 
speech.  I  am  afraid  this  unoilicer-like,  this  unpatriotic  conduct, 
was  very  common  towards  the  end  of  the  last  war,  when  the  sin- 
gular position  of  our  enemy  prevented  the  ships  from  being  paid  off 
as  soon  as  the  hopes  of  the  officers  and  crews  led  them  to  expect. 
In  general,  much  more  excuse  may  be  made  for  the  seaman  or 
marine,  than  for  the  officer,  independant  of  the  sentiment  which 
education  and  expectations  may  be  expected  to  produce.  All  as 
men  claim  an  equal  allowance  to  be  made  for  the  feeling  which 
prompts  the  desire  for  an  early  return  to  their  families ;  but  the 
former  have  the  additional  plea  of  interest,  as  it  is  of  consequence 
to  be  early  in  their  offers  to  get  good  situations  and  wages  in  the 
merchant  service,  while  the  latter  will  be  reduced  to  half  pay. 
But  I  trust  we  shall  never  hear  again  of  officers  being  humbugged 
and  kidnapped^  and  all  those  childish  and  disgraceful  winnings 
which  were  too  vile  at  the  time  before  alluded  to,  but  that  all  will 
act  up  to  the  true  spirit  of  the  twenty-first  article  of  war. 

I  could  give  some  good  advice  to  captains  on  the  same  subject, 
though  they  may  say  I  am  now  coming  close  to  my  own  feelings. 
I  will,  however,  venture  (perhaps  in  self-defence)  to  recommend, 
that  if  iu  a  visit  to  the  flag-ship,  or  by  any  other  means,  they 
should  make  any  curious  sexual  discoveries,  they  should  not  imme- 
diately on  their  return  to  their  ships  proclaim  in  public  that  the 
admiral  is  an  old  woman;  or  if  they  arc  ornithologists;  they  need 


CORRESPONDENT!:.  31 

not  Inform  the  officers  that  he  is  an  old  goose.  We  have  certainly 
instances  of  several  gallant  females  serving  on  board  ship,  and  if 
any  of  them  arrive  at  their  flag,  most  likely  indeed  they  will  be 
old  women;  but  in  general  their  sex  has  been  discovered  early,  and 
their  promotion  stopped  :  should,  however,  the  sex  be  discovered, 
after  arriving  at  the  rank  of  admiral,  the  same  should  be  qnictlr 
made  known,  agreeably  to  the  article  of  war  above  mentioned,  iu 
order  that  a  masculine  successor  may  be  appointed,  and  the  old 
lady  suffered  to  retire  in  peace. 

I  remain,  sir?  yours,  &c. 

A.  F.  Y. 

1EMARKS  ON  THE  PARLIAMENTARY  DUTIES  OF 
NAVAL  OFFICERS. 

LETTER  VIII. 

SIR, 

"TTJEFORE  I  enter  on  the  intended  subject  of  my  letter,  I 
-1*-^  think  it  necessary  to  make  some  reply  to  your  note  on  part 
of  the  postscript  of  my  last.  J  can  most  truly  assert,  that  no  on& 
is  more  positively  averse  "  from  unnecessarily  wounding  the  feel- 
ings of  indi-ciduah  "  than  I  am,  and  I  join  with  you  in  opinion  on 
that  subject  with  all  my  heart.  But  with  all  due  deference,  Mr, 
Editor,  I  cannot  at  all  think,  that  a  man  entrusted  with  a  high 
command,  during  which  matters  of  weighty  national  import  have 
occurred,  and  concerning  which  the  national  feelings  have  been 
warmly  agitated,  is  to  be  suffered  to  remain  in  calm  repose  for  fear 
of  wounding  the  feelings  of  the  individual.  I  will  not  meddle 
with  his  private  concerns,  but  if  I  am  to  be  silent  about  those 
which  clearly  belong  to  the  public,  the  liberty  of  the  press  and  the 
li-berty  of  the  people  arc  both  annihilated,  and  the  feelings  of 
millions  of  individuals  arc  Koundcd.  The  part  of  your  note 
printed  in  italics  appears  to  coincide  with  part  of  the  answer  read 
by  Lord  Hawkesbury  to  the  address  of  the  city  of  London  (see 
page  354,  line  eight  from  bottom)  :  in  me,  the  demand  for  inquiry 
is  said  to  "  pronounce  judgment,"  and  you  are  "  anxious  that 
sentence  should  not  be  passed  previously  to  inquiry."  Certainly,, 
judgment  cannot  be  given,  nor  sentence  passed  previous  to  trial 
(I  have  no  good  opinion  of  the  use  of  inauiry))  but  there  mn.st  bs 
accusation,  or  complaint,  or  rumour,  in  order  to  lead  to  a  trial  j 
and  the  opinions  of  the  accusers  or  complainerSj  however  strong 
against  the  supposed  delinquent,  can  by  n a  means  be  called  passing 


Jfc  CORRESPONDENCE.* 

ir;. .,,„,,  Thc  letters  I  have  seen  are  certainly  not  before  tits' 
public,  therefore  it  may  uot  have  fallen  in  your  way  t6  have  seen 
the  complaints  and  accusations  which  have  met  ray  eye,  and  for 
this  reason,  though  not  for  those.  I  have  above  noticed,  you  arc 
quite  right  in  omitting  the  sentence  I  had  quoted,  and  indeed  it  so 
far  deviated  from  the  sort  of  opinions  which  I  think  all  periodical 
papers  should  be  open  to,  that  it  ought  only  to  come  into  notice 
•under  a  real  signature  ;  I  therefore  request  you  to  accept  my 
thanks  for  your  judicious  amendment  of  my  letter.  Should  th:> 
last  sentence  of  your  note  be  verified  on  the  present  occasion,  what 
c;m  we  wish  for  more  ?  But  is  not  the  expectation  rather 
Utopian  ?  Perhaps  we  may  have  to  remark  concerning  it,  where 
we  know  the  issue  of  the  never-to-be-forgotten  Board  of  Inquiry 
on  the  Cintra  generals  !— May  you  and  I,  Sir,  live  in  that  ctfuntry 
where  "  justice  will  take  its  coarse,  innocence  will  triumph,  and 
guilt  or  imbecility  will  be  punished  or  disgraced  ;"  or  rather  let  me 
pray  that  such  may  be  the  character  of  the  country  we  live  in. 

Before  this  letter  meets  the  eyes  of  your  readers,  Parliament 
will  have  met,  and  a  variety  of  information  may  have  enlightened 
the  public  on  matters  on  which  we  are  now  groping  in  the  dark  ; 
I  shall  therefore  confine  my  present  advice  to  my  brother  sailors  in 
either  house,  to  such  concerns  as  are  not  likely  to  be  changed 
either  by  the  royal  speech  or  the  debates  on  it. 

I  do  not  exactly  know  when  it  began  to  be  the  fashion  to  speak 
of  millions  of  money  as  mere  trifles  with  respect  to  the  nation  ;  iti 
the  days,  and  from  the  mouth  of  Air.  Pitt,  this  language  was  very 
rife,  and  certainly  ilowed  from  him  with  becoming  grace,  from  the 
consistency  between  his  words  and  actions.  Millions  were  then 
certaiuly  lavished,  as  if  they  were  nothing  to  a  nation.  There  may 
be  objects  worth  attaining,  at  the  expeuce  of  many  millions,  but 
unfortunately,  even  under  the  au-pices  of  that  eminent  man,  we 
were  constantly  lavishing  the  millions  without  attaining  the  object ; 
need  we  then  wonder  that  his  successors  have  only  succeeded  in 
that  which  he  found  easy,  and  failed  in  that  which  even  he  could 
not  accomplish.  Now,  Sir,  as  we  have  been  worked  up  to  almost 
our  last  shift  to  raise  foreign  armies  for  Napoleon  to  scatter  like 
dust  before  a  whirlwind,  to  send  our  own  gallant  soldiers  to  the 
new  world  under  incompetent  generals^  to  send  others  under  a 
choice  commander  to  the  North,  under  such  circumstances  as  to 
be  sent  back  again,  and  a  thousand  other  items  known  to  all  the 
world,  I  want  to  resort  to  a  very  old  maxim,  "  to  take  care  of 
thf  pence.)  and  the  pounds  will  take  care  of  themselves."  When 


CORRESPONDENCE.  33 

the  Parliament  assembles,  I  have  not  the  least  doubt  but  that  the 
mutiny  bill,  and  all  matters  relative  to  the  revenue,  will  be  passed 
in  due  order,  and  f  am  prepared  to  be  very  thankful  for  all  the 
other  national  benefits  which  may  result  from  the  session.  Mean, 
•while,  1  submit  the  following  hints  to  my  naval  friends,  who  will 
share  in  the  honour  which  may  result.  I  frequently  hear  great 
exultation  Jn  the  state  of  the  nation,  because  we  now  raise  near 
sixty  millions  annually,  and  but  few  years  have  elapsed  since 
twenty  millions  were  conceived  too  great  a  burden  to  bear  increase  ; 
yet  we  see  palaces  rising,  and  improvements  advance  as  rapidly  as 
ever.  A  melancholy  tri'th,  Air.  Editor.  It  is  not  the  rich,  the 
noble,  the  princes  of  the  land,  on  whom  the  weight  of  the  heavy 
burden  is  laid,  but  on  those  who  never  see  the  inside  of  palaces, 
and  who  know  nothing  of  those  decorations  and  improvements 
which  so  captivate  the  eyes  and  delude  the  senses  of  the  admirers 
of  the  times.  They  have  their  merit,  Mr.  Editor,  but  this  is  not 
the  view  in  which  we  should  expect  to  find  their  real  advantages. 

I  now  descend  to  my  humble  recommendations.  It  is  a  fact,  that 
in  many  parts  of  the  kingdom,  the  poor  go  without  their  wonted 
meal  of  meat  or  fish,  in  consequence  of  the  heavy  tax  on  salt.  The 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  will  say,  and  perhaps  truly,  as  matters 
are  managed,  that  so  far  from  taking  off  a  tax,  he  will  have  to  add. 
Be  it  so,  if  requisite  ;  but  I  want  to  propose,  that  as  all  sinecure 
places  are  given  to  the  great  and  powerful,  many  of  them  no  doubt 
paid  from  that  very  tax  which  reduces  hundreds  of  their  fellow 
men  to  the  same  mess  with  their  pigs,  that  all  such  places  should, 
be  entirely  abolished,  and  the  duty  on  salt  lowered  by  their  amount. 
I  can  hardly  think  the  justice  of  this  measure  can  be  called  in 
question,  though  it  may  be  Utopian.  The  heavy  duties  on  malt 
have  also  entirely  deprived  many  thousands  of  labourers  in  the 
country,  of  the  power  of  procuring  beer.  As  the  Chancellor  of 
the  Exchequer  cannot  take  off  the  tax  on  malt,  let  the  experiment 
be  tried  how  much  it  might  be  reduced  by  abolishing  that  mean  and 
selfish  privilege  ot  franking  letters,  and  lessening  the  malt  duty  by 
the  amount.  If  there  was  at  all  a  proper  feeling  in  the  right  place, 
I  think  this  petty  remnant  of  vails  and  perquisites  could  not  be 
retained  a  single  moment ;  and  whence  could  the  proposal  come 
with  more  propriety,  than  from  the  well  known  liberality  of  sen. 
ti"  ent  of  a  Briti-h  sailor.  He  will  net  think  a  moment  of  the 
paltry  pecuniary  advantage,  and  even  forego  with  pleasure  the 
more  agreeable  part  of  the  privilege,  that  of  franking  letters  far  tL.* 

,  801,  XXI.  j 


34  CORRESPONDENCE. 

ladies  and  his  officers.  As  times  go,  there  is  a  glaring  absurdity  in 
the  rich  and  noble  having  their  letters  free  of  expence,  when  the 
middle  and  lower  classes  can  scarcely  afford  to  hear  occasionally  of 
their  absent  friends.  Peers  have  a  sufficiently  high  privilege  in 
their  hereditary  seats  in  the  upper  house,  and  when  it  is  surmised 
that  seats  in  another  place  may  be  procured  for  money,  or  paid 
for  by  balls,  buildings,  chandeliers,  newspapers,  rates  and  taxes, 
&c.  &c.  there  can  be  no  possible  reason  why  such  a  sneaking  per- 
quisite as  franking  should  be  retained.  It  is  understood  also,  that 
the  correspondence  respecting  borough  matters  is  now  carried  on 
through  the  medium  of  the  middle  men^  and  that  the  members  and 
the  nominal  constituents  have  nothing  to  say  to  each  other. 

I  remain,  Sir,  yours,  &c. 

E.  G.  F. 


LETTER  IX. 

sin/ 

S  the  writers  of  long  books  look  anxiously  for  the  rising  of 
the  reviewers  above  the  political  horizon,  so  do  the  writers  of 
long  letters  in  your  Chronicle  look  earnestly  for  the  periodical 
appearance  of  your  prefaces,  that  they  may  see  in  what  way  their 
labours  have  been  taken,  and  be  enabled  to  apportion  their  future 
exertions  according  to  the  quantum  of  the  plus  or  minus  of  appro- 
bation they  may  there  meet  with.  A  great  book,  we  have  been 
told,  is  a  great  evil,  and  I  perceive  that  a  letter,  which  occupies 
five  or  six  pages,  is  accounted  somewhat  of  an  intrusion ;  although 
if  the  number  of  pages  were  the  greatest  or  only  fault,  it  would  be 
easy  to  divide  the  bulky  concern  into  parts,  and  publish  them  at 
different  times.  But  that  I  may  not  again  encroach  on  those  pages, 
which  may  be  fillet!  by  superior  ability,  or  more  useful  inforrna. 
tion,  I  proceed  to  that  part  of  your  late  preface  which  relates  to 
n;y  letters. 

It  was  in  sober  and  well  intentioncd  earnestness  that  I  formed 
the  resolution  of  offering  my  thoughts  on  the  duties  of  members  of 
Parliament  to  my  brother  sailors,  through  the  medium  of  your 
work.  In  my  first  letters  are  truly  detailed  the  subjects  of  the 
conversations  and  opinions  M'hich  first  suggested  the  propriety  of 
so  doing.  Under  the  blessing  of  heaven,  the  high  state  of  opulence 
and  power  to  which  our  little  island  has  risen,  has  been  owing  to 
the  singular  and  admirable  character  of  our  constitution  of  govern- 
ment ;  and  the  pre-eminently  happy  part  of  it  is  the  way  in  which 
the  popular  portion  of  it  is  blended  with  the  monarchical  and 


CORRESPONDENCE*  35 

aristocratical.  I  conceive,  that  if  this  popular  portion  loses  its 
due  weight,  and  becomes  subservient  to  the  other  branches,  that 
•we  should  be  under  the  very  worst  species  of  government  which  a 
nation  could  be  afflicted  with.  Now,  Sir,  if  it  be  true  that  we 
approach  towards,  or  are  in  danger  of  approaching  an  event  to  be 
so  earnestly  deprecated  ;  if  from  certain  combinations,  and  from 
the  executive  power  being  the  fount  of  honour  and  profit  both  to 
the  lords  spiritual  and  temporal,  the  ministers  for  the  time  being 
have  an  undue  and  powerful  influence  in  one  house  ;  and  if  owing 
to  the  system  of  boroughs  as  now  managed,  that  house  has  an 
undue  and  very  powerful  influence  in  the  other,  and  the  ministers 
in  power  a  still  greater  ;  why  then,  Sir,  I  conceive  that  ihe  vessel 
of  the  state  may  be  said  to  be  in  jeopardy,  and  that  it  becomes  the 
doty  of  every  honest  sailor  (o  save  her  from  shipwreck. 

I  am  of  opinion,  Mr.  Editor,  that  our  heroes,  whether  military 
or  naval,  do  not  sufficiently  consider  the  mixed  nature  of  our  con- 
stitution ;  but  in  consequence  of  their  early  acquaintance  with  the 
absolute  nature  of  a  military  code,  look  almost  wholly  to  the 
executive  part  with  which  they  are  principally  connected.  Under 
these  impressions,  I  have  endeavoured  to  point  out  the  corruption 
•which  disgraces  and  endangers  us,  and  to  shew  the  consequence  of 
those  national  feelings  being  attended  to,  which  will  make  every 
Briton  a  hero,  and  his  house  a  castle,  and  to  express  my  convic- 
tion, that  it  has  been  owing  to  the  absence  of  these  feelings,  that 
Europe  has  offered  so  trifling  a  resistance  to  the  arms  of  the 
tyrant. 

In  my  chase  after  this  very  important  prize,  and  in  my  endca- 
Yours  to  -.'ollect  proper  arguments  and  illustrations  to  prove  the 
legality  of  the  capture,  I  am  not  aware  of  having  i/mred  from  the 
proper  course,  though  perhaps  I  might  have  sometimes  carried 
more  canvass,  and  got  fresher  way  through  the  water.  But  my 
bark  is  getting  old  and  crazy,  and  the  upper  works  much  out  of 
repair  ;  it  is  necessary  to  prop  the  ship,  and  set  up  additional 
backstays,  even  while  making  a  voyage  in  the  trade  winds;  I  must 
therefore,  by  the  assistance  of  your  excellent  correspondent,  Tim 
Weatherside,  to  carry  a  press  of  sail,  make  short  board,  and 
endeavour  to  make  prizes  of  all  the  anecdotes,  whether  of  gallant 
actions  or  borough  politics,  which  he  can  grapple  with,  and 
knows  so  well  how  to  deposit  in  the  safe  harbour  of  your 
Chronicle. 

I  have  already  thanked  you  for  your  impartiality  in  admitting 
opinions  which  militate  so  strongly  agaiust  your  own}  but  ij  is  to 


36  CORRESPONDENCE* 

be  considered,  that  discussion  is  the  clear  way  to  truth,  and  &<t 
such  should  always  he  admitted  into  periodical  publications.  I 
have  also  admitted  great  merits  in  the  two  noble  lords  to  whoiA 
you  attribute  such  superior  attainments,  and  consider  as  the  great 
palladium  of  our  service,  but  in  truth,  Sir,  I  do  assure  you,  that 
my  former  and  unshaken  opinion  is  confirmed  by  very  many  of 
those  to  whom  I  think  I  may  justly  apply  the  titles  of  the  "  first 
characters  in  the  service  and  the  state." 

Before  I  conclude,  I  must  express  my  thanks  to  you  for  your 
Very  judicious  choice  of  a  dedication,  and  for  your  animating  and 
excellent  address  on  the  subject  of  the  Spanish  patriots.  Against 
such  a  powerful  enemy  it  must  be  expected  to  prove  a  work  of 
years  to  gain  the  very  important  object  in  view.  My  great  dread 
is,  that  the  Junta  have  been  ill  advised  in  making  the  rallying 
•words  "  our  beloved  Ferdinand"  instead  of  "  our  beloved 
country."  It  is  not  conceivable  to  me  that  Ferdinand  can  be 
beloved  after  his  weak  submission,  and  unmanly  abdication.  If  a 
cortes  had  been  assembled,  and  a  limited  monarchy  declared  to  be 
the  determined  result,  after  the  enemy  had  been  chased  from  the 
country,  I  firmly  believe  Buonaparte  would  never  have  entered 
Madrid.  We  shall  soon  hear  the  opinions  of  the  Parliamentary 
leaders  on  this  important  subject,  and  also  on  the  result  of  the 
memorable  board  of  inquiry.  The  (hanks  of  the  country  are 
justly  due  to  Lord  Moira  for  his  explanatory  dissent.  Before  th« 
division  in  opinion  was  known,  it  appeared  to  have  passed 
unanimously,  that  Sir  A.  W.  was  right  in  his  gallant  deter- 
mination to  pursue  the  beaten  foe ;  and  that  Sir  H.  B.  was  as 
correct  in  ordering  him  to  desist ;  and  that  Sir  II.  D.  was  also  not 
in  an  error  in  granting  a  convention,  which  Junot  thinks  was  te 
him  an  important  victory. 

I  remain,  Sir,  yours,  &c. 

E.  G.  F. 

Admiral  Trident.,  to  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Mulgrate.  First  Lord 
•     of  the  Admiralty^  $c. 

MY    LORD, 

fjIlrlE  days,  the  best  days  of  old  Trident,  have  long  been  num. 
J*-    bered  with  the  past;  but  his  youth  is  revived  (thanks  be  to 
him  who  hath  lengthened  those  days),  his  youth  is  revived,  in  the 
vigour  and  valorous  achievements  of  his  sons. 

I  have  served.  Lord  Mulgrave,  when  the  brave  were  more 
3 


CORRESPONDENCE*  27 

Honoured.  I  have  served  in  the  fleets  of  our  Hawke  and  Boscawen. 
I  have  fought  when  the  British  flag  has  been  nobly  triumphant, 
and  I  hare  seen  it  as  basely  depressed,  but  never  (let  a  father 
exult),  never  till  these  times,  have  I  heard  of  such  triumphs,  as 
the  glorious,  the  unalloyed  triumphs  of  my  sons. 

My  Lord,  the  old  and  gracious  proclamation  of  his  majesty 
(God  bless  him!)  joined  with  honour,  had  ever  been  our  polar  star. 
By  that  we  learned,  in  youth,  that  -when  the  hard  earned  rank 
arrived,  the  harvest  ot"  our  lives  would  come — a  late,  but  pledged 
reward  for  all  our  blood  ind  toils.  "Why,  then,  let  a  veteran  ask, 
why  was  that  ancient  sacred  compact  broken?*  Have  my  sons 
not  done  their  parts  ?  Have  they  who  should  lead  your  fleets 
been  found  astern  ?  Turn,  my  lord,  turn,  I  pray,  and  traverse 
every  ocean,  or  turn  and  see  these  wounds,  these  shattered  limbs, 
these  venerable  locks,  then,  let  our  sovereign  harshly  say  again, 
"  Old  man,  thy  services  have  been  too  well  rewarded."  Too 
well  rewarded  !  Ah,  my  king,  what  then  have  others  been  ! 

My  Lord,  you  are  a  soldier,  and,  if  my  sons  have  heard  aright, 
a  man,  too,  of  exemplary  honour.  Deal  then  but  with  us  as  a  man. 
of  honour  ought.  My  sons,  you  know,  are  poorly  paid ;  they 
have  no  perquisites  but  what  their  blood  must  buy — they  feed  no 
crews — they  clothe  no  men  :  if,  then,  reform  be  needful,  do  unto 
them  as  a  soldier  would  be  done  unto, — do  that,  and  we  are 
content. 

My  Lord,  we  see  you  fill  a  high  official  station  ;  and,  if  the 
world  may  be  believed,  y6u  rank  among  our  most  enlightened 
statesmen.  Deal  then  but  with  my  family  as  a  statesman  would—- 
we ask  no  more. 

When  placemen  or  pensioners  should  be  discharged  from  service, 
what,  may  we  ask,  what  do  our  most  enlightened  statesmen  grant 
them  ?  What.  but/«/r,  \)\\tjnst,  and  liberal  remuneration  ? 

If  sinecure?,  if  long  established  fees  must  be  suppressed,  what, 
let  us  sailors  ask,  what  would  be  our  oldest  statesman's  answer  ? 
Would  your  voice  not  be,  my  Lord,  for  fair,  for  just,  for  ample 
remuneration  ? 

If,  then,  Lord  Mulgrave,  the  country  that  we  live  in,  and  that 
we  love  to  defend,  may  not  be  relieved  in  the  hour  of  distress,  by 
discharging  from  its  service  a  band  of  tawdry  and  unprofitable 
supernumeraries ;  if,  when  the  poor  old  ship  is  labouring  under  a 


By  a  late  regulation,   one-tliird  of  the  admirals'  and  captains'  prize 
ej  has  been  taken  from  then,  and  given  to  the  seamen. 


38 

pressure  of  sail,  neither  tack,  nor  sheet,  nor  haulyards,  can  eref 
be  started  to  case  her ;  if  none  of  these  things  can  be  done  without 
granting  remuneration,  liberal,  ample  remuneration  to  all  who  are 
rated  ;  why,  then,  I  ask  (excuse  an  old  man's  warmth),  I  ask,  iit 
the  name  of  that  God,  whose  orders  are  justice,  by  what  plea,  by 
what  right  you  take,  without  compensation,  from  the  arms  of  my 
gallant  boys  their  dearest  earnings  ?  Is  it,  say  you,  from  generosity 
to  your  tars,  to  their  humbler  brethren  ?  Your  tars  (God  prosper 
them)  they  are  dear  to  these  aged  arms,  but  beware,  my  Lord,  of 
such  generosity ;  no  property  is  safe  within  its  reach. 

Generosity,  true  generosity,  is  the  companion  of  courage  and 
greatness ;  it  grows  up  with  the  sailor,  and  is  dear  to  his  soul. 
There  is  but  one  generosity  that  my  sons  understand.  Need  I 
deSne  it  ?  It  is  not,  believe  me,  that  generosity  which  rewards 
them  at  the  expcnce  of  a  brother  !  Introduce  not,  I  beseech  you, 
among  us  the  passions  that  may  be  baneful  to  your  prosperity  and 
our  peace. 

If  indeed,  you  would  reward,  where  reward  is  so  abundantly 
due,  take  an  old  man's  advice — look  to  the  Droits — the  Droits  of 
Admiralty,  won  by  their  toils.  Ah,  Lord  Mulgrave,  why,  why- 
were  not  those  Droits  of  Admiralty  so  meritoriously  employed  ? 

TRIDENT,  Admiral,  &c. 


HEW    NIPl'EH. 

MR-   EDtTOHj  Folkstone,  January  15,.  1809. 

IT  has  been  objected  to  the  new  nipper,  which  I  had  the  honour 
of  submitting  to  the  officers  of  the  navy  in  your  last  volume,*' 
that  whatever  might  be  ils  efficacy  when  used,  the  real  utility  would 
be  of  little  account,  as  the  additional  purchase,  it  supposes,  is  but 
tarely  resorted  to.  I  might,  perhaps,  be  justified  by  quoting 
against  such  an  observation,  the  emphatic  language  of  a  very 
distinguished  officer  on  a  similar  occasion  :  "  If  we  cannot  have 
all  we  want,  let  us  have  all  we  can  get."  But  I  rather  choose  to 
answer  this  objection  by  observing,  that  if  the  additional  purchase 
has  hitherto  been  but  rarely  resorted  to,  it  may  probably  be  owing 
to  an  apprehension  of  having  to  encounter  those  very  difficulties 
which  it  is  the  sole  object  of  this  expedient  to  obviate.  It  has  also 


?ee  page 


COKKESPOSDEXCE.  39 

been  remarked,  by  those  whose  judgment  is  entitled  to  much  con. 
sideration,   that  the  manner   of  passing  the  under,    or   common 
nipper,   and   the  salvage,  is  by  no  means  the  best  that  could  be 
devised.     To  these  remarks,   Sir,   it  may  be  sufficient  to  reply, 
that,  as  a  sailor,   I   am  too  well  acquainted  with  the  advantages 
of  practice,  to  suppose  that  the  result  of  any  closet  speculations 
can  be  perfect  ;  that  while  first  making  the  nipper  public,  I  pro- 
fessedly relied  on  the  "  liberal  aid"  of  the  profession,  and  that,  hi 
so  doing,  little  to  me  could  remain  in  view,   but  the  hope  of  that 
gratification  which  arises  from  the  idea  of  having  suggested  a  bene- 
ficial improvement.     If,  therefore,  by  a  more  skilful  application, 
the  nipper    proposed    can  be   rendered    still   more    beneficial,   it 
unavoidably  follows,  that  the  measure  of  my  gratification  must  be 
still  more  increased.     Fully  convinced  as  I  am  that  great  advan- 
tages may  be  obtained  by  extending  the  uses  of  the  above  nipper  to 
more  general  purposes,  there  should  be  no  hesitation  on  my  part, 
in  recommending  that,  in  every  case  where  the  greasiness  of  the 
cable  presents  a  considerable  obstacle,   immediate  recourse  be  had 
to  its  aid.     But  in  order  to  make  myself  completely  understood  on 
this  subject,  I  must  refer  your  readers  to  the  accompanying  sketch 
of  the  method  recommended  (founded,  it  must  be  confessed,  on  very 
inadequate  trials),  by  attending  to  which,  there  appears  reason  to 
hope,  that  with  only  one  piece  of  rope,   and  two  of  the  nippers 
alluded  to,  an  anchor  in  many  difficult  situations  may  with  safety- 
be  weighed. 

At  A,  in  the  sketch  below,  may  be  seen  the  representation  of  a 
double  tailed  nipper  ;  the  operation  of  which  (however  well 
known)  I  hope  to  be  excused  for  explaining. 

The  double  tailed,  nipper,  when  supplying  the  place  of  those 
commonly  used,  is  first  to  have  the  tails  of  the  after  end  secured  to 
the  messenger ;  the  single  part  is  then  to  be  passed,  as  many  times 
as  may  be  practicable,  round  both  the  cable  and  messenger,  and 
the  remaining  tails  to  be  secured  to  the  cable  before  it,  which  being 
done,  it  is  distinctly  evident,  that  so  long  as  the  ends  are  pulled  in. 
opposite  directions,  both  the  cable  and  messenger  will  be  bound 
together  by  the  single  part  that  surrounds  them,  and  that  so  long 
as  the  tails  retain  their  hold,  the  power  of  the  nipper  will  be  in. 
creasing,  in  proportion  to  the  increase  of  compression. 

But  it  is  equally  obvious,  that  the  value  of  a  nipper  so  applied, 
entirely  depends  on  the  security  of  the  tails,  and  this  security  ig, 
ja  some  cases,  exceedingly  difficult  to  accomplish.  Several  foreign 
Cations  have  had  recourse  to  a  mouse,  at  certain  intervals,  on  the 


messenger,  whilst  others  object  to  such  a  remedy,  but  all  agree, 
that  some  practicable  substitute  for  a  mouse  would  be  of  infinite 
utility  on  the  cable.  Such  a  substitute,  or  temporary  mouse,  may, 
it  appears  to  me,  be  easily  obtained,  for  it  seems  extremely  clear, 
on  reflection,  that  if  the  new  nipper  may  be  made  to  hold  when 
used  with  a  purchase,  it  may  be  uiade  to  hold  nearly  as  well,  by 
applying  the  tails  in  the  room  of  a  salvage  ;  at  least,  it  may  be 
made  sufficiently  stationary  to  answer  the  purpose. 

I  have  before,  Sir,  had  to  lament,  that  local  circumstances  for-  * 
bid  my  making  any  trial  on  a  scale  sufficiently  large  ;  but  from 
•what  has  been  seen,  it  is  necessary  to  say,  that  particular  care 
should  at  all  times  be  taken,  while  passing  the  tails,  that  the  first 
turns  round  the  zcocd  may  not  produce  the  effect  of  removing  it 
sideways,  so  as  to  prevent  its  bearing  on  the  crosses  beneath  ; 
which,  it  is  thought,  may  be  guarded  against,  by  taking  at  Jirst^ 
a  complete  turn  round  either  the  nearest  cable  or  messenger,  as 
may  be  seen  in  the  sketch,  at  13. 

I  shall  now  conclude  with  observing,  what  the  first  trial  will 
sufficiently  evince,  that  whether  the  salvage  or  the  tails  be  used  as 
a  binder  to  the  nipper,  it  is  equally  necessary,  that  all  the  turns 
should  be  taught,  and  applied  as  nearly  as  possible  to  the  pins  at 
tail. 


MR.    EDITOR, 

lE  preservation  of  seamen  from  the  scurvy,  and  even  th« 
cure  of  that  disease,  so  far  as  it  has  yet  been  investigated, 
being  best  effected  by  fresh  succulent  vegetables,  you  will  oblige 
me  by  the  insertion  of  the  enclosed  letter  from  Mr.  Charles 
Edmund,  surgeon  of  his  majesty's  ship  Russell,  as  shewing,  in  a 


CORRESPONDENCE,  41 

dear  and  distinct  manner,  the  practicability  of  employing  the 
Kew  Nopal,  as  it  is  called  here,  for  that  valuable  purpose,  to 
•which  it  appears  peculiarly  adapted,  by  being  so  far  an  air  plant 
as  to  preserve  life,  and  the  capacity  of  vegetation,  for  months 
after  an  entire  removal  from  the  earth  or  watering  gardens. 

J.  ANDERSON.— 1  SOS. 

"  His  Majesty's  Ship  Russell,  Madras  Roads, 
"SIR,  March.  3,  1808. 

"  The  plant,  by  the  name  of  Kew  Nopal,  which  you  were  so 
polite  as  to  furnish  me  with  to  try  its  effects  in  scurry,  that  was  so 
general  among  the  crew  of  his  majesty's  ship  Russell,  after  a 
cruise  of  three  months,  entirely  confined  to  sea  diet,  I  have  the 
pleasure  to  say,  proved  so  agreeable  to  those  who  had  it  given 
them  in  its  raw  state,  that  they  compared  it  to  sorrell,  and  I  have 
no  doubt  but  it  would  have  proved  highly  useful  could  it  have  been, 
continued;  but  owing  to  a  diarrhoea,  which  generally  occurs  on 
the  first  use  of  every  kind  of  fresh  diet,  I  was  obliged  to  desist 
from  giving  the  nopal  or  any  other  succulent  vegetable,  and  to 
pay  attention  to  the  state  of  the  bowels  by  opiates,  and  occasionally 
by  a  little  creta  or  some  absorbent  to  correct  the  acidity  in  the 
stomach.  As  I  considered  the  whole  of  the  crew  as  being  more 
or  less  affected  with  the  scurvy,  and  the  necessity  of  their  having 
regetables  with  their  boiled  fresh  meat,  I  made  use  of  the  nopal  in 
a  manner  more  admissible,  which  was,  to  put  a  proportion  every 
day  in  the  coppers  with  their  soup  ;  this  I  think  is  a  preferable 
mode,  it  being  less  likely  to  affect  the  bowels  than  in  a  raw  state. 
Having  been  so  little  able  to  speak  of  its  benefit:,  from  our  not 
having  quitted  the  coast,  I  can  only  say,  that  from  a  knowledge 
of  the.  utility  of  vegetables  in  scurvy,  I  will  endeavour  to  obviate 
any  effects  on  the  bowels  by  opiates,  and  hope  by  the  next  time  I 
have  the  pleasure  of  writing  to  you  on  the  subject,  to  be  able  to 
speak  of  the  benefit  obtained,  as  it  is  so  easily  taken  care  of  by 
keeping  it  in  the  air.  Therefore  request  you  will  furnish  me  with 
a,  further  supply,  as  we  have  nothing  that  will  keep  so  long  in  a 
fresh  succulent  state. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  sir, 

"  Your  obedient  servant, 

«  CHARLES  EDMUND, 

"  Surgeon  of  his  majesty's  ship  R.ussell.'" 

.  Eol.  XXI.  «  - 


42  CORRESPONDENCE. 

Society  of  Arts j  fyc.  Adelphi,  London* 

SIR,  January  23,  1809; 

JY  direction  of  the  Society  instituted  for  the  Encouragement 
'  of  Arts,  Manufactures,  and  Commerce,  I  return  their  thanks 
to  you  for  your  obliging  present  to  them  of  the  XXth  Volume  of 
your  publication,  entitled  the  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  which  has 
been  ordered  to  be  carefully  preserved  in  their  library,  along  with 
the  preceding  volumes  with  which  you  have  favoured  them. 

I  cannot  help  thinking  it  a  part  of  my  duty  to  notice  to  you  the 
general  approbation  with  which  these  volumes  have  been  received, 
and  the  pleasure  with  which  they  have  been  perused  by  the  mem- 
bers  of  this  society.  I  assure  you,  it  is  my  sincere  wish  that  the 
work  may  meet  with  that  patronage  and  encouragement  from  the 
public  which  it  appears  to  me  to  be  so  well  entitled  to,  and  I  have 
no  doubt  but  that  it  will  excite  an  emulation  amongst  our  gallant 
sailors  to  follow  the  noble  examples  you  have  recorded. 

As  a  tribute  of  respect  to  the  memory  of  a  youth  whom  I  knew, 
I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  sending  you  the  following  anecdote, 
which  you  may  take  such  notice  of  as  you  may  think  proper: — 

About  the  year  1779,  a  privateer,  called  the  Amazon,  was  fitted 
'out  upon  a  cruise  from  the  port  of  Liverpool :  two  youths,  about 
17  years  of  age,  apprentices  to  Mr.  Benjamin  Hallworth,  acallen. 
derman,  at  Manchester,  eloped  from  their  master,  and  entered  on 
Aboard  the  privateer,  who,  during  her  cruise,  fell  in  with  a  vessel  of 
considerable  force,  and  engaged  her. 

Early  in  the  engagement  one  of  the  youths  above  mentioned  had 
his  leg  and  part  of  the  thigh  shot  off  by  a  cannon  ball,  and  fell  by 
the  side  of  his  companion.  The  mind  of  the  wounded  youth 
appeared  to  be  regardless  of  his  situation,  and  only  intent  upon 
the  event  of  the  action.  He  called  out  to  his  companion,  whose 
name  was  William,  "  Hrill,  hozo  go  zee  on,  shall  zee  beat  them?" 
an  answer  was  returned  by  his  friend,  that  he  hoped  so.  The 
question  was  repeated  several  times,  but  in  weaker  tones  of  voice, 
whilst  the  blood  flowed  from  him  in  a  torrent ;  the  probability  of 
success  was  announced  in  similar  answers.  At  last,  raising  hi? 
head  a  little,  he  with  a  very  feeble  voice  again  requested  to  know 
what  success.  His  companion  called  out,  «  The  enemy  havs 
struck.1'  A  sudden  gleam  of  joy  seemed  to  diffuse  itself  over  the 
countenance  of  the  dying  youth,  who,  stretching  himself  out, 
gallantly  exclaimed,  "  Then  I  die  contented^  and  expired  with- 
out A  groan. 


MARINE    SCENERY.  43 

These  circumstances  were  related  to  me  by  the  companion  who 
•was  present  during  the  whole  transaction,  and  who  afterwards 
returned  to  his  master's  service  in  Manchester. 

I  remain,  with  much  esteem,   sir, 
Your  obedient  servant, 

CHARLES  TAYLOR,  M.D. 

Secretary  to  the  Society  of  Arts,  &c. 
To  Mr.  Joyce  Gold. 

MR.    EDITOR, 

THE  geographers  in  every  part  of  Europe,  in  their  charts, 
have  laid  down  Cape  Frio,  on  the  coast  of  Brazil,  as  being 
in  the  latitude  22  deg.  34  min.  This  error  ought  to  be  rectified  : 
several  vessels  bound  to  Rio  de  Janeiro  having  been  in  consequence 
of  it,  embayed  ;  and  every  one  knows,  that  it  is  necessary  to  make 
Cape  Frio,  before  he  can  get  to  Rio  de  Janeiro.  This  error  has 
been  rectified  in  Arrowsmith's  map  of  the  coast  of  Brazil,  which 
will  be  shortly  published.  This  geographer  makes  the  exact 
latitude  23  deg.  2  min.  and  S.  longitude  49  deg.  59  min. 

TIM.  WEATHERSIDE, 


MARINE  SCENERY. 


THE    NORTH    CAPE. 
(From  Acerbi's  Travels,) 

9  1  illE  North  Cape  is  an  enormous  rock,  which,  projecting  far 
-1»-  into  the  ocean,  and  being  exposed  to  all  the  fury  of  the 
•waves  and  the  outrage  of  tempests,  crumbles  every  year  more  and 
more  into  ruins.  Here  every  thing  is  solitary,  every  thing  is 
sterile,  every  thing  sad  and  despondent.  The  shadowy  forest  no 
longer  adorns  the  brow  of  the  mountain ;  the  singing  of  birds, 
which  enlivened  even  the  woods  of  Lapland,  is  no  longer  heard  in 
this  scene  of  desolation  ;  the  ruggedness  of  the  dark  grey  rock  is 
not  covered  by  a  single  shrub  ;  the  only  music  is  the  hoarse  mur- 
muring of  the  waves,  ever  and  anon  renewing  their  assaults  on  tho 
huge  masses  that  oppose  them.  The  northern  sun,  creeping,  at 
midnight,  at  the  distance,  of  live  diameters  along  the  horizon,  and, 
the  immeasurable  ocean  in  apparent  contact  with  the  skies,  form 
the  grand  outlines  in  the  sublime  picture  presented  to  the  astonished 


44  PLATE  CCLXXV. 

spectator.  The  incessant  cares  and  pursuits  of  anxious  mortals 
are  recollected  as  a  dream  ;  the  various  forms  aud  energies  of 
animated  nature  are  forgotten  ;  the  earth  is  contemplated  only  in, 
its  elements,  and  as  constituting  a  part  of  the  solar  system. 


PLATE  CCLXXV. 

Description  of  Incc  Castle^  situated  on  the  borders  of  Cornzcall) 
adjoining  to  Devonshire. 

AS  a  marine  villa,  the  view  of  Ince  Castle  may  well  be  entitled 
to  a  place  in  the  NAVAL  CHUONICLE;  the  truly  romantic? 
peninsula  on  which  it  stands  is  a  long  promontory,  -which  con- 
tains upwards  ef  one  hundred  acres,  and  is  connected  with  the 
continent  only  by  t\vo  fields ;  it  possesses  all  the  advantages  of  an 
inland  as  well  as  a  marine  situation.;  for  though  nearly  encom- 
passed by  the  sea,  it  has  beautiful  woods  and  plantations,  that 
thrive  in  great  luxuriance,  through  which  arc  cut  rides  and  walks, 
in  some  parts  impervious  to  the  sun. 

It  is  distant  from  Plymouth  Dock  only  four  miles  by  water, 
and  when  you  open  the  St.  Germain's  water  at  Hamoaze  (whence 
this  view  is  taken)  Ince  Castle  breaks  upon  you  as  a  stately  man. 
gion,  situated  on  the  top  of  a  Nole  (seemingly  an  island  rising  out 
of  the  sea),  with  a  boundary  of  rock  of  some  height,  resembling  a' 
}iigh  wall,  on  the  edge  of  which,  one  half  in  view  to  the  left,  at 
the  proper  season,  .appears  to  have  a  fringe  of  go'id  and  silver, 
from  the  blossoms  of  the  various  shrubs  on  its  verge,  while  the 
other  half  presents  to  the  eye  the  plantation  and  wood,  through 
•which  a  carriage  road  from  the  lower  landing  place  carries  you, 
round  an  extensive  lawn  by  an  easy  zig-zag  assent  to  the  house. 
Two  large  boat-houses  are  also  seen  on  the  left  side,  from  each  of 
which  a  jetfy  runs  into  the  sea  for  the  convenience  of  landing. 

The  stable^  and  coach-houses,  upon  a  large  scale,  are  at  a  pro- 
per  distance  from  the  house,  but  completely  planted  ont  j  and  at  a 
further  distance  is  the  farm-yard,  with  barns,  &c.  likewise  screened 
by  trees.  The  house  is  gothic,  with  four  towers,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  built  by  K  UK-grew,  the  favourite  of  Chailes  II.  on  the 
site  of  an  old  castle  ;  indeed,  from  the  vestiges  and  remains  of  old 
walls  which  are  seen  at  low  water,  it  bears  the  appearance  of 
having  been  an  ancient  military  station  ;  and  as  Ince  in  the  Saxon, 
denoted  an  island,  Ince  Castle  might  in  those  times  have  been  3, 
stronghold;  but  what  makes  this  more  probable  is,  the  labou;- 


1PLATE  CCLXXY.  45 

which  seems  to  have  been  bestowed  upon  it,  by  cutting  away  rock* 
and  forming  the  land  to  its  present  beautiful  slopes,  which  work 
Appears  more  considerable  than  could  be  undertaken  by  an  indi- 
yidual ;  in  some  respects  it  answers  to  Fenelon's  description  of 
Calypso's  island,  in  Telemachus,  having  most  picturesque  romantic 
scenery,  and  many  delightful  retreats,  in  the  recesses  of  the  rocks 
which  surround  it. 

The  road  from  the  house,  as  far  as  the  extent  of  the  grounds, 
towards  the  turnpike,  is  along  a  ridge,  from  which  the  land 
regularly  falls  on  each  side  till  it  comes  to  the  rocks  which  form 
the  bounds  all  round,  and  at  the  edge  are  seen  hollies  and  thorns, 
which,  as  well  as  the  myrtle,  here  grow  to  an  uncommon  size  ; 
also  the  American  thorn  are  in  abundance,  of  the  size  of  small 
timber;  nor  can  it  be  accounted  for,  how  this  continued  verdure 
could  remain  so  near  the  sea,  but  from  its  being  at  a  distance  sur- 
younded  by  such  high  hills  as  keep  oft"  all  harsh  winds.  To  the 
s.ame  cause,  ?nd  the  constant  flux  and  reflux  of  the  tide,  may  like- 
wise  be  attributed  the  great  hcalthfulness  of  the  situation  ;  for  so 
mild  is  the  winter  on  this  little  spot,  that  snow  never  lies  on  the 
ground  ;  so  that,  to  its  picturesque  beauties,  may  be  added  a  cli- 
mate peculiar  to  itself,  both  for  mildness  in  winter,  and  for  cool- 
ness ju  summer  ;  from  which  it  has  been  found  remarkably  favour, 
able  to  persons  whose  lungs  hare  been  affected. 

Its  distance  from  Saltash  on  the  land  side,  by  a  good  roada  ft 
four  miles ;  but  here,  immediately  you  leave  the  grounds,  you 
have  to  ascend  the  hill,  which  on  that  side  forms  its  shelter  from 
the  south-west  winds;  the  beautiful  and  varied  scenery  of  sea,  of 
ships,  of  hills,  and  of  woods,  which  meet  the  eye  from  the  summit, 
is  truly  grand. 

The  estate  has  been  in  the  possession  of  proprietors,  who  not 
pnly  possessed  the  means,  but  who  have  shewn  great  taste  in  the 
improvement  of  its  natural  beauties  (for  every  part  indicates  that 
no  labour  or  expense  has  been  spared,  either  for  convenience  or 
decoration),  by  many  works  of  art,  of  which  the,  drains  under  the 
.house,  cut  out  of  the  solid  rock,,  are  not  the  least  remarkable  j 
and  the  great  drain,  which  the  fall  of  the  land  carries  in  some 
parts  twenty  feet  under  the  surface,  though  cut  through  the  solid 
rock  with  an  arch,  is  so  wide  and  lofty,  that  a  cart  may  pass 
along;  but  this  possibly  in  ancient  times  was  a  way  from  the  old 
castle,  of  which  the  present  ad  vantage  may  have  been  taken  by  the 
architect. 

Inclusive  of  three  enormous  welh;  suuk  deep  in  the  rock3  anijl 


4<f  PLATE   CCtXXV. 

which  afford  a  never-failing  supply  of  the  finest  water,  every  fieltf 
likewise  has  its  spring  equally  good,  which  is  remarkable,  so  sur- 
rounded as  it  is  by  the  sea :  this  renders  the  land  most  fertile. 
A  further  convenience  in  former  times  was,  that  every  field  had  a 
quay  for  the  landing  of  manure  from  barges,  but  of  these,  only 
three  now  remain :  however,  at  this  time,  the  greatest  d;-uft  by 
cart  does  not  exceed  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  which  is  a  circumstance 
lew  farms  can  boast. 

This  little  paradise  was  long  the  residence  of  the  family  of  the 
JVeals,  from  whom  it  descended  to  the  Neals  of  Tollerton,  in  Not, 
tinghamshirc,  but  finding  it  so  far  distant  from  their  constant 
residence,  they  seldom  went  to  it;  and. being  of  later  years  only 
inhabited  by  servants,  both  house  and  land  had  greatly  gone  to 
decay,  which  induced  them  to  part  with  it  about  four  years  back, 
when  it  was  purchased  by  Edward  Smith,  Esq.  the  present  pro- 
prietor, who  with  infinite  labour  and  expence,  has  put  the  house 
into  substantial  repair,  and  has  brought  the  land  into  good  con- 
dition ;  the  whole  being  now  laid  down  in  pasture.  It  before 
possessed  a  very  fine  open  bath,  but  he  has  added  a  close  bath, 
with  a  bathing-house,  which  in  that  respect  renders  it  very 
complete. 

The  surrounding  waters  abound  in  fish,  of  which  the  estate 
possesses  the  right  of  fishing,  and  the  oysters  of  Ince  ar^  famous  in 
those  parts  ;  there  are  likewise  abundance  of  cockles,  muscles, 
&c.  on  the  shores  ;  and  in  the  rocky  clifts  are  to  be  found  great 
numbers  of  rabbits,  which  afford  very  fine  sport. 

It  is  a  curious  circumstance,  that  such  a  house,  with  such  land, 
having  three  orchards,  and  abounding  with  every  other  conve- 
nience, should  never  have  had  a  walled  garden  ;  but  such  is  the 
fact,  though  one  of  the  fields  produces  the  only  good  earth  for 
bricks  near  Plymouth,  the  excellence  of  which  is  shewn  by  the 
bricks  of  which  the  house  is  constructed  ;  and  though  the  estate 
has  likewssc  the  advantage  of  a  very  fine  stone  quarry  for  building 
purposes.  Thus  the  garden  (ia  the  midst  of  which  is  a  good  vine- 
house)  has  its  fruit  only  growing  on  espaliers,  though  the  trees  are 
all  of  the  most  choice  kinds.  In  the  midst  of  the  hanging  wood 
is  a  fine  level  bowling  green,  with  an  elegant  alcove,  which  com- 
mands the  whole,  but  in  which,  when  you  arc  seated,  there  is  not 
an  object  in  view  which  can  impress  upon  the  mind  the  idea  of 
being  near  the  water. 

The  prospects  from  the  house,  whether  looking  towards  the  land 
cr  the  sea3  are  beautiful  beyond  description,  and  in  (he  latter  are 


CHRONOLOGICAL   SKETCH    OF   NATAL    EVENTS.  47 

the  men  of  war  lying  at  Hamoaze,  with  a  continued  movement 
of  vessels  and  boats  up  and  down  the  St.  Germain's  Water  for  near 
objects,  as  also  those  up  and  down  the  Tamar  at  a  distance. 

Thus  the  inhabitants  of  this  little  peninsula  may  be  said  to  have 
in  their  option,  either  a  most  delightful  retreat  from  the  world, 
with  a  fund  of  rural  amusements,  or  the  advantages  of  society  to 
any  extent  they  may  wish  :  indeed,  they  may  enjoy  both  at  the 
fame  time. 


CHRONOLOGICAL  SKETCH 

OF    THE 

MOST  REMARKABLE  NAVAL  EVENTS 

OF  THE  YEAR   1308. 


G 


JANUARY. 

LEXERAL  MOORE,  with  part  of  the  troops  under  his  com- 
mand, arrived  at  Portsmouth  from  Sicily  (30th  ult.) 
2.  Accounts  arrived  of  the  loss  of  the  Anson  frigate,  Captain  Lydiard, 
on  the  Bar  Sand,  near  Hebtone,  on  the  28th  nit. 

4.  French  papers  were  received,  containing  a  copy  of  the  French  decree, 
dated  17th  December,  declaring  neutral  vessels,  which  might  submit  to  be 
visited  by  English  vessel.*,  under  the  Orders  in  Council  of  November  11,  ta 
be  denationalized,  and  not  entitled  to  the  protection  of  their  government. 

6.  A  copy  of  Sir  Sidney  Smith's   declaration  arrived,  dated  the  22d  of 
November,  off  Lisbon,  declaring  Lisbon  and  the  Tagus  to  be  in  a  state  of 
blockade,  in  consequence  of  their  being  in  possession  of  the  French. 

20.  Intelligence  was  received  of  the  island  of  Madeira  having  surren- 
dered to  the  British  sea  and  land  forces  on  the  24th  ult.  in  trust  for  tbc 
royal  family  of  Portugal. 

21.  Parliament  met,  pursuant  to  his  majesty's  proclamation. 

23.  Intelligence  arrived  of  the  embargo  having  been  laid  on  all  American 
Vessels  in  their  own  harbours,  in  consequence  of  the  president's  message  to 
Congress  of  the  7th  ulr. 

^5.  The  Prince  Regent  of  Portugal  landed  at  Bahia,  where  be  remained 
a  short  time,  and  afterwards  proceeded  for  Rio  Janeiro. 

FEBRUARY. 

7.  Advices  were  received  that  the  Danish  islands  of  St.  Thomas  and  St. 
John  had  surrendered  to   the  British  on  the  22d  of  December,  and  Santa 
Cruz  on  the  28th. 

8.  A  treaty  of  alliance  and  subsidy  was  concluded  between  Great  Britain 
And  Sweden. 


49  CHttoBrotOalcAL  SKETCH  OF  NAVAL  EVEHTSV 

15.  Admiral  Duckworth  arrived  at  Martinique,  in  search  of  the  Roche* 
fort  squadron. 

15.  The  King  of  Prussia,  in  a  proclamation,  renounced  all  connection, 
commercial  and  political)  with  England,  in  compliance  with  the  27th  article 
of  the  treaty  of  Tilsit. 

MARCH. 

8.  The  Piedmontaise  French  ship  of  war  was  captured  hy  the  St, 
Tiorenzo,  Captain  Hardinge,  in  the  Indian  seas.  Captain  Hardinge  killed. 

16.  Frederick  Vlth  proclaimed  King  of  Denmark,,  his  father  Christian 
Having  died  on  the  13th. 

19.  Charles  IV.  abdicated   the  crown  of  Spain  in  favour  of  his  son,  Fer- 
dinand VII.  at  the  request  of  the  hereditary  nobility. 
30.  The  island  of  Dcseada  taken  hy  the  French. 

APRIL. 

I.  By  an  ukase 'of  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  of  this  date,  all  foreign 
manufactured  goods  are  prohibited  from  being  imported  into  the  Russian 
dominions  ;  and  Russian  ships,  coming  from  England,  loaded,  to  be  pre- 
vented from  landing  their  cargoes. 

10.  The  Rochefort  squadron,  after  eluding  the  vigilance  of  the  British 
cruisers,  entered  Toulon. 

12.  General  Oakes  sailed  for  Malta,  to  take  the  chief  command  sf  that 
island. 

16.  Captain  Shipley,  of  the  Nymplje  frigate,  was  killed  in  an  unsuccessful 
attempt  to  cut  out  an  enemy's  vessel  from  the  mouth  of  the  Tagus. 

18.  Sir  John  Duckworth  arrived  with  his  squadron,  after  an  unsuccessful 
cruise  in  search  of  the  Rochefort  squadron,  in  the  West  Indies,  &c. 

22.  Mr.  Rose  arrived  from  his  mission  to  America. 
28.  Lord  Gardner  surrendered  the  command  of  the  Channel  fleet  to 
Lord  Gambier. 

MAY. 

1.  The  Prince  Regent  of  Portugal,  at  Rio  Janeiro,  declared  war  against 
France,  in  consequence  of  the  French  troops  having  invaded  Portugal, &c. 

2.  An  embargo  laid  on  all  American  ships  lying  in  the  harbours  of 
France. 

3.  The  town  and  harbour  of  Sweabourg  surrendered  to  the  Russians. 
6.  Junot  laid  an  embargo  on  all  the  ships  in  the  harbours  of  Portugal. 
-— .  A  fleet,  destined  for  the  Brazils,  sailed  under  convoy  from  Ports- 
mouth. 

10.  The  expedition  under  Sir  John  Moore  sailed  from  Yarmouth,  under 
convoy  of  Admiral  Keats. 

17.  General  Moore,  with  his  troops,  arrived  at  Gottenburgh. 

19.  The  Guelderland  Dutch  frigate,  of  36  guns,  was  captured  off  Ireland 
by  his  majesty's  ship  Virginie,  Captain  Brace. 

24.  The  Duchy  of  Tuscany,  with  all  the  sea  port  towns  on  the  Mediter- 
ranean; were  united  to  France,  by  a  decree  of  the  French  senate,  upon  ths 


CHRONOLOGICAL   SKETCH   OF  NAVAL   EVENTS.  49 

ground  that  such  a  measure  would  tend  to  exclude  the  English  from  the 
'continent. 

S5.  Captain  Bettesworth,  of  the  Tartar  frigate,  was  unfortunately  killed 
in  endeavouring  to  cut  oue  of  the  enemy's  East  induuuen  from  off  Bergen. 

JUNE. 

10.  The  Spanish  forts  opened  their  fire  on  the  French  squadron  uuder 
Admiral  Rosilly,  in  the  harbour  of  Cadiz. 

14.  Admiral  Rosilly  surrendered  his  squadron  to  General  Morla. 

17.  Government  ordered  309,000  dollars  to  be  shipped  from  die  Bank, 
for  the  use  of  the  Spanish  provinces  which  had  revolted  against  France. 

22.  The  court  of  common  council  of  the  city  of  Londou  addressed  his 
majesty,  thanking  him  for  the  assistance  he  had  afforded  to  Spain. 

29.  General  Moore  arrived  from  Sweden,  with  the  army  under  his 
command. 

— .  Intelligence  arrived  of  the  destruction  of  four  Dutch  ships  of  war, 
in  the  East  Indies,  "by  Sir  Edward  Pellew,  in  Griesse  harbour,  in  the  island 
«f  Java. 

JULY. 

4.  The  Parliament  was  this  day  prorogued  by  commission. 

— .  The  British  government  issued  a  proclamation  of  peace  with  all  the 
provinces  of  Spain. 

5.  The  Turkish  ship  of  war  Badere  Zaffer,  of  52  guns,  and  500  men,  was 
captured  in  the  Adriatic  by  the  Sea  Horse  frigate,  Captain  Stewart,  after  a 
severe  action. 

12.  The  expedition  under  General  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley  sailed  from 
Cork. 

If.  The  governor  of  Cuba  refused  to  acknowledge  the  sovereignty  of 
Joseph  Buonaparte,  and  proclaimed  peace  \vith  Great  Britain. 

23.  Lord  Strangford,  the  British  ambassador,  arrived  at  the  court  of 

Brazil. 

•  -•  •     ^ 

31.  The  expedition  under  Sir  Harry  Burrard  sailed  from  St.  Helen's. 

AUGUST. 

19.  The  brigade  of  British  troops  under  General  A nstruther  landed  ia 
ortugal,  and  joined  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley. 

2$.  General  Sir  Hew  Dalrymple  landed  in  Portugal,  and  rook  the  chief 
command  of  the  British  army.  Shortly  afterwards,  tiie  French  general  of 
division,  Kellerman,  arrived  at  the  British  camp,  with  proposals  frotnr 
General  Junot,  for  concluding  a  convent!  .11  for  the  evacuation  of  Portugal 
by  the  French  army,  and,  after  some  consultation,  a«  armistice  was  con- 
cluded between  the  two  armies. 

25.  Sir  Samuel  Hood,  with  two  British  ships  of  the  line,  assisted  by  a 
Swedish  squadron,  attacked  and  defeated  a  Russian  fleet  of  superior  force. 
The  Sewold,  a  ship  of  the  line,  was  destroyed,  and  the  remainder  escaped 
iiiio  port. 

f?:on.  SoI.XXI.  ti 


50  CHRONOLOGICAL'  SKETCH  OF  NATAL  EVENTS, 

27.  Island  of  Mariegalante  retaken  from  the  French. 

SO.  After  repeated  discussions,  a  convention  was  concluded  at  Cintra, 
between  Admiral  Sir  Cliarles  Cotton  and  Admiral  Siniavin,  whereby  the 
Russian  fleet,  of  nine  sail  of  the  line  and  one  frigate,  which  were  lying  in 
the  Tagus,  were  delivered  ap  to  the  British,  to  be  by  them  kept  as  a  deposit 
till  six  months  after  peace,  and  the  Russian  officers  and  seamen  were  to  be 
sent  home  in  British  ships. 

SEPTEMBER. 

6.  Buonaparte  issued  a  decree,  prohibiting  the  importation  of  colonial 
produce  into  any  part  of  his  dominions  till  further  orders. 

15.  The  French  army  finally  evacuated  Portugal,  in  pursuance  of  the 
convention  of  Cintra. 

16.  The  Marquis  de  la  Romana  itnd  suite  landed  at  Yarmouth  from  the 
Baltic. 

30.  The  Marquis  de  la  Romana's  army  were  safely  landed  at  Corunns, 
from  the  British  transports. 

OCTOBER. 

4.  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley  arrived  at  Plymouth  from  Portugal. 

5.  The  island  of  Capri,  with  a  small  British  garrison,  surrendered  to  a 
body  of  French  troops  sent  from  Naples. 

9.  Expedition  under  Sir  David  Baird,  consisting  of  13,000  troops,  sailed 
from  Falmouth. 

13.  The  expedition  under  Sir  David  Baird  arrived  at  Corunna. 

10.  Sir  Hew  Dalryrrtple  arrived  at  Portsmouth  from  Portugal,  whence  he 
was  recalled  by  government. 

NOVEMBER, 

10i  Ills  majesty's  ship  Amethyst,  of  36  guns,  Captain  Seymour,  fell  m 
with  the  Thetis,  French  ship,  of  44  guns,  which  she  captured,  after  one  of 
the  most  sanguinary  engagements  ever  known. 

DECEMBER. 

10.  At  a  meeting  of  the  merchants,  &c.  of  the  City  of  London,  held  this 
day,  to  consider  of  the  propriety  of  opening  a  subscription  for  furnishing 
clothing  and  other  necessaries  for  the  use  of  the  Spanish  patriots,  15,0001. 
were  immediately  subscribed. 

15.  The  British  government  published  a  declaration,  stating,  that  the 
late  overtures  from  France,  for  a  peace,  were  inadmissible,  and  only 
intended  to  excite  distrust  in  our  allies. 

30.  Accounts  received  of  a  junction,  formed  at  Benevcnto,  between  the 
armies  under  Sir  John  Moore  and  Sir  David  Eaird. 


51 

PHILOSOPHICAL  PAPERS. 


NAUSCOPY; 

OR, 

THE    ART    OF    DISCOVERING    SHIPS    AT    A    GREAT    DISTANCE 
FROM    LAND. 

NAUSCOPY"  is  the  art  of  discovering  the  approach  of  ships, 
on  the  neighbourhood  of  lands,  at  a  considerable  distance. 

This  knowledge  is  not  derived  either  from  the  undulation  of 
waves,  or  from  the  subtilty  of  sight ;  but  merely  from  observation 
of  the  horizon,  which  discovers  signs  indicating  the  proximity  of 
large  objects.  On  the  approximation  of  a  ship  towards  the  land, 
or  towards  another  ship,  there  appears  in  the  atmosphere  a  meteor 
of  a  particular  nature,  which,  with  a  little  attention,  is  visible  to 
any  person. 

M.  Bottineau  (a  native  of  the  island  of  Bourbon)  laid  this  dis- 
covery before  M.  de  Castries,  in  1784.  The  minister  sent  him 
back  to  the  island  to  continue  his  observations  there,  under  the 
inspection  and  superintendance  of  the  government. 

M.  Bottineau  engaged,  that  not  a  single  ship  should  arrive  at  the 
island  without  his  having  sent  information  of  it  several  days  before. 

An  exact  register  of  his  communications  was  kept  in  the  secre- 
tary's office.  All  his  reports  were  compared  with  the  ships'  books 
as  soon  as  they  arrived,  to  see  whether  the  variations  ot  weather, 
calms  which  retarded  them,  kc.  <fcc.  were  such  as  agreed  with  his 
reports. 

It  must  be  observed,  that  when  his  reports  were  made,  the 
watchmen,  stationed  on  the  mountains,  could  never  perceive  any 
appearance  of  ships  ;  for  M.  Bottineau  announced  their  approach 
when  they  were  more  than  a  hundred  leagues  distant. 

From  the  authenticated  journal  of  his  reports,  which  has  been, 
published,  it  appears  that  he  was  wonderfully  accurate.  AVithin 
eight  months,  and  in  sixty-two  reports,  he  announced  the  arrival 
of  one  hundred  and  fifty  ships  of  different  descriptions. 

Of  the  fact  there  can  be  no  reasonable  doubt,  because  every 
method  Avas  adopted  to  prevent  deception,  and  his  informations 
were  not  only  registered,  as  soon  as  they  were  made,  it»  the 
government  office,  but  were  also  publicly  known  over  the  whole 
island.  The  officers  of  government,  moreover,  were  far  from 


52  THILOSOFHICAr-    PAPERS, 

being  partial  to  M.  Bottineau  ;  on  the  contrary,  they  were  dis- 
pleased with  him  for  obstinately  refusing  to  sell  them  his  secret, 
•which  they  wanted  to  purchase  at  a  high  price,  so  that  he  could 
expect  no  favour  from  their  representations.  Truth,  however, 
obliged  them  to  give  abundant  testimony  to  the  reality  of  his 
extraordinary  talent,  in  their  letter  to  the  French  minister,  which 
is  published  in  a  "  Memoire  sur  In  Nauscopte,  par  M.  Boltineau" 
The  following  are  two  of  the  reports  extracted  from  thii 
memoir : — • 

"  On  the  20th  of  August,  1784,  I  discovered  some  vessels  at  the  distance 
of  four  days  sail  from  the  island.  On  the  following  day,  the  number  mul- 
tiplied considerably  to  my  sight.  This  induced  me  to  send  information  of 
many  vessels;  but  though  they  were  only  at  four  days  distance,  I  never- 
theless stated  in  my  report,  that  no  settled  time  could  be  fixed  on  for  their 
arrival,  as  they  were  detained  by  a  calm.  On  the  25th  the  ,calm  was  so 
complete,  as  to  make  me  thinly  for  a  few  hours,  that  the  fleet  had  disap- 
peared, and  gone  to  some  other  place.  I  soon  after  perceived  again  the 
presence  of  the  fleet,  by  the  revived  signs.  It  was  still  in  the  same  state  of 
inaction,  of  which  I  sent  information.  From  the  20th  of  August  to  the  10th 
of  September,  1  did  not  cease  to  announce,  in  my  reports,  the  continuation 
of  the  calm.  On  tlie  13th  I  sent  word  that  the  fleet  was  no  longer  becalmed, 
and  that  it  would  arrive  at  the  island  within  forty-eight  hours.  Accordingly, 
to  the  surprise  of  the  whole  island,  M.  de  Regular's  fleet  arrived  at  Port 
Louisa  on  the  loth.  The  general  astonishment  was  greatly  increased,  when 
it  was  known  that  this  fleet  had  been  becalmed  since  the  20th  of  August, 
near  Rodriguez  islands,  which  was  precisely  the  distance  that  I  had  pointed 
out  in  my  reports." 

"  I  soon  had  another  opportunity  of  shewing  the  certainty  of  my  observa- 
tions. A  few  days  before  the  arrival  of  M.  de  Regmer's  fleet,  I  announced 
the  appearance  of  another  fleet,  which  became  perceptible  to  me.  This 
created  a  great  deal  of  uneasiness,  because  as  no  other  French  fleet  was 
expected,  that  which  I  discovered  might  be  English  ships.  1  was  ordered 
to  repeat  my  observations  with  accuracy.  I  clearly  perceived  the  passage 
of  several  ships,  and  declared  they  were  not  bound  for  our  island,  but  were 
taking  another  course.  In  consequence  of  this  information,  the  Naiade 
frigate  and  the  Due  de  Chartres  cutter  were  suddenly  despatched  to 
M.  de  Suffrein.  The  cutter  actually  saw  and  avoided  the  English  fleet,  in 
the  ninth  degree,  but  unfortunately  did  not  find  M.  de  Suffrein  in  the  bay  of 
Trincomalee.  The  report  of  the  cutter  efieciualty  convinced  the  incred^- 
lous  of  the  reality  of  my  discovery.'* 

The  last  circumstance,  of  despatching  the  frigate  and  cutter, 
plainly  shews  the  confidence  which  the  French  officers  must  have 
put  in  the  information  of  M.  Bottineau,     It  shews  also  that  he- 
deserved  their  confidence, 


JHILOSOPHICAL   PAPERS.  53 

Ccnyeclures  respecting  the  Phenomenon  on  rshich  the  preceding 
Observations  zzere  fuunded. 

The  wafers  of  the  ocean  form  an  immense  gulf,  in  which  sub- 
stances of  all  kinds  are  swallowed  up. 

The  innumerable  multitude  of  animals,  fish,  birds,  Tegetable 
and  mineral  productions,  which  decay,  and  are  decomposed  in  that 
vast  basin,  produce  a  fermentation  abounding  in  spirits,  salts,  oil, 
sulphur,  &c.  &c.  The  existence  of  these  is  sufficiently  apparent 
by  the  disagreeable  smell  and  flavour  of  sea  water,  which  can  only 
bo  rendered  drinkable  by  distillation,  and  by  the  evaporation  of 
those  heterogeneous  particles  which  infect  it. 

The  spirits,  intimately  united  to  the  sea  -waters,  continue  umlis- 
turbed  as  long  as  those  waters  remain  in  a  state  of  tranquillity; 
or,  at  least,  they  experience  only  an  internal  agitation,  which  is 
slightly  manifested  externally. 

But  when  the  waters  of  the  sea  are  set  into  motion  by  storms, 
or  by  the  introduction  of  an  active  mass  which  rides  upon  their 
surface,  with  violence  and  rapidity,  the  volatile  vapours  contained 
in  the  bosom  of  the  sea  escape,  and  rise  up  a  fine  mist,  which  forms 
an  atmosphere  round  the  vessel. 

This  atmosphere  advances  with  the  vessel,  and  is  increased  every 
moment  by  fresh  emanations  rising  from  the  bottom  of  the  water. 

These  emanations  appear  like  so  many  small  clouds,  which, 
joining  each  other,  form  a  kind  of  sheet  projecting  forward,  one 
extremity  of  which  touches  the  ship,  whilst  the  other  advauces  in 
fhe  sea,  to  a  considerable  distance. 

But  this  train  of  vapours  is  not  visible  to  the  sight;  it  escapes 
observation  by  the  transparency  of  its  particles,  and  is  confounded 
with  other  fluids  which  compose  the  atmosphere, 

But  as  soon  as  the  vessel  arrives  within  a  circumference  where 
it  meets  with  other  homogeneous  vapours,  such  as  those  which 
escape  from  land,  this  sheet,  which  till  that  time  had  been  so  lim- 
pid and  subtile,  is  suddenly  seen  to  acquire  consistence  and  colour, 
by  the  mixture  of  the  two  opposite  columns. 

This  change  begins  at  the  prolonged  extremities,  which  by  their 
contact  are  united,  and  acquire  a  colour  and  strength  ;  afterwards, 
in  proportion  to  the  progression  of  the  vessel,  the  metamorphosis 
increases  and  reaches  the  centre:  at  last  the  phenomenon  becomes 
the  more  manifest,  and  the  ship  makes  its  appearancp. — MONTH. 
MAG. 


The  heart's  remote  recesses  to  explore, 
Andtouch'd  its  springs,  when  prose  avail'd  no  more. 

FALCONER. 


ODE  FOR  THE  NEW  YEAR,  1809. 

BY    HENRY    JAM1S    PYE,    ESQ.    P.  L. 

PULL  orb'd  in  equinoxial  skies, 
When  the  pale  m'oon  malignant  rides, 
And  bids  the  howling  tempests  rise, 

And  swells  the  ocean's  briny  tides, 
Dreadful  against  the  sounding  shore 
The  winds  and  waves  tumultuous  roar, 
The  torrent-braving  mound  in  vain 
The  stormy  inroad  would  restrain, 
The  surges  with  resistless  sway 
Force  o'er  the  labour'd  mole  their  way, 
Scorn  every  weak  resource  of  human  toil, 
O'erwhelm  the  peopled  town,  and  waste  the  cultur'd  soil, 

But  when,  by  native  fences  barr'd 

From  billowy  rage,  the  happier  land, 

And  rocky  cliffs  for  ever  stand 
To  the  wide-water'd  coast  a  guard, 
Such  as  on  Vecta's  southern  steep 
Look  down  defiance  on  the  raging  deep, 
Such  as  on  Dover's  breezy  down 
On  Gallia's  hostile  borders  frown, 
Tho'  billows  urging  billows  roar 
And  idly  beat  against  the  shore, 
While  from  the  heights  sublime  the  swain 
Mocks  the  vain  efforts  of  the  foaming  main, 
Till  nature  bids  the  deluged  surge  subside, 
Hush'd  is  the  tempest's  voice,  and  refluent  rolls  the  tide. 

So  o'er  Europa's  ravag'd  plain 

We  saw  the  torrent  wile  of  war 
Resistless  spread  its  iron  reign, 

And  scatter  ruin  wide  and  far; 


NAVAL  POETRY. 

- 

Th'  embattled  wall,  the  warlike 

Vainly  the  Tyrant's  course  withstand  : 

Before  the  impious  sons  of  Gaul 

The  legions  fly,  the  bulwarks  fall; 

Yet  Britain's  floating  castles  sweep 

Invasion  from  her  subject  deep. 

Yet  by  her  rocks  secure  from  harm. 

Securer  by  her  patriot  arm, 

Iberia  turns  the  battle's  tide, 

Resists  th'  injurious  Tyrant's  pride. 

While,  freely  floating  ia  the  ambient  sky, 

Sacred  to  freedom's  cause,  their  mingled  ensigns  fly. 


APOSTROPHE  TO  THE  RIVER  NITII, 

BY    JOIIX    MA.VXE. 

HAIL,  gentle  stream !  for  ever  dear 
Thy  rudest  murmurs  to  mine  ear! 
Torn  from  thy  banks,  tho'  far  I  rove. 
The  slave  of  poverty  and  love, 
Ne'er  shall  thy  bard,  where'er  he  be, 
"Without  a  sigh  remember  thee ! 
For  there  my  infant  years  began, 
And  there  my  happiest  minutes  ran; 
And  there,  to  love  and  friendship  true, 
The  blossoms  of  affection  grew  ! 

Blythe  on  thy  banks,  thou  sweetest  stream 

That  ever  nurs'd  a  poet's  dream  I 

Oft  have  I,  in  forbidden  time, 

(If  youth  could  sanctify  a  crime) 

With  hazel-rod,  and  frandful  fly, 

Ensnar'd  thy  unsuspecting  fry  ; 

Jn  pairs  have  dragg'd  them  from  their  den, 

Till,  chas'd  by  lurking  fishermen, 

Away  I've  flown,  as  fleet  as  wind, 

My  lagging  followers  far  behind  I 

Aud,  when  the  vain  pursuit  was  o'er, 

Returu'd  successful  as  before  ! 


56  NA.VAL  POETRYi 

Prologue  to  the  Tragedy  of  DOUGLAS,  and  Farce  of  the 
PADLOCK,  performed  by  the  Young  Gentlemen  of  Mn  Ma- 
jesty's Ship  Albion,  in  February,  1808. 


welcome  all — It  is  my  lot  to-day, 
-ML  To  be  sent  forth  as  prologue  to  the  play, 
Such  as  it  is,  we  hope  you'll  kindly  bear  it, 

Considering  we've  had  trouble  to  prepare  it ; 

And  that  we'll  grieve  to  find  those  cares  were  vain. 

If  our  endeavours  fail  to  entertain, — 
The  good  intention  must  all  blame  remove, 

If  onr  poor  efforts  should  abortive  prove.— 
Then  for  our  theatre — but  let  that  alone, 

Its  inconvenience  is  already  known  ; 

And  for  the  scenery,  yon  (sad  obligation) 

Must  paint  it,  partly,  in  imagination  ; 

This  for  the  stage  and  play  :    but  now  eadi  play'r^ 

With  trembling  hope  bids  me  put  up  his  pray'r  ; 

We  seek  not,  sirs,  they  cry,  theatric  fame 

(Some  other  way  each  fain  would  raise  hi?  name), 

Yet  eager  wish  to  bear  our  parts  with  spirit, 

And  that  wish  constitutes  our  greatest  ineritj 

For,  wanting  skill,  we  have  not  the  assurance 

To  look  for  more  than  just — your  bare  endurance. 

But  most  our  females  your  indulgence  claim, 

If  they  should  fail,  'tis  nature  you  must  blame j 

She,  from  the  tone  of  their  organization, 

Will  sufier  but  a  cold  representation  ; 

Hoping  to  please,  they  willingly  come  forth, 

Well  knowing  failure  cannot  taint  their  worth j 

For,  in  their  bosoms  still,  a  sacred  flame 

Burns  emulative  of  a  Nelson's  fame. 

Under  each  plaid,*  we  trust,  you'll  find  a  heart 

That  fain  would  act  a  more  important  part — 

[Going  off}  returns  again  stiddenfy* 

But  stop, — a  word  or  two  before  I  go ; 

Here,  where  each  breast  with  loyalty  doth  glow, 

Sounds  dear  to  all  shall  thro'  our  theatre  ring  : 

Music  !  strike  up  aloud — "  God  save  the  King!" 

[Muticplayt  "  God  save  the  King." 

•*  An  allusion,  to  the  Highland  dress  worn  in  Douglas. 


NAVAL   POETRY.  57 

Prologue  to   OTHELLO,  and  the   CITIZEX,  performed  by  the 
Young   Gentlemen   of   his   Majesty's   Ship   Albion,    Murch9 

1808. 


EFORE  the  tragic  muse  begins  her  course, 

By  way  of  Prologue  I'm  sent  out  perforce, 
To  make  some  few  apologies,  and  say 
Something  t'  excuse  our  mangling  Shakspeare's  play  : 
Th'  excuse  for  choosing  it  I  fain  would  smother, 
But  truth  will  out — why,  we  could  find  no  other: 
Believe  me,  we  should  heartily  rejoice, 
Had  circumstance  permitted  fitter  choice ; 
But  such  as  'tis,  we  hope  you'll  kindly  bear, — 
Nay,  be  contented  with  our  homely  fare : 
So  shall  we  deem  some  leisure  hours  well  spent, 
If  our  endeavours  answer  our  intent. 
We  strive  to  please — not  to  draw  plaudits  forth, 
Success  or  failure  cannot  change  our  worth  : 
We  may  succeed,  but  yet  by  fears  oppress'd, 
Expect  your  bare  endurance  at  the  best; 
And,  dreading  failure,  to  prevent  our  shame, 
We  own  our  weakness,  and  indulgence  claim: 
If,  as  we  fear,  our  strength  should  prove  too  small,; 
Let  interposing  pity  break  our  fall. 
If  we  succeed,  there's  but  one  wish  behind, — 
The  fervent  wish  of  each  true  British  mind  : 
From  war's  alarms  may  Britain  soon  be  free, 
Her  commerce  flourish,  and  her  name  still  be, 
*  The  world-envied  sovereign  of  the  sea.' 
But,  when  the  sword  is  drawn  in  her  dear  cause, 
Still  may  th'  event  prove  tragic  to  her  foes  : 
Her  sons,  in  this  deep  drama,  all  unite; 
And  may  the  Albions  yet  throw  in  their  mite. 
Firm  and  undaunted,  then,  each  swelling  heart 
Will  eager  strive  to  take  a  foremost  part : 
Deem  themselves  blest  in  meeting  wat'ry  graves, 
Proclaiming  to  the  world  that — Britain  rules  the.  zsaves. 

£"  Rule  Britannia"  piayed  in  full  chorus\ 
Bombay )  June  16,  1808,  Z* 

£9aO.  C&rom  fflok  XXT.  -4 


I. 


51  NATAL  POETRY. 

MARMION. 

WE  request  permission  to  make  a  few  more  extracts  from 
Mr.  W.  Scott's  beautiful  poem  of  Marmion.     Such  of  our 
readers  as  have  watched  the  waving,  in  endlcsss  variety,  of  the 
colours  on  the  ensign-staff',  will  admire  the  following  passage:  — 

tf  It  George's  banner,  broad  and  gay, 
Now  faded,  as  the  fading  ray 

Less  bright,  and  less,  was  flung; 
The  evening  gale  had  scarce  the  pow'r 
To  wave  it  on  the  Doajon  tower, 

So  heavily  it  hung." 

NELSON. 

lc  Lo,  here  his  grave, 
Who  victor  died  on  gadite  wave; 
To  him,  as  to  the  burning  levin, 
Short,  bright,  resistless  course  was  given  ; 
Where'er  his  country's  foes  were  found, 
Was  heard  the  fated  thunder's  sound ; 
'Till  burst  the  bolt  on  yonder  shore, 
Iloll'd,  blaz'd,  destroy'd — and  was  no  more." 


The  following  allusions  to  marine  scenery  occur  in  the  admir- 
able description  of  the  battle  of  Flodden  Field. 

XXVII. 

11  And  in  the  smoke  the  pennons  flew, 
As  in  the  storm  the  white  sea-mew  : 
Then  marked  they  dashing  broad  and  far, 
The  broken  billows  of  the  war, 
And  plumed  crests  of  chieftains  brave, 
Floating  like  foam  upon  the  wave. 


XXVIII. 

Cl  Advanc'd — fjrc'd  back — now  low,  now 

These  pennons  sunk  and  rose; 
A.S  bends  the  bark's  mast  in  the  gale, 
When  rent  are  rigging,  shrouds,  and  sail? 
Jit  warcr'd  'in//  the  foes, 


NATAL  POETRY. 
XXXV. 

a  Then  skilful  Surrey's  sage  commands 
Led  back  from  strife  his  shatler'd  bands  ; 

And  from  the  charge  they  drew, 
As  mountain  waves,  from  wasted  lands, 

Sweep  back  to  ocean  blue." 


In  the  introduction  to  the  second  canto,  the  genius  of  the  poet 
rises  superior  to  all  that  criticism  has  ventured  to  pronounce  in  bis 
description  of  the  mountain  lake  Lock-skene,  the  character  ef 
whose  scenery,  he  informs  us,  is  uncommonly  savage. 

u  And  when  that  mountain  sound  I  heard, 
Which  bids  us  be  for  storm  prepar'd, 
The  distant  rustling  of  his  wings, 
As  up  by  force  the  tempest  brings, 
'Twere  sweet,  ere  yet  his  terrors  rave, 
To  sit  upon  the  wizard's  grave — 
Thence  view  the  lake,  with  sullen  roar, 
Heave  her  broad  billows  to  the  shore; 
And  mark  the  wild  swans  mount  the  gal?, 
Spread  wide  through  mist  their  snowy  sail, 
And  ever  stoop  again,  to  lave 
Their  bosoms  on  the  surging  wave- 
Yet  him,  whose  heart  is  ill  at  ease, 
Such  peaceful  solitudes  displease: 
He  loves  to  drown  his  bosom's  jar 
Amid  the  elemental  war: 

Like  that  which  frowns  round  dark  Lock-skene, 

There  eagles  scream  from  isle  to  shore, 

Down  all  the  rocks  the  torrents  roar  ; 

O'er  the  black  waves  incessant  driven, 

Dark  mists  infect  the  summer  heaven  ; 

Through  the  rude  barrier*  of  the  lake 

Away  its  hurrying  waters  break, 

Faster  and  whiter  dash  and  curl,. 

'Till  down  yon  dark  abyss  they  hurl : 

Rises  the  fog-smoke  white  as  snow, 

Thunders  the  viewless  stream  below. "-*™ 


60 


NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1808-9. 

(December — January. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE  AND  MISCELLANEOUS. 

FROM  the  great  interest  and  importanceof  the  subject  to  the  country 
at  large,  we  have  been  induced  to  give  the  military  as  well  as  the 
naval  details  of  the  Gazette,  relating  to  the  disastrous,  though  glorious, 
battle  of  Corunna,  on  the  1 6th  of  January. 

It  will  be  seen,  that  Sir  John  Moore,  the  gallant  comrnancler-in-chief 
of  the  British  army,  with  several  other  distinguished  officers,  fell  in  the 
sanguinary  conflict ;  and,  according  to  report,  we  had  previously  lost  not 
fewer  than  7, 000  men,  in  the  course  of  our  retreat  to  Lugo,  and  thence 
to  Corunna. 

Much  as  we  deplore  the  loss,  the  great  and  heavy  loss,  which  we  have 
sustained,  we  have  the  satisfaction  of  knowing,  that  not  the  slightest 
blame  attaches  to  any  of  the  officers  or  men  concerned.  The  retreat 
of  Sir  John  Moore  is  justly  considered  as  one  of  the  most  masterly  upon 
record. 

The  peninsular  form  of  Spain  presenls  an  excellent  opportunity  for 
carrying  on  the  war, -agreeably  to  a  plan  which  the  late  Lord  Nelson  so 
often  and  anxiously  pressed  on  the  attention  of  government:  which  was, 
to  embark  the  army  when  hard  pressed  by  a  superior  enemy,  and  land 
them  on  some  other  part  of  the  coast,  where  it  could  act  with  a  greater 
prospect  of  success;  and  to  continue  repeating  this  plan  of  attack,  as  a 
sure  means  of  harassing  and  separating  the  great  armies  which  the  French 
can  bring  into  the  field. 

A  plan  of  this  nature  it  was,  in  all  probability,  Sir  John  Moore's 
intention  to  pursue  ;  but,  in  consequence  of  the  great  loss  and  fatigues 
of  the  army,  it  has  been  found  expedient  for  it  to  return  to  England. 
"Whether,  when  recruited,  it  will  be  again  sent  out,  is  doubtful. 

In  the  royal  speech,  at  J.he  opening  of  Parliament,  it  was  intimated, 
that  the  most  vigorous  assistance  would  continue  to  be  afforded  to  Spain, 
as  long  as  that  country  should  continue  true  to  itself;  and,  as  recently 
as  the  26th  of  January,  since  the  distressing  news  of  the  battle  of 
Corunna  arrived,  Lord  Mulgrave  has,  in  the  most  decisive  manner, 
repeated  that  declaration. 

Jf  it  be  true,  however,  that  the  British  officers  have  brought  back  the 
army  upon  their  own  responsibility,  and  contrary  to  the  expectation  of 
m  nisters,  it  seems  to  intimate  that  the  affairs  of  Spain  are  in  a  very 
hopeless  state  ;  and  we  trust  that,  before  another  man  shall  be  sent  from 
o.ur  shores,  the  most  satisfactory  information  will  be  received  of  the 
will,  as  well  as  of  the  power,  ot  the  Spaniards  to  co-operate,  with  the 
utmost  cordiality,  in  resisting,  and  endeavouring  to  exterminate,  the 
usurper. 

The  Jast  accounts  from  the  Spanish  coast  were  brought  by  a  ship 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF   THE    PUT.SENT    YEAR,    1808—1809.      61 

which  -was  off  Conmna  on  the  IRlh  of  January  ;  at  which  time,  it  is  said, 
the  whole  town  wa*  in  flames.  It  is  conjectured,  that  the  Spaniards  had 
resisted  the  entrance  of  the  French  ;  and  that,  from  motives  of  revenge, 
the  sanguinary  invaders  had  set  fire  to  the  place. 

A  French  officer  of  high  rank,  supposed  to  be  either  Souk  or  Junot, 
is  said  to  have  fallen  in  thehattle  of  Corunna. 

We  lament  to  state,  that  we  have  sustained  considerable  injury  from 
the  elements  as  well  as  from  the  sword  ;  some  of  our  transports 
returning  from  Spain  with  troops,  having  been  entirely  lost,  and  others 
greatly  damaged. 

His  majesty's  brig  Primrose,  of  18  guns,  commandedby  Captain  ?>Icfn, 
was  wrecked  on  the  Manacle  Rocks,  in  a  heavy  gale,  on  the  night  of 
Jan.  22,  and  the  ^hole  of  (he  otTkers  and  crew,  with  the  exception  of  ^ 
lad,  perished.  The  Primrose  was  esteemed  one  of  the  handsomest 
vessel*  of  her  class  in  his  mr.jcsly's  service :  she  was  fitted  out  at  Ply- 
mouth at  the  same  time  with  the  Carnation,  which  was  lately  captured 
in  the  West  Indies. 

Ptymottfli,  Jan.  23. 

Arrived  this  morning  the  Earfleur,  of  100  guns,  Rear-admiral  Hoods 
Tonnnnt,  of  80  guns,  Rear-admiral  de  Courcy  ;  Victory,  of  100  guns  ; 
Implacable,  Resolution,  Xorge,  Elizabeth,  and  Zealous,  of  74  guns  each  ; 
Amazon,  Unicorn,  and  Endymion  frigates;  Mediator  sf ore-ship  ;  and 
Parthian  sloop  of  war,  from  Corunna ;  whence  they  sailed  on  Wednesday 
last,  with  about  400  sail  of  transports  under  convoy  :  nearly  100  of  the 
latter  have  arrived  here  in  the  course  of  the  day,  with  troops  ;  the 
remainder  are  in  channel,  under  convoy  of  four  sail  of  the  line,  and  the 
greater  part  will  probably  put  in  here.  The  troops  are  greatly  in  want 
of  necessaries.  When  the  fleet  left  Corunna,  on  Wednesday  last,  a  heavy 
cannonade  was  heard,  which  was  supposed  to  be  the  bombardment  of 
Corunna  by  the  French,  who,  it  is  slated,  had  succeeded  in  scttiifg  the 
town  on  fire;  but  it  is  stated,  that  the  Spaniards  still  held  out,  though  it 
was  understood  that  30,000  men  had  reinforced  Soult  and  Junot's  army, 
after  the  British  had  re-embarked.  The  killed,  wounded,  and  missing  of 
the  Brilish  troops  since  they  left  England,  are  estimated  at  between 
seven  and  eight  thousand.  —  Arrived  the  Scorpion  and  Raleigh  sloops  of 
war,  on  a  cruise. — Sailed  the  Medusa,  of  50  guns,  for  Spain ;  and  Plover 
sloop  of  war,  to  the  westward. — Arrived  the  French  lugger  privateer  la 
Clarisse,  pierced  for  16  guns  with  60  men,  from  St.  Maloes,  captured  bv 
the  Indefatigable  frigale ;  also  the  French  schooner  General  Junot, 
laden  with  flour  and  other  provisions,  captured  by  the  Raleigh  sloop  of 
war.  Arrived  the  Sally,  Captain  Cooke,  from  Newfoundland,  laden 
with  fish,  last  from  Corunna,  whence  she  sailed,  on  Wednesday  last, 
with  the  transports  which  are  arrived  here;  the  master  of  this  vessel 
slates,  that  the  French  troops  were  bearing  down  upon  Corunna  in  ail 
directions,  and  that  the  inhabitants  had  nearly  all  ficd  from  the  town. 
Sir  David  Baird  is  stated  to  be  iu  a  very  dangerous  stale. 


62  XAVAT,  HISTORY  or  THE  rnrsENt  YEAH,  180S— 1S09. 

The  following  particulars  respecting  the  capture  of  his  majesty's 
schooner  Rook,  v.'erc  communicated  in  a  letter  from  the  master,  who 
succeeded  Lieutenant  Lawrence  in  the  command  of  the  ship,  a -id  from  the 
mouth  of  the  only  survivor  of  the  unfortunate  crew  who  lias  hitherto 
reached  England,  and  who  himself  was  shot  through  the  wrist  aiid 
shoulder,  beside*  some  wounds  with  a  cutlass  ; 

"  The  Hook,  Lieutenant  James  Lawrence,  sailed  from  Plymouth, 
nnder  tiie  orders  of  Admiral  Young,  on  the  24th  of  June,  1803,  with 
despatches  for  the  West  Indies.  After  a  fine  passage,  she  arrived  at 
Jamaica,  from  whence,  after  having  waited  a  few  da) 3  to  refit,  and  take 
in  specie,  she  sailed  for  England,  August  13th.  For  two  days  they 
•were  followed  by  a  'French  schooner  (which  is  pretty  generally  the  case 
•when  a  ship  has  anj  money  on  board,  and  of  which  intelligence  is  soon 
»;uncd  at  some  of  the  French  islands),  but  whom  they  beat  off.  On  the 
SSth  of  August,  at  day-light,  they  fell  in  with  two  French  schooners, 
and  immediately  cleared  for  action:  on  the  largest  vessel  coming  along- 
side with  English  colours,  and  not  answering  when  hailed,  but  immedi- 
ately hoisting  French  colours?  Lieutenant  Lawrence  shot  the  French 
captain,  when  a  most  desperate  action  commenced;  after  an  hour's  hard 
fighting,  Lieutenant  Lawrence  received  his  last  wound  by  a  musket-ball, 
and  the  Koo'.i  was  immediately  carried  by  boarding,  the  French  officers 
repeatedly  calling  to  the  men  to  give  no  quarter. 

4t  Mr.  Stewart,  the  master,  received  seven  most  desperate  wounds 
Tfith  a  cutlass,  of  which  he  afterwards  recovered,  but  1  am  sorry  to  atKl 
is  since  dead  of  the  yellow  fever.  Mr.  Donnelly,  the  clerk,  was  also 
dangerously  wounded  in  the  groin,  but  is  now  recovered.  Mr.  George 
Heed,  an  Officer  in  (he  royal  artillery,  who  has  served  his  country  on  the 
b!a,nd  of  Jaipaica  for  twenty  years,  and  who  was  related  by  marriage  to 
Lieutenant  Lawrence,  was  induced  to  embark  on  board  the  Rook,  with 
a  very  considerable  property,  in  hopes  to  re-visit  his  native  country,  but 
T;VS  inhumaiHy  killed  by  the  enemy  when  boarding;  and  so  eager  were 
they  to  get  possession  of  a  valuable  ring  which  he  happened  to  ha-  e  on 
his  tinker,  that  they  nearly  cut  his  hand  off  to  attain  it.  The  survivors 
•were  stripped  naked,  put  in  their  boat,  and  turned  adrift;  but  by  the 
exertions  of  four  who  were  not  wounded,  they  reached  land,  and  were 
most  hospitably  received  by  the  natives.  The  Rook  was  so  much 
damaged,  that  the  enemy  could  not  get  her  into  port,  aud  therefore  set 
lire,  to  her. 


"  Ilehlon,  Jan.  22,  1S09. 

"  It  is  with  extreme  regret  I  inform  you  of  the  sorrowful  tidings  of 
the  loss  of  the  Despatch  transport  and  the  Primrose  sloop  of  war,  the 
former  from  Cori:;ma,  and  the  latter  outward-bound.  The  Despatch  had 
oa  baard  a  detachment  of  the  lib.  Light  Dragoons,  amounting  in  ali 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE    PRESENT    YEAR,    1808 — 1809.      63 

with  the  crew,  to  100  people.  Out  of  this  number,  only  seven  have 
been  saved  from  a  watery  grave.  These  brave  fellows,  1  am  told,  ar« 
the  same  who  distinguished  themselves  so  eminently  under  Lord  Pagel. 
The  officers  lost  on  this  unhappy  occasion  are,  Major  Cavendish,  Caot. 
Duncanfield,  and  Lieutenant  Waldegrave. 

*'  The  loss  of  the  Primrose,  of  18  guns,  is  not  less  to  be  regretted 
than  that  of  the  Despatch.  She  was  driven  by  the  tempestuous  weather 
upon  the  Manacle  Rocks,  about  a  mile  from  the  spot  where  the  trans- 
port foundered.  On  this  occasion  every  soul  on  board  perished,  except  a 
little  boy.  Both  these  melancholy  events  happened  this  morning  at 
about  six  o'clock.  The  Despatch  transport  belonged  to  Shields.'' 

The  Primrose,  Captain  James  Mein,  sailed  from  Portsmouth  a  few 
days  ago,  with  a  fleet  of  transports,  consisting  of  about  £0  sail,  (he  des- 
tination of  which  we  have  not  yet  heard  of.  They  had  troops  and  storei 
on  board. 

The  Active  armeil  cutter  lately  captured  a  small  French  lugger, 
mounting  one  gun,  and  manned  with  IS^men,  having  on  board  several 
packets  of  French  papers,  to  be  distributed  about  the  coast.  The  cap- 
ture of  this  vessel  explains  a  circumstance  which  certainly  appeared  sin- 
gular— by  what  means  casks  with  newspapers  were  made  to  float  so  di- 
rectly from  Boulogne  ?<_•  the  Kentish  coast.  It  now  appears,  that  the 
French  send  over  vessels  in  the  evening,  to  throw  the  casks  containing 
the  papers  within  reach  of  the  current  that  sets  into  the  coast  at  certaia 
periods  of  the  tide. 

"  His  majesty's  brigs  Reindeer  and  Pert,  arrived  in  Port  Royal,  brings 
us  the  tidings  of  the  capture  of  Samana,  that  famous  rendezvous  for  a 
horde  of  privateers,  by  his  majesty's  frigates  Franchise,  Aurora,  and 
Da?dalus,  and  Reindeer  and  Pert  brigs.  On  the  lOlli  inst.  these  ves<ei» 
anchored  off  the  town,  when  the  alarm  was  soon  spread  -,  and  at  the 
sight  of  such  a  superior  force,  the  principal  part  of  the  inhabitants, 
consisting  of  upwards  of- POO  men,  women,  and  children,  sought  refuge 
on  board  the  PExchange  privateer  of  14  guns  and  100  men,  and  another 
privateer  lying  in  the  harbour,  expecting  they  would  be  able  to  effect 
their  escape  to  St.  Domingo,  with  the  assistance  of  their  sweeps.  The 
men  of  war,  perceiving  their  intention,  immediately  despatched  four 
boats,  well  manned,  in  pursuit  of  them,  which  soon  came  up  with,  and 
captured  them  In  the  mean  time  several  other  boats  proceeded  to 
storm  the  fort,  which  was  accomplished  after  a  slight  resistance.  \Ve 
regret,  however,  to  add>  that  Captain  Dyer,  of  the  Aurora,  was  dan- 
gerously vfounded  in  the  head  by  a  musket-ball,  while  landing  the 
party.  Four  vessels,  lying  in  the  harbour,  ladett  with  coffee,  &c.  al«o 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  captors.  A  vessel  was  shortly  after  despatched 
lo  Porto  Rico  with  the  intelligence,  and  requesting  a  sufficient  number 
of  troops  to  be  sent  from  thence  to  garrison  ihe  place. 

The  following  is  an  extract  of  a  letter  received  at  Portsmouth  from 


01       NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE  .PRESENT    YEAH,    1808—1809. 

Mr.  Thomas  Mason,  late  clerk  of  his  majesty's  ship  Crescent,  relative 
to  the  melancholy  loss  of  that  ship.  We  give  it  publicity  for  the  satis- 
faction of  the  friends  of  the  survivors,  and  to  terminate  the  dreadful 
state  of  jjusper.83  in  which  many  must  be  on  the  occasion. 

"  On  the  5th  hist.  (Dec.)  we  struck  on  the  coast  of  Jutland,  near 
Bobsuout,  and  were  completely  wrecked,  with  the  loss  of  22®  people. 
The  survivors,  60  in  number,  were  saved;  the  major  part  on  a  raft, 
the  remainder  in  the  jolly-boat.  Our  situation  was  truly  dreadful,  even 
•worse  than  at  the  old  ship's  (Anson)  loss.  We  have  been  removed 
from  Robsnout  to  this  place  (Aalborg),  in  waggons,  about  32  miles. 
We  have  as  yet  been  treated  very  well — expect  soon  to  be  released. 

List  of  Survivors. 

Neilson  Williamson,  master. 

John  Weaver,  first  lieutenant  of  marines. 

Francis  Houg-hton,  midshipman,!  ,  .      c,  • 

Thomas  Mas&on,  clerk,  )late  of  his  ™U«tj'» 

J.  R.  Lavender,  midshipman. 

John  Munro,  ditto. 

llathew  Walker,  boatswain. 


Complement    272  men 


1  passenger 
C  women 
1  child 


Lost    212  men 


1  passenger 
6  women 
1  child 


280  Total.  220  Souls  lost. 

The  letters  from  America  are  full  of  complaints  against  the  piracy 
and  cruelty  committed  upon  American  subjects  and  property  by  the 
"  French  villains,"  as  they  are  termed,  who  infest  the  ocean.  A  cata- 
logue of  captures  is  inserted  in  the  American  papers,  which  sufficiently 
justifies  the  clamours  of  the  people  against  the  government  for  not 
avenging  the  indignities  hourly  committed  upon  their  trade.  The  in- 
stances alluded  to  are,  where  American  vessels,  having  received  per- 
mission from  the  president  to  sail  from  their  respective  ports,  have 
been  captured  by  French  privateers,  their  cargoes  confiscated,  and  their. 
crews  put  in  prison  in  France. 

The  following  letters  brought  from  France  by  the  Union  American 
ship,  and  written  by  two  American  captains,  will  serve  to  shew  the 
treatment  now  experienced  by  the  trade  and  subjects  of  the  United 
State*  from  the  enemy  : 

.  Extract  of  a  Letter  from  Captain  Nicholas   Owings,  of  the  dniericay 
Brig  President,  J.rom  the  Canary  Islands,  dated 


"St.  rullery,  Nov.  28,  1808. 

"  It  is  with  the  greatest  regret  I  inform  you  of  my  being  captured, 
on  the  17th  instant,  close  under  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  seat  in  to  tin* 
place.  I  have  ever  since  been,  under  a  guard  i&  aa  inu,  aud  am  not 


NAVAL    illsTOltY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,  1S08 — 1809.      65 

allowed  to  go  out  of  my  room  without  some  person  to  guard  me,  a 
thing  which  lias  never  before  been  known  to  have  been  done  in  France. 
I  impute  it  to  there  not  being  any  neutral  vessels  brought  in  here." 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  the  Captain  of  the  Mary. 

"  Boulogne  Castle,  1st  Dec.  1808. 

I  have  the  misfortune  to  acquaint  you,  that  the  brig  Mary,  of  Phi- 
ladelphia, under  my  command,  was  captured  on  the  19th  ult.  by  tlie 
French  lugger  privateer  Grand  Napoleon,  of  this  port,  and  carried  in 
here.  The  Mary  Avas  captured  between  the  port  and  the  English  shore. 
The  cargo,  consisting  of  192  tons  of  sweet  oil,  has  already  been  dis- 
charged; and  lam,  as  well  as  my  crew,  kept  as  yet  in  prison,  though! 
have  reason  to  suppose  we  shall  soon  he  released.  1  have  riot  been  able 
to  ascertain  the  motives  of  this  government  for  capturing  American 
property,  and  detaining  the  subjects  of  the  United  States  as  prisoners; 
out  time  and  patience  will  unfold  them,  and  afford  us  redress." 

The  influence  of  the  French  minister  at  the  court  of  St.  Petersburg!* 
was  lately  strongly  manifested  in  the  case  of  an  English  gentleman,  of 
the  name  of  Elphinstone,  a  captain  in  the  Russian  navy.  Mr.  Elphin- 
atone,  who  is  related  to  several  persons  of  consideration  in  this  country, 
commanded  the  Russian  frigate  Venus,  and  on  the  breaking  out  of  the 
war  with  England,  returned  with  Admiral  Greig,  Captain  Bailey,  and 
others,  who  relinquished  their  commands  in  the  Tagus,  to  St.  Peters- 
burgh.  It  was  some  time  since  reported  to  the  French  minister,  Cauliu- 
<ourt,  that  Captain  Elphinstone  had  spoken  in  terms  of  reproof  of 
Buonaparte's  conduct  and  politics;  some  fictitious  charges  were  im- 
mediately preferred  against  him,  and  he  was  sentenced,  by  a  court-mar- 
tial composed  of  Caulincourt's  creatures,  to  he  shot.  The  Emperor 
Alexander,  however,  alarmed  at  so  gross  a  violation  of  justice^  yet  at 
the  same  time  dreading  to  offend  the  imperial  representative,  commuted 
the  punishment  to  banishment  into  Siberia. 

Formerly  2,000  ships  used  annually  to  arrive  at  and  leave  Dantzic 
port ;  but  during  last  year  there  were  hut  two  arrivals. 

The  effects  of  the  gales  of  Tuesday  night  the  24th  of  January,  have 
been  severely  felt  among  our  shipping  on  the  coast.  Two  very  valuable 
outward  bound  East  Indiamcn  have  been  totally  lost  on  the  Goodwin 
Sands,  besides  other  vessels;  of  which  we  believe  the  following  particu- 
lars will  be  found  to  be  accurate.  On  the  evening  mentioned,  great 
apprehensions  were  entertained  for  the  fate  of  the  Indiamen  proceeding 
through  the  Downs;  but  nothing  was  known  of  their  situation  till  the 
following  morning,  when  a  most  distressing  scene  presented  itself  to  the 
spectators  from  Deal.  Three  large  ships  were  seen  on  the  Goodwin 
Sands,  with  only  their  foremast  standing,  hoisting  signals  of  distress, 
and  the  sea  was  dashing  over  them  mountains  high.  The  crews  were  all 
collected  on  the  poops,  waiting  for  that  relief  which  the  Deal  boatmen 

f3at).  STIjron.  SJo!»  XXI.  K 


66      NAVAL   1II5TORY    OF   THE    PRESENT    YLAR,    1808 — 1809, 

seemed  anxious  to  afford  them.  These  men,  by  their  indefatigable 
exertions,  and  at  the  imminent  hazard  of  their  lives,  reached  the  wrecks 
of  the  Indiamen,  and  took  out  ot  the  Admiral  Gardner  the  whole  of 
her  crew. 

The  boatmen  from  Ramsgate  and  Broad-stairs  joined  those  from  Deal, 
and  removed  into  their  boats  the  people  from  the  Britannia,  previous  to 
which  this  last  ship  had  lost  of  her  crew  thrc  lascars  and  twenty-four 
seamen,  and  one  died  in  one  of  the  Deal  boats  from  fatigue. 

Of  the  crew  of  the  Admiral  Gardner,  it  is  feared  that  four  have  been 
lost ;  for  in  the  night  one  of  the  seamen  having  been  washed  overboard, 
the  third  mate  and  three  seamen  volunteered  their  services  to  endeavour 
to  pick  him  up  in  the  ship's-boat,  which  was  never  after  heard  of. 

Other  accounts  estimate  the  Joss  of  the  Britannia  at  only  seven  men. 

We  regret  to  state,  that  the  boatmen  were  not  in  time  to  save  a  single 
man  belonging  to  the  third  ship  (a  large  brig),  and  all  the  hands 
on  board  perished.  There  were  proper  pilots  on  board  the  Indiamen, 
but  the  violence  of  the  weather  baffled  all  their  skill. 

The  Admiral  Gardner  was  the  first  vessel  driven  upon  the  sands;  and 
as  soon  as  the  pilot  of  the  Britannia  found  that  that  ship  shoaled 
her  water,  he  let  go  one  anchor,  and  after  that  two  more,  but  such  \vas 
the  violence  of  the  gale,  that  she  was  driven  on  the  sand  with  three 
anchors  a-head. 

Yice-sdmiral  Campbell,  at  day-light,  sent  two  gun-brigs,  a  lugger, 
and  a  cutter,  to  anchor  as  near  as  possible,  in  order  to  render  the. 
sufferers  every  assistance  in  their  power.  If  the  weather  abated  soon, 
it  was  expected  that  part  of  the  cargoes  might  be  saved. — The  loss  has 
been  estimated  at  200,0001. 

After  the  gale  the  Cuffnells,  we  understand,  returned  to  her  station 
dismasted. 


31mp*rial  parliament, 

HOUSE  OF  LORDS. 

THURSDAY,  JANBART  19. 

THE  session  of  Parliament  was  opened  this  day  by  commission  ;  the 
Commissioners  were,  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,   the   Lord 
Chancellor,  the  Earl  of  Camdcn  (president  of  the  council),  and  the  Duke 
of  Montrose  (master  of  the  horse). 

The  usual  forms  having  been  gone  through,  the  Lord  Chancellor  "read 
the  following  speech  : 

"  My  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

"  We  have  it  in  command  from  his  majesty  to  state  to  you,  that  hi» 
majesty  has  ^called  you  together,  in  perfect  confidence  that  you  are 
prepared  cordially  to  support  his  majesty  in  the  prosecution  of  a  war 
which  there  is  no  hope  of  terminating  safely  and  honourably,  except 
through  vigorous  and  persevering  exertion. 


NAVAL    I  ISTORY    OF    THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1808—1809.      67 

•"  We  are  to  acquaint  you,  that  his  majesty  has  directed  to  be  laid 
before  you  copies  of  the  proposals  lor  opening  a  negotiation,  which 
were  transmitted  to  his  majesty  from  Erfurth,  and  of  the  correspondence 
which  thereupon  took  place  with  the  governments  of  Russia  and  of 
France;  together  with  the  declaration  issued  by  his  majesty's  command 
on  the  termination  of  that  correspondence. 

"  His  majesty  is  persuaded,  that  you  will  participate  in  the  feelings 
which  were  expressed  by  his  majesty,  when  it  was  required  that  his 
majesty  should  consent  to  commence  the  negotiation  by  abandoning  the 
cause  of  Spain,  which  he  had  so  recently  and  solemnly  espoused. 

"  We  are  commanded  to  inform  you,  that  his  majesty  continues  to 
receive  from  the  Spanish  government  the  strongest  assurances  of  their 
determined  perseverance  in  the  cause  of  the  legitimate  monarchy,  and 
of  the  national  independence  of  Spain;  and  to  assure  you,  that  so  long 
as  the  people  of  Spain  shall  remain  true  to  themselves,  his  majesty  will 
continue  to  them  his  most  strenuous  assistance  and  support. 

"  His  majesty  has  renewed  to  the  Spanish  nation,  in  the  moment  of 
its  difficulties  and  reverses,  the  engagements  which  he  voluntarily  con- 
traded  at  the  outset  of  its  struggle  against  the  usurpation  and  tyranny 
of  France;  and  we  are  commanded  lo  acquaint  you,  that  these  en- 
gagements have  been  reduced  into  the  form  of  a  treaty  of  alliance ; 
which  treaty,  so  soon  as  the  ratification  shall  have  been  exchanged,  his 
majesty  will  cause  to  be  laid  before  you. 

"  His  majesty  commands  us  to  state  to  you,  that  while  his  majesty 
contemplated  with  the  liveliest  satisfaction,  the  achievements  of  his 
forces  in  the  commencement  of  the  campaign  in  Portugal,  and  the 
deliverance  of  the  kingdom  of  his  ally  from  the  presence  and  oppressions 
of  the  French  army,  his  majesty  most  deeply  regretted  the  termination 
of  that  campaign  by  an  armistice  and  convention,  of  some  of  the 
articles  of  which  his  majesty  has  felt  himself  obliged  formally  to  de- 
clare his  disapprobation. 

"  We  are  to  express  to  you  his  majesty's  reliance  on  your  disposition 
to  enable  hi-  majesty  to  continue  the  aid  afforded  by  his  majesty  to 
the  King  of  Sweden,  That  monarch  derives  a  peculiar  claim  to  his 
majesty's  support,  iu  the  present  exigency  of  his  affairs,  from  having 
concurred  with  his  majesty  in  the  propriety  of  rejecting  any  proposal 
for  negociation  to  which  the  government  of  Spain  was  not  to  be  admitted 
as  a  party. 

"  Gentlemen  of  the  House  of  Commons, 

i:  We  are  commanded  by  his  majesty  to  inform  you,  that  he  has 
directed  the  estimates  of  the  current  year  to  be  laid  before  you.  His  ma- 
jesly  relics  upon  your  zeal  and  affection  to  make  such  further  provision 
of  supply  as  ths  vigorous  prosecution  of  the  war  may  render  necessary; 
aiul  he  trusts  lliat  you  may  be  enabled  to  find  the  means  of  providing 
such  s.ipply  without  any  great  or  immediate  increase  of  the  existing 
Burthens  upon  his  people, 


68       NAVAL    HISTORY    Of    HIE    PiirSENHT    YEAR,     1808— 180G. 

"  His  majesty  feels  assured,  that  it  will  be  highly  satisfactory  for  you 
to  learn,  that  notwithstanding  the  measures  resorted  to  hy  the  enemj 
fur  the  purpose  of  destroying  the  commerce  and  resources  of  this  king-: 
dom,  the  public  revenue  has  continued  in  a  course  of  progressive  im-: 
•provement. 

'?  My  Lords  and  Gentlemen, 

"  We  are  directed  to  inform  you,  that  the  measure  adopted  by  Par- 
liament in  the  last  session  for  establishing  a  local  militia,  has  been 
already  attended  with  the  happiest  success,  aud  promises  to  be  extensively 
and  permanently  beneficial  to  the  country. 

"  We  have  received  his  majesty's  commands  most  especially  to  re^ 
commend  to  you,  that,  duly  weighing  the  immense  interests  which  are 
at  stake  in  the  war  nov?  carrying  on,  you  should  proceed  with  as 
little  delay  as  possible,  to  consider  of  the  most  effectal  measures  for 
the  augmentation  of  the  regular  army,  in  order  that  his  majesty  may 
be  the  better  enabled,  withou  impairing  the  means  of  defence  at  home, 
to  avail  himself  of  the  military  power  of  his  dominions  in  the  great 
contest  in  which  he  is  engaged  5  and  to  conduct  that  contest,  under  the 
blessing  of  divine  Providence,  to  a  conclusion  compatible  with  the 
honour  of  his  majesty's  crown,  and  with  the  interests  of  his  allies, 
of  Europe,  and  of  the  world." 

The  Earl  of  Bridgcwater  moved  an  address  of  thanks  to  his  majesty; 
which  was  seconded  by  Lord  Sheffield;  after  which  Earl  St.  Vincent 
observed,  that  he  could  not  suffer  the^question  to  be  put  on  the  address, 
without  claiming  their  lordships'  attention  for  a  few  moments.  Though 
he  could  not  concur  in  every  part  of  it,  yet  it  was  not  his  intention  to 
propose  any  amendment.  His  principal  motive  for  rising  was,  to  express 
his  unqualified  disapprobation  of  the  whole  of  the  conduct  of  ministers; 
of  every  thing  they  had  done  with  respect  to  Spain,  of  every  thing  they 
had  done  with  respect  to  Portugal,  of  almost  every  thing  they  had  done 
since  they  cavne  into  power,  and  particularly  for  the  last  six  months.  The 
noble  lord  who  seconded  the  address  had  talked  of  the  vigour  and  efficacy 
of  their  measures.  Vigour  and  efficacy  indeed!  when  their  whole  con- 
duct was  marked  by  vacillation  and  incompetence.  If  such  men,  so 
notoriously  incapable,  were  not  immediately  removed,  the  country  was 
undone.  There  was  one  part,  however,  of  the  address  and  of  the  speech 
in  which  he  cordially  agreed — that  which  condemned  the  armistice  and 
convention.  It  was  the  greatest  disgrace  that  had  befallen  the  British 
arms,  the  greatest  stain  that  had  been  affixed  to  the  honour  of  the  coun- 
try since  the  Revolution.  He  was  not  at  present  disposed  to  enter  into 
an  examination  of  the  manner  in  which  the  naval  part  of  that  expedition 
had  been  conducted  :  opportunity  would  arise  for  discussing  the  extra- 
ordinary arrangement  that  had  been  made  respecting  the  fleet  in  the 
Tagus.  He  would  not  withhold  from  ministers  whatever  praise  might  be 
due  to  them.  He  would  give  them  credit  for  providing  plenty  of  trans- 
ports 5  but  what  was  the  merit  of  these  exertiyiis  ?  Any  one  who  offered 


NATAL   HISTORY    OF   THE   PUESENT    YEAR,    1808 — 1809.      69 

fc  little  more  than  the  common  market  price  might  hire  as  many  as  he 
pleased  ;  but  ministers  not  only  offered  that  market  price,  but  a  great 
deal  more  than  they  should  have  done.  And  how  were  these  employed  ? 
Why,  in  conveying  Junot  and  his  runaway  ruffians,  with  their  plunder 
and  exactions,  all  the  plate  and  precious  stones,  and  rare  exhibitions  of 
art,  the  fruits  of  their  robberies  of  churches,  palaces,  and  private  houses, 
to  France.  It  was  with  shame  and  sorrow  that  he  saw  men  of  the  high- 
est rank  in  the  British  army  and  navy  superintending  the  embarkation 
of  this  enormous  fund  of  rapine  and  confiscation,  and  conducting  it,  and 
the  devils  who  had  thus  acquired  a  property  in  it,  to  those  parts  of 
France  nearest  to  Spain,  who  were  thus  enabled  to  enler  that  country 
sooner  than  the  brave  fellows  to  whom  they  surrendered,  and  were  now 
actually  engaged  in  chasing  Sir  John  Moore  from  the  peninsula  !  If 
they  jneant  really  to  assist  the  Spaniards,  why  did  not  ministers  send 
troops  iu  the  first  instance  to  the  north  of  Spain  ?  Why  did  they  send  one 
part  of  them  to  Lisbon,  and  another  to  Corunna,  from  which  points  no 
junction  could  be  effected,  without  being  exposed  to  toilsome  marches, 
and  such  privations  as  could  hardly  be  conceived  by  persons  not 
acquainted  with  those  countries?  It  seemed  to  him  as  if  they  were 
totally  ignorant  of  the  geography  of  the  country  they  appeared  soenger 
and  zealous  to  defend.  He  had,  indeed,  heard  of  a  "  heaven-boru" 
minister,  who,  at  the,  first  cabinet  council  he  attended,  asked,  whether 
Port  Mahpn  was  an  island,  or  on  the  continent.  This,  to  be  sure,  was 
bad  enough  ;  but  it  did  not  betray  half  the  ignorance  that  the  conduct 
of  ministers  did  in  every  measure  relating  to  Spain  and  Portugal,  He 
would  say  to  his  majesty,  that  if  these  men  were  not  removed,  the 
kingdom  was  lost.  There  was  no  part  of  the  conduct  of  ministers  liable 
to  greater  censure  than  that  which  related  to  the  command  of  the  army. 
He  would  be  the  last  man  in  the  kingdom  who  would  wish  to  detract 
from  the  professional  character  of  the  officers  employed ;  but  on  so 
momentous  an  occasion,  he  wished  to  see  some  of  the  princes  of  the 
blood,  wlio  had  been  trained  to  arms  from  their  youth,  and  many  of 
whom  had  seen  a  great  deal  of  arduous  and  dangerous  service  :  he 
alluded  particularly  to  one  (the  Duke  of  Kent)  who  would  have  fallen 
the  victim  of  his  zeal  in  the  West  Indies,  had  he  not  been  forcibly  sent 
Lome  from  that  pernicious  climate  by  himself  and  Sir  Charles  Grey, 
These  were  the  proper  men  to  command  the  British  army  on  thij  occasion. 
If  it  was  not  thought  proper  to  employ  these  illustrious  persons,  there 
were  others  to  whom  the  country  and  the  army  looked  up.  There  was 
one  (the  Earl  ofMoira,  we  believe)  who,  from  his  early  career  ofglorv, 
from  his  princely  munificence,  and  from  the  unbounded  confidence  which 
the  army  would  place  in  him,  whether  they  were  ordered  to  advance  or 
r*'troat,  who  was  peculiarly  qualified  for  a  command  of  this  description 
-—a  man  who  possibly  might  prove  a  second  Earl  of  Peterborough — 
a  man,  in  short,  who  would  have  acted  from  himself,  and  who  would 
have  acted  vigorously  and  successfully.  The  noble  earl  next  adverted  to 
the  court  of  inquiry,  which  he  considered  as  an  expedient  rather  tp  cover 


70      NAVAL   HISTORY    OF   THE   PllESEXr   YEAR,    1808 — 1809. 

some  blot  in  their  own  conduct,  than  to  do  justice  to  the  officers  whd 
were  the  ostensible  objects  of  its  proceedings,  or  to  satisfy  the  country. 
The  case  of  the  senior  officer  on  that  occasion  was  particularly  hard :  he 
•was  to  be  responsible  for  every  thing,  and  yet  he  was  to  do  nothing  with- 
out consulting  the  third  in  command.  He  was  fettered  by  his  instruc- 
tions ;  he  was,  in  fact,  to  have  no  will,  no  discretion  of  his  own. 
This  odious  restraint  did  not,  to  be  sure,  appear  on  the  face  of  his 
instructions ;  but  it  was  conveyed  in  a  manner  equally  binding  upon  him, 
in  the  suspicious  form  of  a  private  letter,  a  letter  of  counsel  and  recom- 
mendation— a  detestable  mode  of  proceeding,  to  which  he  never  had,  or 
would  have  recourse.  An  attempt  had  been  made  to  justify  the 
convention  of  Cintra,  by  stating,  that  the  French  could  have  crossed  the 
Tagus,  and  got  into  Spain  in  defiance  of  any  exertions  of  the  army 
by  which  they  were  beaten.  The  French  cross  the  Tagus  I  If  they  did, 
he  would  he  bold  to  say,  that  every  man  of  them  must  have  passed 
under  the  yoke.  They  would  have  to  fight  their  way  through  as  brave 
a  population  as  any  in  Europe.  The  Portuguese  were  not  inferior  in 
bravery  to  the  Spaniards,  and  there  were  no  men  more  gallant  than  the 
Fatter.  He  spoke  of  the  Portuguese  peasantry,  for  he  would  admit  that 
there  were  no  people  in  the  world  upon  whom  less  reliance  for  a  vigorous 
resistance  could  be  placed  than  on  the  inhabitants  of  Lisbon.  He  begged 
pardon  for  having  taken  up  so  much  of  their  lordships'  time;  but  he 
could  not  refrain  from  expressing  his  decided  disapprobation  of  the 
conduct  of  ministers.  If  the  House  would  do  their  duty,  they  would  go 
in  that  dignified  manner  that  became  them  to  the  foot  of  the  throne, 
and  implore  his  majesty  to  remove  from  his  councils  those  men  whose 
measures  would  bring  inevitable  ruin  on  the  country.  In  earnestly 
recommending  this,  he  was  not  swayed  by  personal  considerations,  la 
a  few  hours  he  would  enter  into  his  seventy-fifth  year,  sixty-one  of  which 
he  had  been  in  his.  majesty's  service.  At  this  time  of  life,  and  under  the 
existing  and  increasing  embarrassments  of  the  country,  he  could  not  be 
inspected  of  being  very  anxious  to  return  to  office.  He  should  trespass 
no  longer  upon  their  lordships'  patience.  He  thanked  God  for  having 
given  him  strength  to  communicate  his  sentiments  on  the  very  critical 
situation  of  the  country ;  and  thanked  the  House  for  the  indulgence  it 
had  shewn  h;m.  He  would  offer  no  amendment,  but  content  himself 
with  expressing  his  dissent  from  the  address. 

Lord  Crcnvillc  joined  in  censuring  the  conduct  of  ministers  with 
respect  to  Spain.  He  never  conceived  that  there  was  such  a  prospect 
as  justified  the  sending  an  army  into  that  country.  We  might  have 
furnished  the  Spaniards  with  arms,  ammunition,  &"c.  and  if  they  had 
evinced  a  capability  of  resisting  Buonaparte  with  effect,  we  might  have 
followed  up  their  efforts.  His  lordship  deprecated  the  unprecedented 
manner  in  which  the  Russian  fleet  had  been  obtained,  at  Lisbon.  It 
should,  in  conformity  to  our  old  system,  have  been  either  captured, 
burnt,  sunk,  or  destroyed.  His  lordship  also  censured  the  orders  ia 
Council,  as  having  been  the  cause  of  the  American  embargo. 


NAVAL   HISTORY   OF   THE    PRESE.VT    YEAR,    1808 — 1809.      71 

Several  other  members  delivered  their  sentiments ;  and  the  Earl  of 
Liverpool  having  entered  into  a  general  defence  of  ministers,  the  address 
was  agreed  to  nem.  dis. 


HOUSE  OF  COMMONS. 

THCRSDAY,  JAN.  19. 

The  usual  forms  at  the  commencement  of  a  session  having  been  gone 
through,  Mr.  Robinson  moved  an  address  of  thanksfor  the  royal  speech  ; 
which  was  seconded  by  Mr.  S.  Lushington;  and,  after  a  debate  of  con- 
siderable length,  it  was  agreed  to,  without  a  division  or  an  amendment, 


on 

Copied  verbatim  from  the  LONDON  GAZETTE; 

ADMIRALTT-OFFICE,  DECEMBER  13,   1808. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Rowley,  Commander-in-chief  of  Ms 
Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  at  Jamaica,  to  the  lion.  W.  W.  Pole,  ^dated 
at  Port  Royal,  the  1*4  h  October,  1808. 

I  enclose  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  Captain  Lillicrap,  giving  an  account 
of  the  capture  of  a  small  French  privateer  belonging  to  Guadaloupe,  by 
his  majesty's  sloop  the  Despatch. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Despatch,  Port  Royal, 
SIB,  October  13,  1808. 

1  have  the  satisfaction  to  inform  you,  I  captured,  on  the  night  of  the 
tid  instant,  off  Nevis,  the  small  French  schooner  privateer  Uorade, 
belonging  to  Guadaloupe,  mounting  one  brass  gun,  with  small  arms,  ami 
twenty  men. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &ct 

J.  LILLICRAP, 
Vice-admiral  Iioidfyt  t$c. 

DECEMBER  31. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Captain  Hole,  of  his  Majesty" s  Sloop  the  Egeria,  to 
Vice-admiral  Douglas,  Commander-in-chief  at  Yarmouth,  and  transmitted 
ky  the  latter  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Ezcria,  Yarmouth 
SIR  Roads,  Dec.  27,  1808. 

I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you,  that,  on  the  21st  instant,  the  Scaw 
bearing  S.  by  E.  twelve  leagues,  I  fell  in  with  and,  after  a  chase  of  two 
hours,  captured  the  Danish  schooner  privateer  Ncesois,  of  ten  guns,  Gier» 
mund  Holm,  master,  with  a  complement  of  thirty-six  men,  hut  had  on  board 
only  twenty-six;  out  from  Fridricksvern  one  day,  without  taking  any 
thing. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

L£WIS  HOLE. 


72      NAVAL    HISTORY    OF   THE    PKESfiNT   YEAR,    1808—1809. 

Eztract  of  a  Letter  from  Captain  Dundus,  of  his  Majesty's  Ship  Na'md,  W 
Captain  Btresford,  of  the  Theseus,  dated  <>ff  the  'Entrance  of  the  Loire,  the 
Mth  Instant,  and  transmitted  by  the  latter  to  the  Hon.  W'.  W.  Pole. 
I  beg  leave  to  acquaint  you,  for  the  information  of  the  commander-in- 
ch ief  that  last  evening  at  eight,  the  Naiad  and  Narcissus  being  close  in  with- 
Noinnountier,  we  discovered  and  soon  captured  the  French  privateer  brig 
Fanny,  of  sixteen  guns  and  eighty  paen, commanded  by  C'barle*  llamon,  am- 
only  a  few  liours  from  Nantz,  and  consequently  had  made  no  capture.    She 
was  intended  to  cruise  off  the  coast  of  Ireland ;  and  at  Midnight  we  captured 
the  French  sloop  Superb,  letter  of  marque,  of  four  guns  and  twenty  men, 
with  a  cargo  of  sundries  for  Martinique.     Mr.  Ilamon  lately  commanded 
tlie  Venus  privateer,  that  did  great  injury  to  our  trade. 

JANUARY  3,  1809. 

Vice-admiral  Lord  CoUingwbocLhas,  with  his  letter  of  the  95th  of  October 
last,  transmitted  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole  a  letter  from  Captain  Pearse,  of 
his  majesty's  sloop  the  Halcyon,  giving  an  account  of  the  capture  of  the 
whole  of  a  convoy  belonging  to  the  enemy  under  the  town  of  Diamante,  on 
the  8th  of  September,  by  the  above  sloop,  the  Wea/le,  (Captain  Prescott), 
and  a  Neapolitan  galley,  with  a  detachment  of  the  British  army  under  the 
command  of  Lieutenant-colonel  Bryce. 

Lord  Collingwood  commends  the  zeal  and  dexterity  of  Captains  Pearse  and 
Prescott,  as  also  the  ability  with  which  the  co-operation  of  the  army  was 
conducted  on  the  above  enterprise,  which  was  achieved  without  any  lo*s 
on  our  part. 

N.B.  The  particulars  of  the  above  affair  are  contained  in  the  letter  and 
enplosure  from  Lieutenant-general  Sir  John  Stuart,  inserted  iu  the  gazette 
of  the  13th  ultimo. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Captain  Thomas  Ilarcey,  of  his  Majesty's  Ship  the 
Standard,  dated  off  Corfu,  26th  June,  1808,  to  Vice-admiral  Lord  Colling' 
wood,  Commander-in-chief  in  the  Mediterranean,  and  transmitted  by  the 
latter  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole. 

MY    LORI), 

At  day-light  this  morning  T  fell  in  with  la  Volpe,  Italian  gun-boat, 
commanded  by  Ensign  de  Vaisseau  Micheli  Mangin,  carrying  an  iron  four- 
pounder,  with  twenty  men  well  armed.  The  la  Legcra,  French  despatch 
boat,  with  a  well  armed  crew  of  fourteen  men,  was  with  la  Volpc.  At  nine, 
the  wind  failing,  I  sent  the  pinnace  with  Lieutenant  Richard  Cull,  and 
the  eight-oared  cutter  with  Captain  Nicholis  of  the  royal  marines  (both 
volunteers)  in  chase.  After  two  hours'  rowing,  the  weather  very  hot,  they 
approached  la  Volpe,  who  commenced  a  fire  of  musketry  on  them,  which 
was  returned  with  the  swivda,  and,  when  near,  with  muskets.  On  the  boats 
approaching  each  quarter  to  board,  the  gun-boat  pulled  short  round,  and 
fired  at  the  cutter  both  round  and  grape;  the  bo^ts  dashed  at  him,  when 
lie  struck,  and  was  taken  possession  of  by  Captain  Nicholls;  Lieutenant 
Cull  immediately  pushed  on  in  chase  of  la  Lcgera.  Some  time  previous  to- 
this  I  had  despatched  the  yawi,  with  Lieutenant  John  Alexander,  to  be 
ready  to  cut  her  off;  which  affording  him  the  opportunity  of  obliging  hrr  to 
run  on  shore  about  four  miles  northward  of  Cape  St.  Mary,  the  crew 
formed  on  the  rocks  above  her,  and  endeavoured  to  prevent  the  yawl's  . 
approach  ;  hut  she  was  taken  possession  of  by  Lieutenant  Alexander,  who 
was  immediately  after  joined  by  Lieutenant  Cull  and  Captain  Nicholls  ; 
they  towed  her  out  under  a  fire  of  musketry  from  the  shore,  which  was 
returned  by  our  marines  in  the  boats  with  great  spirit ;  one  of  the  Fre»ch» 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1808  —  1809.      73 

inen  was  seen  killed.  A  French  ensign  de  vaisseau  was  passenger  in 
4a  T,egera.  I  was  much  gratified  on  the  return  of  the  boats  in  learning  we 
had  not  suffered. 

Tii  this  little  atfair,  the  gallantry  and  good  conduct  of  the  officers  and  men 
concerned  gave  me  very  great  satisfaction  :  both  Captain  Nichollsand  Lieu- 
tenant Cull  speak  in  high  terms  of  the  assistance  they  received  from  Messrs. 
Hahies  and  Parker,  master's  mates  of  the  Standard: 

Monsieur  Monier,  ensign  de  vaisseau,  on  the  staff  of  General  Dougelet 
•f  Corfu,  was  taken  in  la  Volpi.  1  burnt  bdth  vessels. 

I  remain,  &c. 

THOMAS  HARVEY. 

Th-s  Right  Hon.  Lord  CoUingKOod,  dfc. 

JANUARY  7. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  lire- admiral  Lord  CoUingwood,  Commander-in-chief 
of  his  Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  in  the  Mediterranean,  to  the  Hon.  ftr. 
fr.  Pole,  dated  on  board  the  Ocean,  cff  Toulon,  the  19th  of  October,  1803. 

SIR, 

T  enclose  a  letter  which  I  have  just  received  from  the  Right  Hon.  Lord 
Cochrane,  captain  of  the  Imperteuse,  stating  the  services  which  he  has 
been  employed  in  on  the  coast  of  Langnedoc. 

Nothing  can  exceed  the  activity  and  ieal  with  which  his  lordship  pursues 
the  enemy.  The  success  which  attends  his  enterprises  clearly  indicates 
with  what  skill  and  ability  they  are  conducted;  besides  keeping  the  coast  in 
constant  alarm,  causing  a  total  suspension  of  the  trade,  and  harassing  a 
body  of  troops  employed  in  opposing  him,  he  has,  probably,  prevented  those 
troops,  which  were  intended  for  Figueras,  from  advancing  into  Spain,  by 
giving  them  employment  in  the  defence  of  their  own  coasts. 

On  the  coast  towards  Genoa  the  enemy  has  been  equally  annoyed  by  the 
Kent  and  Wizard.  Those  ships  have  had  that  station  some  time  to  prevent 
the  French  ship  sailing  from  Genoa,  and  have  almost  entirely  stopped  the 
only  trade  the  enemy  had,  which  is  in  very  small  vessels ;  during  their 
cruise  there  they  have  taken  and  destroyed  twenty-three  of  those  coasters. 
I  enclose  the  letter  of  Captain  Rogers,  giving  an  account  of  the  attack-made 
ut  Noli,  and  the  capture  of  the  vessels  in  the  road. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

COLLINGWOOD. 

Iinperieuse,  G  ulf  of  Lyons, 

MY  LORD,  28<A   Sdpt.    1808. 

V>'ith  varying  opposition,  but  with  unvaried  success,  the  re'>vly  construct- 
ed Semaphoric  telagraphs,  which  are  of  the  utmost  consequence  to  the 
safety  of  the  numerous  convoys  that  pass  along  the  coast  of  France, 
at  Bourdique,  la  Pinede,  St.  Magnirc,  I  rontignan,  Canet  and  Foy,  have 
been  blown  up  and  completely  demolished,  together  with  their  telegraph- 
•urteen  barracks  of  the  gens-d'arms,  or  Donanes,  one  batter)', 
and  the  strong  tower  upon  the  lake  of  Frontignan. 

'Mr.  Mapleton,  first  lieutenant,  had  command  of  those  expeditions;  lieu- 
renant  Johnson  had  charge  of  the  field- pieces,  and  Lieutenant  Hore  of  the 
royal  marines.  To  them  and  to  Mr.  Gilbert,  assistant-surgeon;  Mr. 
Burr.ey,  gunner,  Messrs.  Stewart  and  Stovin,  midshipmen,  is  due  whatever 
credit  may  arise  from  such  mischief,  and  for  having  with  ?o  small  a  force 
drawn  about  two  thousand  troops  from  the  important:  fortress  of  Figueras in 
Spain,  to  the  defence  of  their  owa  coast. 

/9stJ.  etynm.  2101,  XXI.  t, 


74      NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE    TRIDENT    YLAB,    1805  —  1809, 

The  conduct  of  Lieutenants  Mapleton,  Johnson,  and  Hore  deserves  mf 
best  praise,  as  well  as  that  of  the  other  officers,  royal  marines,  and  seamen. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

COCHRANE. 
The  Right  lion.  Lord  ColKngreood,  $c. 

tmperieusc  —  None   killed  ;    none    wounded  ;    one    singed    blowing  up    a 

battery. 
French  —  One  commanding  ofliser  of    troops  killed;    how  many  other* 

uukuown. 


His  Majesty's  Ship  Kent,  off' 
STRr  2J  August,  1808. 

1  beg  leave  to  acquaint  you,  that  yesterday,  niniving  along  the  coast  from 
Genoa  towards  Cape  del  Melle,  we  discovered  a  convoy  of  ten  sail  oi 
coasters  deeply  laden,  under  the  protection  of  a  gun-bout,  at  an  anchor 
close  to  the  beach  abreast  of  the  town  of  Noli  ;  and  as  there  appeared  a 
fair  prospect  of  bringing  them  out  by  a  prompt  attack,  before  the  enemy 
had  time  to  collect  his  force,  I  instantly  determined  to  send  in  the  boats  of 
the  Kent  and  Wizard  ;  and  as  there  was  but  little  wind,  I  directed  Captain 
Ferris,  of  the  Wizard,  to  tow  in  and  cover  the  boats,  which  immediately  put 
off,  and,  by  great  exertion,  soon  towed  her  close  to  the  vessels,  when 
it  was  found  impossible  to  bring  them  out  without  landing,  most 
of  them  being  fastened  to  the  shore  by  ropes  from  their  keels  and3 
mast-heads,  the  boats  therefore  pulled  to  the  beach  with  great  resolution,. 
exposed  to  the  fire  of  two  guns  in  the  bow  of  the  gun-boat,  two-field  pieces 
placed  in  a  grove  which  ffitnked  the  beach,  a  heavy  gun  in  front  of  the  town, 
and  a  continued  fire  of  musketry  from  the  bouse*:  but  these  were  no  check 
to  the  ardour  and  intrepidity  of  British  seamen  and  marines,  who  leaped1 
from  the  boats,  and  rushed  upon  the  enemy  with  a  fearless  zeal  that  was 
not  to  be  resisted.  The  gun  in  front  of  the  town  was  soon  taken  and  spiked" 
by  Lieutenant  Chasman,  second  of  the  Kent,  who  commanded  the  seamen, 
and  Lieutenant  Hanlon  the  royal  marines;  and  the  enemy,  who  had  drawn 
up  a  considerable  force  of  regular  troops  in  the  grove  to  defend  the  two  field- 
pieces,  was  dislodged  by  Captain  Rea,  who  commanded  the  royal  marines, 
and  Lieutenant  Grant  of  that  corps,  who  took  possession  of  the  field-pieces. 
and  brought  them  off.  In  the  mean  time,  Lieutenants  Lindsay  and  Moresby 
of  the  Kent,  and  Lieutenant  B:s?ett  of  the  Wizard,  who  had  equally  distin- 
guished themselves  in  driving  the  enemy  from  the  beach,  were  actively 
employed  in  taking  possession  of  the  gun-boat,  and  freeing  the  vessels  fron; 
their  fasts  to  the  shore;  and  I  had  soon  the  satisfaction  to  sec  our  people 
embark,  and  the  whole  oi  the  vessels  coming  out  under  the  protecting  tire 
of  the  Wizard,  which,  by  the  judicious  conduct  of  Captain  Ferris,  con- 
tributed very  essentially  to  keep  the  enemy  in  check,  both  in  the  advance 
and  retreat  of  the  boats. 

I  should  have  pleasure  in  noticing  the  midshipmen  and  other*  who  were 
conspicuous  in  this  little  enterprise,  but  I  fear  that  I  have  already  given  a. 
longer  detail  than  it  may  be  thought  worthy  of,  and  shall  therefore  only  beg; 
leave  to  add,  that  one  seaman  killed,  and  one  badly  wounded,  (since  dead) 
both  of  the  Kent,  is  all  the  loss  we  sustained.  The  enemy  left  many  dead 
on  the  ground. 

The  gun-boat  was  a  national  vessel,  called  la  Vigilanter  commanded  by 
an  enseigne  de  vaisseau,  with  a  complement  of  forty-five  men. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  ccc 

THOMAS  RO' 

f  Esq.  Vice-admiral  of  the  Whit  9,  Ac. 


JTAVAL  HISTORY   OP   Tire   PRESENT    YEAR,    ItJOS  —  1809.       75 

Silted, 

James  Skinner,  captain  of  forerop. 

Wounded. 

William  Palmer,  able  seaman,  since  dead. 

P.S.  Since  writing  the  above,  the  boats  of  the  Kent  and  Wiisard  have 
brought  out  without  mischief,  from  under  the  guns  of  a  fort  near  Leghorn, 
where  they  had  taken  shelter,  three  laden  vessels,  and  burnt  a  fourth,  which 
was  aground  and  could  not  be  got  off. 

Copy  afa  Letter  from  Rear-admiral  the  Honourable.  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane, 
JL  B.  Commander  in-chiff  of  his  Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  at  the 
Leeward  Inlands,  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  on  board  the  Neptune, 
vff  Point  Salines,  Martinique,  Xovcxiber  10,  1B08. 

SIR, 

I  have  great  satisfaction  in  enclosing,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords 
.Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty,  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  Captain  Pigot,  of 
his  majesty's  ship  Circe,  acquainting  me  with  the  capture  of  the  French  cor- 
vette Palineur;  the  last  of  the  two  which  were  so  gallantly  beaten  by  his 
majesty's  sloop  Goree,  commanded  by  Captain  Spear,  the  other  having  becu 
brought  in  by  tlie  Poinpee  some  time  siu.ce. 

I  am,  &G. 

ALEX.  COCIIRAXr. 

Tfis  Mf>^.stji/s  Ship  Circe,  off"  Fort  Royal, 
SIR,  Martinique,  October  31,  1U08. 

I  have  the  pleasure  of  acquwnting  you,  that  at  day-light  I  observed  a  hrjg 
uadcr  jury-masts  coming  before,  the  wind,  and  on  my  making  sail,  hauled 
close  round  the  Diamond  rock.  It  being  nearly  calm,  she  was  enabled, 
with  her  sweeps  antl  a  boat,  to  get  under  the  protection  of  a  battery  on 
Point  Solomon  before  we  came  up  with  her:  when,  after  an  action  often 
or  fifteen  minutes,  she  struck  her  colours. 

She  proves  to  be  the  Palineur,  commanded  by  Monsieur  Fourniers,  a. 
French  national  bri^,  of  fourteen  twenty-four  pounder  carronades,  and  two 
pix-pounder  guns,  had  but  sevcnty-nuie  men  on  board,  most  of  whom  were 
woops  of  the  8'2d  regiment.  I  have  to  regret  the  loss  of  one  man  killed  and 
one  wounded  ;  tlie  enemy,  seven  killed  and  eight  wounded.  The  battery 
was  so  much  above  us,  that  few,  if  any,  shots  were  fired  at  it, 

I  am,  &c. 

II.  PIGOT,  Captain, 
fo  Rear-tttlitiirul  the  Hon.  Sir  Aksandcf 
Cochrane,  K.B.  fyf. 

Copy  of  another  Letter  from  Rcnr-admintl  the  lion.  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane, 
K.B.  to  ike  lion.  W.  IT.  Pole,  dalal  Bdltistf,  to  Windward  if  Point 
Suli'ics,  Martinique,  November  i>, 


SIR, 

The  enclosed  copy  of  a  letter  from  Captain  Cockburn,  of  his  majesty's 
•Jiip  Pompee,  will  acquaint  you,  for  tlie  information  of  the  Lords  CommisM 
sioners  of  the  Admiralty,  with  the  capture  of  the  Pylades,  a  French  brig 
Corvette  of  sixteen  guns. 

I  am,  &C. 

ALEX,  COCHRANE, 


76     NAVAL  H-isiony  or  THE  PHESEST  YEAR,  1Q08 — 1SQ9, 

His  Majesty^  Ship  Pmnpec,  Barbadoes, 
SIK,  'October  22,  1808. 

I  have  great  pleasure  in  informing  you,  that  his  majesty's  ship  under  my 
command,  on  her  passage  litre,  on  the  20th  October,  fell  in  with,  and  after 
a  long  chase  of  eighteen  hours  came  up  with  untl  captured  le  Fylade,  a 
Trench  forij;  corvette,  mounting  fourteen  twenty-four-pounder  carronades 
and  two  long  nine-pounders,  commanded  by  Monsieur  Cocherel,  lieutenant 
de  vuisseau,  and  having  on  board  one  hundred  and  nine  men. 

She  was  eight  days  from  Martinique,  but  had  not  made  any  capture.  She 
is  only  three  years  old,  in  perfect  good  state,  and  in  every  respect  fit  for  His 
majesty's  service.  I  am  also  assured  by  her  officers,  she  is  the  fastest  sail- 
ing vessel  the  French  had  in  these  seas. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

E.  COCK  BURN*,  Captain. 
To  Sir  A.  Cochrane,  K.B.  'Rear-admiral  of  the  Red,  $c. 

Copy  of  another  Letter  from  R  far-admiral  the  Hon.  Sir  Alexander  Cnchranc, 
'   K.  B.  fyc.  to  the  Hon.  fV.  W.  Pale,  dated  on  board  {he  Northumberland, 
to  Windward  of  Point  Salines,  Martinique,  the  %d  of  November,  1803. 

SIR, 

I  enclose  the  copy  of  a  letter  from  the  master  of  his  majesty's  late  brig 
Maria,  giving  an  account  of  her  capture,  by  a  large  French  corvette  ship,  ot 
twenty-two  heavy  guns. 

The  Maria  was  a  small  brig,  of  twelve  twelve-pounder  carronades,  and 
two  long  fours,  and  sixty-five  men.  The  oilicers  and  crew,  however,  fought 
her  well,  and  did  not  strike  until  she  was  near  sinking.  When  the  enemy 
took  possession  they  were  obliged  to  run  her  on  shore  and  destroy  her. 

I  regret  the  loss  of  her  commander,  Lieutenant  Bennett,  who  was  an 
officer  of  long  standing,  and  of  great  merit;  Mr.  O'Donndl,  midshipman, 
was  also  killed,  and  four  seamen,  and  nine  others  are  wounded. 

I  am,  &c.  ALEX.  COCHRAXE. 

SIR,  Roseau,  Dominica,  Oct.  18,  1803. 

I  have  taken  the  earliest  opportunity  of  acquainting  yon  of  the  loss  of  his 
majesty's  brig  Maria,  Lieutenant  Bennett,  late  commander. 

Wishing  to  join  you  as  soon  as  possible1,  I  made  application  for  a  cartel, 
which  was  granted  for  four  officers  and  myself,  bv  General  Emeu? 
Dominica,  where  we  arrived  this  morning,  on  the  29th  September,  Point 
Antigua  Grand  Tierre  bearing  S.W.  At  6  A.M.  saw  a  sail  br-aring  S.E.  by 
S,  Made  all  sail  to  cut  her  of}'  the  land.  When  we  came  within  a  mile  of 
the  chase,  she  seemed  to  hard  more  tor  the  land.  Lieutenant  Bennett  sup- 
posed her  to  be  a  French  letter  of  man|nc.  When  we  came  within  aun- 
£hot,  shewed  our  ensiiiu  and  pendant,  still  keeping  within  her  and  the  Land. 
A  flaw  from  the  land  took  us  aback ;  and  fell  dead  calm,  which  exposed  us 
to  her  broadside.  .She  then  hoisted  her  French  ensign  and  pendant,  up 
ports  and  raked  us  fore  and  afc.  Lieutenant  Bennett  used  every  exertion 
in  ordering  sweeps  to  be  got  out,  which  was  instantly  done  ;  but  we 
received  her  second  broadside  in  the  like  manner.  We  kept  up  a  constant 
fire  when  our  broadside  would  bear;  it  still  continued  calm  ;  finding  it  im- 
possible to  save  his  majesty's  brig  by  attempting  to  run,  and  from  the  state 
of  our  masts,  and  yards,  and  rigging,  then  making  much  water. from  shot 
received  in  our  hull,  still  kept  up  the  action.  Our  ensign  haulyards  being 
shot  away,  the  French  captain  asked,  "  Had  we  struck  r"  was  answered  in 
the  negative  by  Lieutenant  Bennett,  who  was  shortly  after  killed  by  three 
grape  shot  he  received  in  his  body.  I  still  ordered  the  (ire  to  be  kept  up, 
until  I  found  his  majesty's  brig  iu  a  sinking  condition  ;  struck. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YE  All,  1808 — 1809.   77 

Whether  from  the  confusion  of  the  enemy,  or  from  the  situation  she  wrsi 
then  in,  they,  shortly  after  taking  possession  of  his  majesty's  brig,  ran  her 
on  shore,  and  left  her  an  entire  wreck. 

She  is  the  French  national  vessel  le  Sards,  mounting  twenty-two  guns, 
and  one  swivel. 

On  her  main-deck,  sixteen  thirty-two  pound  carronades,  and  four  Jong 
twelve  pounder  HU-.IS.  On  her  quarter  deck,  two  nine-pounders* 

I  am  sorry  to  add  the  loss  on  board  his  majesty's  brig,  Maria,  was  James 
Bennett,  lieutenant,  commander;  Robert  O'Donnell,  midshipman  ;  and 
four  seamen,  killed;  and  nine  wounded,  now  in  Point  a  Petre  hospital,  iu 
a  fair  way  of  recovery.  It  would  have  given  pleasure  both  to  officers  and 
seamen  to  have  captured  her.  From  her  superiority  in  force  \vas  compelled 
to  strike. 

I  have,  cx'c. 

JOSEPH  DYASON,  master; 

To  the  ll'^n.  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane,  K.B.  4'C. 

JANUARY    14. 

C(y"  of  a  Letter  from  Rear-admiral  the  Hon.  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane,  K.B. 
Commander- tn^chif^f  <>f  his  JUtnetty't  Ships  and  Firsst/s  at  t/ie  Leeuard 
1st:  H -it.  H  .  If'".  Pole,  dated  on  board  the  Belleiele,  at  Barbu- 

docs,  Octubtr  21,  Io08. 

sin, 

I  enclose,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, the  copy  of  a  letter  from  Captain  Sanders,  of  his  majesty's  sioop 
Bcilette,  giving  an  account  of  his  capturing  a  large  schooner  privatetr  of 
seven  guns  and  seventy  men. 

}  am,  &c. 

ALEX.  CQCflRAXE. 

IJh  3/ty'ctf/s  Sloop  Bellette,  at  Sea. 

«B,  23d  August,  1808. 

I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you,  that  Ins  majesty's  sloop  Bellette,  under 
•my  command,  has  raptured,  alter  a  chase  of  four  hours,  the  French 
schooner  privateer  Coufiance,  mounting  seven  guns,  (pierced  for  sixteen) 
with  a  complement  of  seventy  men  ;  three  days  from  Cayenne. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  &c. 

GEO.  SANDERS. 
Hon.  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane,  K.B.  Commander  in-fhitf. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  f:om  Rear-admiral  Sir  I?.  G.  Keats,  K.B.  addressed  to 
Vice-admiral  Sir  Junns  Suiin/urez,  Ba>t.  and  K.B.  and  transmitted  to  the 
Hon.  If.  IF.  Pole,  dated' on  board  his  AJujtsty's  Ship  the  Superb,  off 
Coftenburg. 

I  have  the  honour  hercw'th  to  transmit  a  letter  which  has  been  addressed 
to  Captain  Sir  Archibald  Uickson,  of  the  Orion,  by  Captain  Morris,  of  the 
>Iai;uer,  reporting  to  him  the  capture,  off  the  island  of  Bornhohn,  of 
the  Danish  cutter  privateer  Paulina,  mounting  ten  guiiSj  and  with  a  corps 
of  fort) -two  "men. 

His  3Tajestys  Shop  Magnet,  off"  Bornholm, 
SIR,  December  5,  1808. 

I  have  to  inform  you  that,  cruising  in  obedience  to  your  orders,  I  discover- 
ed at  aoou  a  cuucr  under  BornhoJin,  and,  by  disguising  his  majesty's  bng 


78      NAVAL   HISTORY   OF   THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1808—1805. 

under  my  command,  succeeded  in  drawing  her  off  the  land,  when  I  chased 
and  came  up  with  her  at  dusk,  the  north  end  of  Bornhohn  bearing  S.  S.  E. 
two  miles. 

She  is  called  the  Paulina,  a  Danish  privateer,  mounting  ten  guns  (four 
and  eight  pouuders).  and  manned  with  forty. two  men  ;  from  Copenhagen 
twelve  days,  and  had  not  made  any  capture ;  her  guns,  except  three,  were 
thrown  overboard  during  the  chase. 

I  have  the  honour  to  he,  &c. 

GEORGE  MORRIS. 
To  Sir  A.  C.  Dickson,  Bart.  Captain  of 
his  Majesty's  Ship  Orion. 

Copt/ of  a  Letter  from  Charles  Gill,  Esq.  Commander  of  his  Majesty's  Sloop 
Onyx,  to  the  Hon.  W.  W,  Pole,  dated  Hull  Roads,  January  10,  1309. 

SIR, 

I  beg  leave  to  inform  you,  for  the  information  of  my  Lords  Commission- 
ers of  the  Admiralty,  that  on  the  morning  of  the  first  instant,  at  day-light, 
when  in  lat.  53  deg.  30  min,  long.  3  deg.  we  discovered  a  strange  brig  on  the 
lee  bow,  standing  to  the  southward,  on  which  we  made  the  private  signal. 
She  immediately  shewed  Dutch  colours,  and  hoved  to,  as  if  prepared  for 
battle.  We  kept  our  wind  until  eight  o'clock,  when,  being  perfectly  ready, 
we  bore  down  and  brought  her  to  close  action.  The  enemy  attempted 
several  times  to  rake  us,  but,  from  our  superior  sailing,  we  were  enabled  to 
foil  every  attempt.  At  half  past  ten  she  struck  her  colours,  being  much  cut 
up  in  her  sails  and  rigging,  and  having  most  of  her  guns  disabled  by  the 
superior  fire  kept  up  by  the  Oynx,  which,  considering  the  very  heavy  sea, 
displayed  a  cool  and  steady  conduct,  by  far  beyond  any  thing  I  could  expect 
from  so  young  a  ship's  company,  and  merits  my  warmest  commendations. 
She  proved  to  be  the  Dutch  national  brig  Manly,  formerly  British,  and  cap- 
tured by  the  Dutch  in  the  river  Ems.  She  mounts  twelve  eightecn-pounder 
carronades,  and  four  long  brass  six-pounders,  with  a  complement  of  ninety- 
four  men ;  commanded  by  Captain-lieutenant  J.  W.  Heneyman  of  the 
Dutch  navy. 

I  am  happy  to  say  our  loss  is  much  more  trifling  than  might  be  expected: 
from  so  long  and  close  a  conflict,  which  can  only  be  accounted  for  by  the 
very  heavy  sea  running  the  whole  of  the  time,  having  only  three  wounded, 
and  the  enemy  five  killed  and  six  wounded. 

I  feel  more  pleasure  in  announcing  her  capture,  as  she  sailed  from  the 
Texel,  in  company  with  another  brig,  for  the  sole  purpose  of  annoying  and 
intercepting  our  trade  with  Heligoland.  She  has  made  one  small  capture 
from  Embden,  laden  with  oats,  supposed  to  be  for  England. 

I  beg  leave  to  recommend  to  their  lordships'  notice  my  first  lieutenant, 
Mr.  E.  W.  Garretr,  who  is  an  old  and  very  deserving  otticer,  and  to  whose 
advice  and  assistance  I  feel  much  indebted ;  also  Mr.  W.  Trewren,  the 
second  lieutenant,  who  is  a  deserving  good  officer,  and  to  whose  zeal  and 
activity  the  service  is  much  indebted.  I  cannot  pass  over  in  silence  the 
assistance  I  received  from  Mr.  G.  D.  Louis,  acting  master,  whose  exertions 
in  manoeuvring  the  brig,  so  as  to  completely  foil  the  enemy's  schemes  to 
rake,  evinced  a  great  display  of  professional  skill,  aitcl  who>e  conduct  tna 
•whole  of  the  time  was  highly  meritorious,  as  well  as  that  of  Mr.  Z.  Webb. 
the  Purser,  who  volunteered  his-  services  in  the  direction  of  the  small 
ar:n  men  aud  marines. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

CHARLES  GILL 


NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1S08— 1809.   7$ 

A  List  of  Killed  and  Wounded  on  board  liis  Majesty's  Sloop  Onvx,  and  the 
Dutch  jiational  B/ig  Manly,  during  (he  Action  of  the  lit  January, 
1809. 

Oni/Xj  10  guns  and  76  men. 

None  killed;  Thomas  Smith,  seaman,  badly  wounded;  James  Harlow, 
(1)  slightly  wounded;  James  Langworth,  hoy,  badly  wounded,  since  dead. 

,  Manly,  16  suns  and  94  men. 

Five  killed  and  six  wounded. 

CHARLES  GILL,  Captain. 

JANUARY    21. 

Rear-admiral  d'Auvergne,  Prince  of  Bouillon,  has  transmitted  to  the 
Hon.  W.  W.  Pole  a  letter  from  Captain  Pringie,  of  his  majesty's  sloop 
bparrowhawk,  dated  oft  Cherbourg  the  12th  instant,  giving  an  account 
of  his  having,  that  day,  captured  the  French  privateer  cutter  1'Esperance, 
of  fourteen  guns  and  fifty  four  men. 

Captain  O'Comrbr,  commander  of  his  majesty's  sloop  the  Ned  Elwin, 
has  transmitted  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole  a  copy  of  a  letter  addressed  by 
him  to  Vice-admiral  Sir  James  Saumarez,  giving  an  account  of  his 
having,  on  the  17th  of  December,  captured  the  General  Kapp,  Preach 
privateer  brig,  of  eight  guns  and  forty-one  men,  which  had  left  Dantzic 
Ihe  evening  before. 


LONDON  GAZETTE  EXTRAORDINARY. 

DOWNING-BTRCET,    JAN.    24,    1809. 

The  Hoa.  Captain  Hope  arrived  late  last  night  with  a  despatch  from 
Lieutenant-general  Sir  David  Baird  to  Lord  Viscount  Castlereagh,  one  of 
his  majesty's  principal  secretaries  of  state,  of  which  the  following  is  a 
copy: 

His  Majesty' s  Sliip  Ville  de  Paris, 
MY  LORD,  at  Sea,  Jan.  18. 

By  the  much  lamented  death  of  Lieutenant-general  Sir  John  Moore, 
who  fell  in  action  with  the  enemy  oa  the  16th  instant,  it  has  become  my 
duty  to  acquaint  your  lordship,  that  the  French  army  attacked  the 
British  troops  in  the  position  they  occupied  in  front  of  Corunna, 
at  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  that  day.  A  severe  wound 
which  compelled  me  to  quit  the  field  a  short  time  previous  to  the  fall 
of  Sir  John  Moore,  obliges  me  to  refer  your  lordship  for  the  particulars 
of  the  action,  which  was  long  and  obstinately  contested,  to  the  enclosed 
report  of  Lieutenant-general  Hope,  who  succeeded  to  the  command  of 
the  army,  and  to  whose  ability  and  exertions,  in  direction  of  the  ardent 
zeal  and  unconquerable  valour  of  his  majesty's  troops,  is  to  be  attributed, 
under  Providence,  the  success  of  the  day,  which  terminated  in  the  com- 
plete and  entire  repulse  and  defeat  of  the  enemy  at  every  point  of 
attack.  The  Honourable  Captain  Gordon,  my  aide-de-camp,  will  have 
the  honour  of  delivering  this  despatch,  and  will  be  able  to  give  your 
lordship  any  further  information  which  may  be  required. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

D.  BAIRD,  Lieut,  Gen. 
Right  ff&n.  Lord  rtscount  Castlereagh* 


8$    NAVAL  HISTORY  os1  THE  PRESENT  YEAUJ  1808 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Audacious,  ojf 

»i R  Corunna,  Jan.  18. 

I 

In  compliance  with  the  desire  contained  in  your  communication  of 
jesterday,  1  avail  myself  of  the  first  moment  1  have  been  able  to  cvm- 
rnand,  to  detail  to  you  the  occurrences  of  the  action  which  took  place- 
in  front  of  Corunna  on  the  16th  instant.  It  will  be  in  your  recollection, 
that  about  one  in  the  afternoon  of  that  day,  the  enemy,  v  ho  had  in  the 
morning  received  reinforcements,  and  who  had  placed  sonic  guns  in  front 
of  the  right  and  left  of  his  line,  was  observed  to  be  moving  troops 
towards  his  left  flank,  and  forming  various  columns  of  attack  at  that 
extremity  of  the  strong  and  commanding  position  which  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  13th  he  had  taken  in  our  immediate  front.  This  indication 
of  his  intention  was  immediately  succeeded  by  the  rapid  and  determined 
attack  which  he  made  upon  your  division  which  occupied  the  right  of  our 
position.  The  events  which  occurred  during  that  period  of  the  action 
you  are  fully  acquainted  with.  The  first  effort  of  the  enemy  was  met 
by  the  commander  of  the  forces,  and  by  yourself,  at  the  head  of  the  42d 
regiment,  and  the  brigade  under  Major-general  Lord  William  Bentinck. 
The  village  on  your  right  became  an  object  of  obstinate  contest.  I 
lament  to  say,  that  soon  after  the  severe  wound  which  deprived  the 
army  of  your  services,  Lieutenant-general  Sir  John  Moore,  who  had  just 
directed  the  most  able  disposition,  fell  by  a  cannon-shot.  The  troops, 
though  not  unacquainted  with  the  irreparable  loss  they  had  sustained, 
•were  not  dismayed,  but  by  the  most  determined  bravery  not  only  repelled 
every  attempt  of  the  enemy  to  gain  ground,  but  actually  forced  him  to 
retire,  although  he  had  brought  up  fresh  troops  in  support  of  those 
originally  engaged. 

The  enemy  finding  himself  foiled  in  every  attempt  to  force  the  right  of  the 
position,  endeavoured  by  numbers  to  turn  it.  A  judicious  and  well-timed 
movement  which  was  made  by  Major-general  Paget  with  the  reserve,  which 
corps  had  moved  out  of  its  cantonments  to  support  the  right  of  the  army, 
t>y  a  vigorous  attack,  defeated  this  intention.  The  major-general  having 
pushed  forward  the  95th  (rifle  corps)  and  1st  battalion  52d  regiments,  drove 
the  enemy  before  him,  and  in  his  rapid  and  judicious  advance,  threatened 
the  left  of  the  enemy's  position.  This  circumstance,  with  the  position  of 
Lieutenant-general  Fraser's  division  (calculated  to  give  still  further  security 
to  the  right  of  the  line)  induced  the  enemy  to  relax  his  efforts  in  that 
quarter.  They  were  however  more  forcibly  directed  towards  the  centre, 
where  they  were  again  successfully  resisted  by  the  brigade  under  Major  ge- 
neral Manningham,  forming  the  left  of  your  division,  and  a  part  of  that 
tinder  Major-general  Leigh,  forming  the  right  of  the  division  under 
my  orders.  Upon  the  left,  the  enemy  at  first  contented  himself  with 
an  attack  upon  our  piquets,  which,  however,  in  general  maintained  their 

f  round.  Finding,  however,  his  efforts  unavailing  on  the  right  and  centre, 
e  seemed  determined  to  render  the  attack  upon  the  left  more  serious,  and 
Lad  succeeded  in  obtaining  possession  of  the  village  through  which  the 
great  road  to  Madrid  passes,  and  which  was  situated  in  front  of  that  part 
of  the  line.  From  this  pose,  however,  he  was  soon  expelled,  with  consider- 
able loss,  by  a  gallant  attack  of  some  companies  of  the  2d  battalion 
14th  regiment,  under  Lieutenant- colonel  Nicholls;  before  five  in  the  even- 
ing, we  had  not  only  successfully  repelled  every  attack  made  upon  the  posi- 
tion, but  had  gained  ground  in  almost  all  points,  and  occupied  a  more 
forward  line  than  at  the  commencement  of  the  action,  whilst  the  enemy 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE    PRESENT    YEAR,    1803 1809.       Si 

confined  his  operations  to  a  cannonnde,  and  the  fire  of  his  Ii;;ht  troops, 
with  a  view  to  draw  off  his  Other  corps.  At  six  the  firing  entirely  coasod. 
1  'he  different  brigades  were  re-assembled  nn  the  ground  ilicy  occupied  in 
the  morning,  and  the  piquets  and  advanced  posts  resumed  their  original 
stations.  Notwithstanding  the  decided  and  marked  superiority  which  at 
this  moment  the  gallantry  of  the  troops  had  given  them  over  an  enemy,  who, 
from  his  numbers,  and  the  commahdiug  advantages  of  his  position,  no 
doubt  expected  nn  easy  victory,  1  did  not,  on  reviewing  all  circumstances, 
conceive  that  I  should  be  warranted  in  departing  from  what  I  knew  w:is 
the  fixed  and  previous  determination  of  the  late  commander  of  the  forces 
to  withdraw  the  army  on  the  evening  of  the  16th,  for  the  purpose  of  embark- 
ation, the  previous  arrangements  for  which  had  already  been  made  by  his 
order,  and  were  in  fact  far  advanced  at  the  commencement  of  the  action. 
The  troops  quitted  their  position  about  ten  at  night,  with  a  degtee  of  order 
that  did  them  credit.  The  whole  of  the  artillery  that  remained  un- 
embarked  having  been  withdrawn,  the  troops  followed  in  the  order 
prescribed,  arid  marched  to  their  respective  points  of  embarkation  in  the 
town  and  neighborhood  of  Corunna.  The  piquets  remained  at  their  posts 
until  five  on  the  morning  of  the  l?th,  when  they  were  also  withdrawn  with 
similar  orders,  and  without  the  enemy  having  discovered  the  movement. 

By  the  unremitted  exertions  of  Captains  the  Honourable  H.  Curzon, 
Gosselin,  Boys,  Rainier,  Serret,  Hawkins,  Dighy,  Garden,  and  Mackenzie, 
of  the  royal  navy,  who  in  pursuance  of  the  orders  of  Rear-admiral  da 
Courcey,  were  entrusted  with  the  service  of  embarking  the  army;  and  in 
consequence  of  the  arrangements  made  by  Commissioner  Bowen,  Captains 
Bowen  and  Shepherd,  and  the  other  agents  for  transports,  the  whole  of  the 
army  was  embarked  with  an  expedition  that  has  seldom  been  equalled. 
With  the  exception  of  the  brigades  under  Major-generals  Hill  and 
Beresford,  which  were  destined  to  remain  on  shore,  until  the  movements  of 
the  enemy  should  become  manifest,  the  whole  was  afloat  before  day-light. 
The  brigade  of  Major-general  Beresford,  which  was  alternately  to  form  our 
rear-guard,  occupied  the  land  front  of  the  town  of  Corunna;  and  that 
under  Major-general  Hill  was  stationed  in  reserve  on  the  promontory 
in  rear  of  the  town.  The  enemy  pushed  his  light  troops  toward  the  town 
soon  after  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  17th,  and  shortly  after 
occupied  the  heights  of  St.  Lucia,  which  command  the  harbour.  B'ut  not- 
withstanding this  circumstance,  and  the  manifold  defects  of  the  place, 
there  being  no  apprehension  that  the  rear-guard  could  be  forced;  and  the 
disposition  of  the  Spaniards  appearing  to  be  good,  the  embarkation  of 
Major-general  Hill's  brigade  was  commenced  and  completed  by  three  in  the 
afterooon.  Major-general  Beresford,  with  that  zeal  and  ability  which  is  so 
well  known  to  yourself  and  the  whole  army,  having  fully  explained,  to  the 
satisfaction  of  the  Spanish  governor,  the  nature  o  o  .r  ruovempijt,  and  having 
made  every  previous  arrangement,  withdrew  his  corps  from  the  land  front  of 
the  town,  soon  after  dark,  and  was,  with  all  the  wounded  that  had  not  been 
previously  moved,  embarked  before  one  this  morning.  Circumstances 
forbid  us  to  indulge  the  hope,  that  the  victory  with  which  it  lias  pleased 
Providence  to  crown  the  efforts  of  the  army,  can  be  attended  with  un*  very 
brilliant  consequences  to  Great  Britain.  It  is  clouded  by  the  loss  of  one  of 
her  best  soldiers.  It  has  been  achieved  at  the  termination  of  a  long  and 
harassing  service.  The  superior  numbers  and  advantageous  position  of  ther 
enemy,  not  less  than  the  actual  situation  of  this  army,  did  not  admit  of  any 
advantage  being  reaped  from  success.  It  must  be,  however,  to  you,  to  the 
army,  and  to  our  country,  the  sweetest  reSection  that  the  imtre  of 

.  2JoI.  XXI.  u 


82       NAT A-Ii    HISTOHY    Of   TEHE    PRESENT    YEAR,    1808 — 1809;, 

the  British  arms  has  been  maintained,  amidst  many  disadvantageous  circum- 
stances. The  army  which  had  entered  Spain,  amidst  the  fairest  prospects, 
had  no  sooner  completed  its  junction,  than,  owing  to  the  multiplied 
disasters  that  dispersed  the  native  armies  round  us,  it  was  left  to  its 
own  resources.  The  advance  of  the  Britibh  corps  from  the  Ducro  afforded 
the  hest  hope  that  the  south  of  Spain  might  be  relieved,  but  this  generous 
effort  to  save  the  unfortunate  people,  also  afrbrcled  the  enemy  the  oppor- 
tunity of  directing;  every  effort  of  his  numerous  troops,  and  concentrating 
all  his  principal  resources  for  the  destruction  of  the  only  regular  force  in  the 
north  of  Spain.  You  are  well  aware  with  what  diligence  this  system 
has  been  pursued.  These  circumstances  produced  the  necessity  of  rapid 
and  harassing  marches,  which  had  diminished  the  numbers,  exhausted  the 
strength;  and  impaired  the  equipment  of  the  army.  Notwithstanding 
all  these  disadvantages,  and  those  more  immediately  attached  to  a  definitive 
position,  which  the  imperious  necessity  of  covering  the  harbour  of  Corunna, 
for  a  time,  had  rendered  indispensable  to  assume,  the  native  and  undaunted 
valour  of  British  troops  was  never  more  conspicuous,  and  must  have 
exceeded  even  what  your  own  experience  of  that  invaluable  quality,  so 
inherent  in  them,  may  have  taught  you  to  expect.  When  every  one  that 
had  an  opportunity,  seemed  to  vie  in  improving  it,  it  is  difficult  for  me,  in. 
making  this  report,  to  select  particular  instances  for  your  approbation.  The 
corps  chiefly  engaged  were  the  brigades  under  Major-generals  Lord  William 
Bentinck,  and  Manniugham  and  Leigh;  and  the  brigade  of  guards  under 
Major-general  Warde. 

To  these  officers,  and  the  troops  under  their  immediate  orders,  the 
greatest  praise  is  due.  Major-general  Hill  aud  Colonel  Catlin  Craufurd, 
•with  their  brigades  on  the  left  of  the  position,  ably  supported  their  advanced 
posts.  The  brunt  of  the  action  fell  upon  the  4th,  42d,  50th,  and  81st  regi- 
ments, with  parts  of  the  brigade  of  guards,  and  the  26th  regiment.  From 
Lieutenant-colonel  Murray,  quarter-master-general,  and  the  officers  of  the 
general-staff,  I  received  the  most  marked  assistance.  I  had  reason  to  regret, 
that  the  illness  of  Brigadier-general  Clinton,,  adjutant-general,  deprived  me 
of  his  aid.  I  was  indebted  to  Brigadier-general  Slade  during  the  action, 
for  a  zealous  offer  of  his  personal  services,  although  the  cavalry  were 
embarked.  The  greatest  part  of  the  fleet  having  gone  to  sea  yesterday 
evening^  the  whole  being  under  weigh,  and  the  corps  in  the  embarkation 
necessarily  much  mixed  pn  board,  it  is  impossible  at  present  to  lay  before 
you  a  return  of  our  casualties.  I  hope  the  loss  in  numbers  is  not  so  con- 
siderable as  might  have  been  expected.  If  I  was  obliged  to  form  an. 
estimate,  I  should  say,  that  I  believe  it  did  not  exceed  in  killed  iiuci 
wounded  from  seven  to  eight  hundred  ;  that  of  the  enemy  must  remain  un- 
known,, but  many  circumstances  induce  me  to  rate  it  at  nearly  double  the 
above  number.  We  have  some  prisoners,  bat  I  have  not  been  able  to 
obtain  an  account  of  the  number  ;  it  is  not,  however,  considerable.  Several 
officers  of  rank  have  fallen  or  been  wounded,  among  whom  i  am  only  at 
present  enabled  to  state  the  names  of  Lieutenant  colonel  Napier,  92d  regi- 
ment, Majors  Napier  and  Stanhope,  58th  regiment,  killed;  Lieutenant, 
colonel  Winch,  4th  regiment,  Lieutenant-colonel  Maxwell,  26th  regiment, 
Lieutenant-colonel  Fane,  59th  regiment,  Lieutenant-colonel  Griffith,  guards, 
Majors  Miller  and  Williams,  81st  regiment,  wounded.  To  you,  who  are 
well  acquainted  with  the  excellent  qualities  of  Lieutenant-general  Sir  John. 
Moore,  I  need  not  expatiate  on  the  loss  the  army  and  his  country  have 
sustained  by  his  death.  His  fall  has  deprived  me  of  a  valuable  friend,  to 
whom  long  experience  of  his  worth  had  sincerely  attached  me.  But 
it  is  chiefly  on  public  grounds  that  I  lament  the  blow.  It  will  be  the  conver* 


NATAL    HISTORY    OF    THE    PRESENT    YEAR,     1808 — 1809.       85 

sation  of  every  one  who  loved  or  respected  his  manly  character,  that,  after 
conducting  the  army  through  an  arduous  retreat  with  consummate  firmness, 
-he  has  terminated  a  career  of  distinguished  honour  by  a  death  that  has  given 
the  enemy  additional  reason  to  respect  the  name  of  a  British  soldier.  Like 
•the  immortal  Wolfe,  he  is  snatched  from  his  country  at  an  early  period  of 
a  life  spent  in  her  service ;  like  Wolfe,  his  last  moments  were  gilded  by  the 
prospect  of  success,  and  cheered  by  the  acclamation  of  victory  ;  like  Wolfe 
also,  his  memory  will  for  ever  remain  sacred  in  that  country  which  he  sin- 
cerely loved,  and  which  he  had  so  faithfully  served.  It  remains  for  me  only 
•to  express  my  hope,  that  you  will  speedily  he  restored  to  the  service  of 
your  country,  and  to  lament  the  unfortunate  circumstance  that  removed  you 
from  your  station  in  the  field,  and  threw  the  momentary  command  into  far 
less  able  hands.  I  have  the  honour  to  be.  &c. 

To  Lieut.  Gen.  Sir  D.  Baird.  JOHN  HOPE,  Lieut  Geu. 


SUPPLEMENT  TO  THE  LONDON  GAZETTE  EXTRAORDINARY. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE,  JAN;    24,    1609. 

•Copy  of  a  Letter  from  the  Hon.  Michael  de  Courcy,  Rear-admiral  of  the 
IV hi  e,  to  the  Hon.  W.  JV.  Pole,  dated  on  board  his  Majesty's  Ship  the 
Tvnnant,  at  Corunna,  the  nth  and  IQlh,  instant. 

•SIR,  January  17,  1809. 

Having  it  in  design  to  detach  the  Cossack  to  England  as  soon  asxher 
•boats  shall  cease  to  be  essential  to  the  embarkation  of  the  troops,  I  seize  a 
moment  to  acquaint  you,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Commissieners  of 
the  Admiralty,  that  the  ships  of  war,  as  per  margin,*  and  transports,  under 
the  orders  of  llear-admiral  Sir  Samuel  Hood  and  Commissioner  Bowen, 
arrived  at  this  anchorage  from  Vigo  on  the  14th*and  15th  instant,  the  Alfred 
and  Hiudostan,  with  some  transports,  were  left  at  Vigo  to  receive  a  brigade 
of  3,500  men,  that  had  taken  chat  route  under  the  Generals  Alten  and 
Crawford. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Corunna  the  enemy  have  pressed  upon  the  British 
in  great  force.  The  embarkation  of  the  sick,  the  cavalry,  and  the  stores 
went  on.  The  night  of  the  16th  was  appointed  for  the  general  embarkation 
of  the  infantry;  and,  mean  time,  the  enemy  prepared  for  attack.  At  three, 
P.M.  an  action  commenced;  the  enemy,  which  had  been  ported  on  a  lofty 
hill,  endeavouring  to  force  the  British  on  another  hill  of  inferior  height,  and 
nearer  the  town.  The  enemy  were  driven  back  with  great  slaughter  ;  but 
very  sorry  am  I  to  add,  that  the  British,  though  triumphant,  have  suffered 
severe  losses.  I  am  unable  to  communicate  further  particulars,  than  that 
Sir  John  Moore  received  a  mortal  wound  of  whicli  he  died  at  night; 
that  Sir  David  Baird  lost  an  arm ;  that  several  officers  and  many  men  have 
been  killed  and  wounded;  and  that  the  ships  of  war  have  received  all  such 
of  the  latter  as  they  could  accommodate  the  remainder  being  sent  to 
transports. 

The  weather  is  now  tempestuous,  and  the  difficulties  of  embarkation  are 
<:reat.  All  except  the  rear  guard  are  embarked,  consisting  perhaps  at  the 
present  moment  of  2,000  men.  The  enemy  having  brought  cannon  to  a  hill 

*  Vilifi  de  Paris,  Victory,  Barfleur,  Zealous,  Implacable,  Elizabeth, 
,Xorge,  PUwrageaet,  Resolution,  Audacious,  Endymion,  Mediator. 


84       NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1808 1809. 

overhanging  the  beach,  have  forced  a  majority  of  the  transports  to  cut  or 
s'ip.  Embarkation  being  no  longer  practicable  at  tlie  town,  the  boats  have 
been  ordered  to  a  sandy  beach  near  the  light-house,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the 
greater  part,  if  not  all,  will  still  be  embarked,  the  ships  of  war  having  drop- 
ped out  to  facilitate  embarkation. 

Jan.  18.  The  embarkation  of  the  troops  having  occupied  the  greater 
part  of  last  night,  it  has  not  been  in  my  power  to  detach  the  Cossack  before 
this  day :  and  it  is  with  satisfaction  I  am  able  to  add,  that,  in  consequence 
of  the  good  order  maintained  by  the  troops,  and  the  unwearied  exertions  of 
Commissioner  Boven,  the  captains,  and  other  officers  of  the  navy, 
the  agents,  as  well  as  the  boats'  crews,  many  of  whom  were  for  two 
days  without  food,  and  without  repose,  the  army  have  been  embarked  to  the 
last  man,  and  the  ships  are  now  in  the  offing,  preparatory  to  steering 
for  England.  The  great  body  of  the  transports  having  lost  their  anchors, 
ran  to  sea  without  the  troops  they  were  ordered  to  receive,  in  consequence 
of  which  there  are  some  thousands  on  board  the  ships  of  war.  Several 
transports,  through  mismanagement,  ran  on  shore.  The  seamen  appeared 
to  have  abandoned  them,  two  being  brought  out  by  the  boats'  crews  of  the 
men  of  war,  two  were  burnt,  and  five  were  bilged.  I  cannot  conclude  this 
hasty  statement  without  expressing  my  great  obligations  to  Rear-admiral  Sir 
Samuel  Hood,  whose  eye  was  every  where,  and  whose  exertions  were 
Unremitted. 

I  have  the  hono\ir  to  be,  &c. 

M.  DE  COURCY. 

Hazy  weather  rendering  the  Cossack  obscure,  I  detach  the  Gleaner  wklj 
this  despatch. 


Courts;  partial. 


A  COURT  MARTIAL  was  held  on  Wednesday,  the  10th  inst.  on  board 
the  Salvador  del  Mundo,  Admiral  Young,  in  Hamoaze,  to  try  Captain 
Baker,  his  officers  and  ship's  company,  for  the  loss  of  the  Jupiter,  of  SO 
guns,  under  his  command,  in  Vigo  Bay.  Captain  Baker  read  a  narrative  of 
the  circumstances  of  the  case,  and  alter  a  full  investigation  as  to  the  cause 
of  the  loss  of  the  Jupiter,  the  court  adjudged  him  to  be  admonished  to  act 
•with  more  precaution  for  the  future,  Captain  Baker  not  having  endeavoured 
to  get  a  pilot,  or  bring  the  ship  to  an  anchor.  Captain  Baker  was  admo- 
nished accordingly. 

A  court  martial  was  also  held  on  John  Brown,  a  seaman  of  the  Raven, 
Captain  Grant,  who  was  tried  on  a  charge  of  murder,  by  kicking  R.  Nelson 
so  violently  in  the  belly,  when  "  skylarking,"  that  he  died  in  consequence  of 
the  blow.'  After  hearing  the  evidence  for  the  prosecution,  and  the  prisoner 
m  his  defence,  the  court  acquitted  him  of  the  murder,  but  sentenced  him  to 
200  lashes  round  the  fleet,  as  an  admonition  against  "  skylarking." 


anU 


The  king  has  been  pleased  to  appoint  the  Right  Hon.  Cuthbert  Lord  Col- 
Jingwood,  vice-admiral  of  the  red,  to  be  major-general  of  his  majesty's  royui 
marine  Orces,  in  the  room  of  Admiral  Lord  Gardner,  deceased. 


NAVAL    HISTORY   OF  THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1803 — 1809.        85 

The  king  1ms  been  pleased,  by  warrant,  under  his  royal  signet  and  simi 
rnanuel,  to  give  and  grant  unto  Henry  Clement  Thompson,  Esq.  a  comman- 
der in  the  royal  navy,  his  royal  license  and  permission,  that  he  may,  in  com- 
pliance with  the  desire  of  his  majesty,  Gustavus  Adolphus  Iv.  Kin-:  of 
Sweden,  accept  and  wear  the  insignia  of  a  knight  of  the  royal  Swedish 
military  order  of  the  Sword,  conferred  upon  him  by  that  sovereign,  as  a  tes- 
timony of  his  royal  approbation  of  the  services  of  the  said  II.  C.  Thompson, 
in  the  engagement  with  the  Russian  flotilla  in  the  Gulf  of  Finland,  on  the 
26th  of  August  last. 

His  royal  highness  the  Prince  of  the  Brazils  has  conferred  on  Captain 
James  Walker,  of  his  majesty's  ship  Bedford,  and  on  Captain  Thomas 
Western,  of  his  majesty's  ship  London,  the  dignity  of  knights  of  the  order 
of  Fidelity,  of  which  order  he  has  also  appointed  the  gallant  Rear-admiral 
Sir  Sydney  Smith  to  be  commander. 

Rear-admiral  Hon.  Allan  Gardner  lias  succeeded  to  the  title  of  Lord 
Gardner,  by  the  death  of  his  father,  late  an  admiral  of  the  blue  squadron  of 
his  majesty's  fleet. 

Captain  Browell,  of  the  royal  hospital  at  Greenwich,  is  appointed  to  suc- 
ceed the  late  Captain  Bouchier,  as  lieutenant-governor  of  that  iastitution. 

Captain  Jahleel  Brenton,  son  of  the  late  Admiral  Brcnton,  is  appointed 
to  command  his  majesty's  ship  Fame ;  Captain  Richard  Thomas  to  the 
Spartan,  vice  Brenton ;  Captain  William  Roberts  to  the  Castor;  Captain 
John  Bastard  to  the  St.  Fiorenzo  ;  Captain  Graham  Eden  Hamond,  son  of 
Sir  Andrew  Hamond,  late  comptroller  of  his  majesty's  navy,  to  the  Victo- 
rious ;  Captain  Frederick  Watkins  to  the  Majestic ;  Captain  George 
Trollope,  brother  of  Captain  Sir  Henry  Trollope,  Bart,  from  the  Electra  to 
the  Zebra  bomb;  Captain  Donald  M'Lead  to  the  Isis,  rice  Langhorne  ; 
and  Captain  Buckland  Sterling  Bluett  to  the  Magnet. 

Captain  Keith  Maxwell  has  been  appointed  to  the  Nymphen,  of  36  guns, 
at  Chatham.  This  frigate  was  captured  from  the  Danes,  and  is  one  of  the 
finest  of  her  class  in  the  service.  We  feel  much  satisfaction  in  announcing 
the  appointment  of  this  gallant  officer.  Our  readers  will  recollect,  that 
Captain  Keith  Maxwell,  when  a  lieutenant  in  the  Beaulieu  frigate,  led  the 
party  (nominally  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Losack)  that  cut  the  French 
national  ship  la  Chevrette  out  of  Camaret  B.iy,  in  July  1801 ;  for  which 
Earl  .St.  Vincent  sent  him  a  commission,  as  master  and  commander,  accom- 
panied by  a  very  handsome  complimentary  letter.* 

Lieutenants  appointed. 

Lieutenant  John  Russel  to  the  Leviathan  ;  Timothy  Scriven  to  the  Ves- 
tal ;  Edward  Brazier  to  the  Plover  ;  George  Troke  to  the  Dolphin  ;  James 
Basbford  to  the  Princess  Carolina  ;  Richard  Charles  Phillips  to  the  Com- 
batant; James  Neville  to  the  Eclipse;  John  Thomas  Jeans  to  the  Night- 
ingale ;  Edward  Reading  to  the  Drake;  Aaron  Fozer  to  the  Victorious; 
James  Nayce  to  the  Dannemark  ;  David'  Patterson  to  the  Cornelia; 
Robert  Brues  to  the  Tigress  cutter  ;  James  Brown  ('2)  to  the  Mornnouth  ; 
Michael  Matthews  to  the  Cornelia;  Joseph  Ramsay  to  the  Brilliant; 
Charles  J*-lL-rys  to  the  Opossum  ;  Thomas  Wm.  Caihc  to  the  Princess* 


*  Vide  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  VI.  pages  61,   73,  aud  74;  Vol.  VII. 
pa^e  210  and  319  ;  ani  Vol.  XX.  pages  92  and  93. 


S6    NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1808  —  1809. 

Carolina  ;  W.  S.  Fuller  to  the  Blake  ;  Samuel  Jehn  Hall  to  the  Agincourt  ; 
Thomas  Jaff  to  the  Minstrel;  Philip  Stimpson  to  the  Rattler;  Itobert 
Wariehope  to  the  Blake  ;  William  Norman  to  the  Sirius  ;  William  Smith 
(5)  to  the  Castor;  Richard  Burton  to  the  Tickler  cutter  ;  and  Marmaduke 
Smith  to  the  Royalist  sloop. 

List  of  midshipmen  passed  for  lieutenants  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  the 
month:  —  Joseph   Eastwood,   J.  G.  Harrington,  Richard  Piercy,  Thomas 
j  William  Poore,  John  Hatton,  and  Daniel  Daley. 


Surgeons  and  assistants  appointed. 

Mr.  Gladstone,  one  of  the  assistant-surgeons  of  the  Royal  Hospital  at 
Greenwich,  is  appointed  by  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty  to  be  surgeon  of 
the  royal  division  of  marines  at  Woolwich,  vice  Anderson,  deceased. 

Mr.  Thomas  Hooper  is  appointed  to  be  surgeon  of  his  majesty's  sloop 
Saracen;  John  Neill  to  the  Blonde;  John  Julius  Inger  from  the  Phipps  to 
the  Cygnet;  Thomas  Cochrane  to  the  Forrester;  Charles  Lin  con  to  the 
Glomen  ;  Gregory  Odell  to  the  C«esar  ;  Joseph  White  to  the  Drake  ;  • 
Richard  Thompson  to  the  Vilk  de  Paris;  George  Pructor  to  t^e  Orestes 
sloop  ;  Edward  Hopley  to  the  Nymphen  ;  Henry  Ewing  to  the  Resistance  ; 
Robert  Marks  to  be  surgeon  of  the  Lark  ;  and  A.  B.  Grenville  to  proceed 
to  the  East  Indies,  to  be  at  the  disposal  of  the  commam!er-in-cluef. 

The  following  arc  promoted  to  the  rank  of  surgeons,  to  proceed  to  the 
Jamaica  and  Leeward  Island  stations  :  —  John  Marpole,  John  Heawood, 
T.  P.  Davis,  John  Wm.  Latham,  Win.  M'Kinley,  James  Dobie,  John  Paw- 
son,  George  Lyon  Guild,  and  James  Young. 

Mr.  Gladstone,  surgeon  of  the  division  of  marines  at  Woolwich,  is 
Rppointed  to  be  surgeon  of  the  Royal  Naval  Asylum  in  Greenwich  Park. 

Assistants  appointed. 

Thomas  Stewart,  te  be  assistant-surgeon  of  the  Amethyst;  John  Dun- 
thorn  to  be  hospital  mate  of  the  Royal  Hospital  at  Plymouth  ;  J.  R.  Arm- 
strong to  be  hospital  mate  of  the  naval  hospital  at  Jamaica;  J.  E.  Gray  to 
be  assistant-surgeon  of  the  Acute  gun-brig  ;  John  Johns  to  the  Fervent 
gun-brig  ;  J.Godard  to  the  Blazer  gun-brig;  P.  Ramsay  to  the  Dannemark  ; 
Wm.  Porteous  (2)  to  the  Alphea  ;  Wm.  Hector  to  die  Castor;  M.  Camth 
to  the  Victorious  ;  John  Baiston  to  the  Iphegenia  ;  Charles  Miller  to  the 
Eagle  ;  Wm.  Duncan  to  the  St.  Albans  ;  Robert  Bateman  to  the  Standard  ; 
Wm.  M'Masters  to  the  Argonaut,  hospital  ship;  Robert  Brown  to  the 
Defence;  C.  W.  Vandeuberg  to  the  Majestic;  and  Thomas  Lodt-n  to  the 
Safeguard. 


BIRTHS. 

On  the  10th  of  January,  in   Bentinck-street,  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Gourtenay 
Boyle,  lady  of  the  Hon.  Captain  Boyle,  commander  of  his  majesty's  ship 
William. 


On  the  8th  of  January,  the  lady  of  Captain  Walter  Bathurst,  of  the  royal 
navy,  of  a  son, 

On  the  4th  of  January,  the  lady  of  Captain  Butt,  of  the  royal  navy,  of  a 
still-horn  child. 

In  Great  Mary-la-bonne  street,  on  the  19th  of  January,  the  lady  of  Major 
M'Cleverty,  of  the  royal  marines,  of  a  son. 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1808 — 1809.          87 

On  the  17th  of  January,  in  Bentinck-street,  the  lady  of  Captain  M.  II. 
Scott,  of  the  royal  navy,  of  a  daughter. 

On  the  10th  of  January,  at  Liverpool,  Mrs.  Sydney  Horton,  wife  of  Cap- 
tain S.  Horton,  of  the  royal  navy,  of  a  daughter. 


MARRIAGES. 

Captain  Hollingworth,  of  the  royal  navy,  son  of  Wm.  Hollingworth,  Esq; 
late  of  the  Admiralty,  to  Miss  Jackson,  daughter  of  John  Jackson,  Esq. 
master  attendant  at  his  majesty's  dock-yard  at  Plymouth. 

William  Larke,  Esq.  governor  of  the  naval  hospital  at  Yarmouth,  to  the 
widow  of  ths  late  John  Worship,  Esq.  of  Runham,  Norfolk. 

On  the  13th  January,  at  Mary-la-bonne  Church,  Capt.  P.  Malcolm,  of  the 
royal  navy,  to  Miss  Elphinstone,  eldest  daughter  of  the  Honourable  William 
Fullarton  Elphinstone. 


DEATHS. 

Lately,  at  Ipswich,  Rear-admirnl  Uvedale. 

At  Portsmouth,  Lieutenant-colonel  Archbold,  of  the  royal  marines. 

On  Monday,  the  12th  of  December,  at  Osborne's  hotel,  Lieutenant  Wm. 
Skelton,  of  the  royal  navy,  aged  27  ;  he  was  third  son  of  the  late  Arnoldus 
Jones  Skelton,  Esq.  of  Papcastle,  in  the  county  of  Cumberland,  and  first 
cousin  to  the  present  Marquis  Cornvtallis. 

In  the  month  of  May  last,  as  Mr.  Drury,  first  lieutenant  of  his  majesty's 
ship  Modeste,  was  proceeding  from  Diamond  harbour  to  the  Precidency 
(Madras),  the  boat  which  he  was  iu,  from  a  sudden  gust  of  wind,  suddenly 
upset,  when  he  perished  with  several  others. 

Lately,  Mrs.  Cranstoun,  widow  of  the  late  Captain  Cranstoun,  of  the 
royal  navy. 

Lately,  was  drowned,  on  the  coast  of  Jutland,  together  with  the  greatest 
part  of  his  crew,  Captain  Temple,  of  his  majesty's  ship  Crescent. 

On  the  30th  December,  at  his  apartments  in  the  royal  hospital  at  Green- 
wich, Captain  Bouchier,  lieutenant-governor  of  that  institution.  It  has 
been  stated  in  several  of  the  papers,  that  Captain  Bouchier  died  in  conse- 
quence of  a  wound  which  he  received  35  years  ago,  and  which  had  never 
been  perfectly  cured.  This  statement  is  incorrect.  After  the  glorious 
action  in  the  West  Indies  in  1782,  Captain  Bouchier  was  appointed  to  the 
Hector,  of  64  guns,  one  of  the  French  prizes,  and  ordered  t«  bnng  her 
home.  The  Hector  had  suffered  much  in  the  action,  and  still  more  in  the 
dreadful  storm  which  happened  soon  after,  in  which  the  Ville  de  Paris,  the 
Centaur,  and  several  other  vessels  were  lost,  when  she  was  attacked  during 
the  night,  on  her  passage  home,  by  two  large  French  frigates.  Although 
his  ship  was  nearly  a  wreck,  Captain  Bouchier  defended  her  with  the 
greatest  bravery,  and  succeeded  in  beating  off  the  frigates  ;  but  the  Hector 
suffered  so  much,  that  she  sunk  the  next  day,  and  the  whole  crew  must  have 
perished,  if  a  Danish  merchantman  had  not  fortunately  hove  in  sight,  on 
board  of  which  they  were  saved.  It  was  in  tUis  gallant  action  that  Captain 
Bouchier  received  the  wound  which  disqualified  him  for  active  service. 

On  the  1st  of  January,  at  Bath,  Admiral  Lord  Gardner,  in  the  66th  year 
cf  his  age.  He  was  uaiversally  allowed  to  be  a  most  able  and  judicious 


88          NAVAL     HISTORY    OF    THE    PltESE'NT    YEAR,    1808  —  1809, 

commander:  he  was  born  at  Uttoxeter,  in  Staffordshire;  his  father  was  a 
Jieutenant-colonel  in  the  llth  regiment  of  Dragoon  Guards,  and  a  native 
of  Coieraine,  in  the  north  of  Ireland.  He  was  afterwards  in  ten  glorious 
actions,  in  all  of  which  he  displayed  such  courage,  skill,  and  magnanimity,- 
as  were  rewarded  ultimately  by  his  sovereign,  with  the  appointment  of 
admiral  of  the  blue,  major-general  of  marines,  created  a  baron  of  the 
united  kingdom,  and  had  the  honour  of  receiving  from  the  hand  of  his 
majesty  a  gold  chain,  in  approbation  of  his  conduct  on  the  20th  of  May 
and  1st  of  June,  1794.  He  married  in  the  year  1?69,  Miss  Hyde,  of 
Jamaica,  and  has  left  by  her  ladyship,  who  survives  him,  a  very  numerous- 
family,  including  two  sons  in  the  navy.* 

On  the  18th  of  December,  at  Cattesfteld,  near  Fareham,  Hants,  Rear- 
admiral  Edward  O'Brien. 
/ 

On  the  19th  of  January,  at  his  house  in  Marlborotigh  Building?,  Bath, 
after  a  life  of  honour,  ardent  zeal  in  his  country's  good,  Christian  virtue  and 
private  benevolence,  General  Edward  Smith,  colonel  of  the  43d  regiment 
of  foot,  and  governor  of  Fort  Charles,  Jamaica.  The  general  was  uncle  to 
the  gallant  Admiral  Sir  Sydney  Smith,  and  among  the  few  surviving  officers 
who  were  present  when  the  immortal  Wolfe  fell. 

Lately,  at  St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital,  Lieutenant  Crawford,  of  the  royal 
navy.  He  was  a  long  time  last  war  governor  of  the  naval  hospital  at 
Gibraltar. 

On  the  20th  of  January,  the  infant  daughter  of  Captain  H.  M.  Scott,  of 
the  royal  navy. 

At  Titchfield,  county  of  Hants,  Rear-admiral  Jonathan  Faulknor. 

On  the  17th  instant,  in  Frith-street,  Soho,  Dr.  John  Anderson,  surgeon 
of  the  royal  division  of  marines  at  Woolwich. 

The  following  distressing  statement  is  copied  from  The  Plymouth  Teh- 
graph  of  January  21 : — 

"  On  Sunday  last  arrived  the  Frankfort  transport,  Captain  John  Thread- 
geld,  from  Quebec,  with  invalids  from  the  different  regiments  at  that  place, 
after  a  most  tedious  passage  of  ten  weeks.  She  brought  home  the  widow 
and  children  of  the  late  Captain  Thomas  Windsor,  of  the  10th,  or  Royal 
Veteran  Battalion,  who  died  at  Quebec  in  May  last,  and  left  Mrs.  Windsor 
and  four  fine  children,  to  lament  the  loss  of  the  best  of  husbands,  and  most 
tender  and  indulgent  father.  But,  oh,  the  dreadful  story  is  to  come  ! — 
After  their  encountering  storms  and  tempestuous  weather,  for  so  many 
weeks,  on  Wednesday,  the  llth  instant,  being  about  six  leagues  from  the 
land,  and  a  fine  day,  the  eldpst  daughter,  a  most  beautiful  and  amiable 
young  ladv,  about  10  years  of  age,  sat  herself  down  on  the  starboard  quar- 
ter, and  leaning  against  a  rail  to  read,  the  rail  not  being  well  fastened,  sud- 
denly gave  way,  and  she  fell  overboard ;  there  being  at  the  same  lime  a 
great  swell,  and  the  boats  full  of  soldiers'  beds,  baggage,  &c.  could  not  be 
got  out  in  time  to  save  the  unfortunate  young  lady,  though  she  floated  on 
the  merciless  waves  for  15  minutes,  waving  her  hands  with  the  most  dread- 
ful shrieks,  and  she  went  down  just  as  the  boat  got  near  her. — The  most 
distracted  mother  was  prevented  from  throwing  herself  overboard,  by  the 
great  exertions  of  Lieutenant  Jones,  and  the  other  officers  and  gentlemen 
on  board. 


*  For  a  portrait  and  biographical  memoir  of  Admiral  Lord  Gardner,  vide 
NAVAL  CuuoMCi.E,  Vol.  \  111. 


MEMOIR  OF  THE  PUBLIC  SERVICES 

OF 

CAPTAIN  MICHAEL   SEYMOUR, 

OF   THE    KOYAL    NAVY. 


"  Vile  latent  virtus  :  quid  enim  tubmersa  tenebris 
Proderit  obscuro  ?"  CLAUD,  iv.  CONS.  HON. 

Virtue  conceal'd  is  but  of  little  worth: 
For  wbat  of  good,  in  dark  obscurity. 
Can  it  produce  ? 

A  T  a  time  when  the  undaunted  firmness  and  bravery  of  anation 
-*~  "*-  become  essential  securities  against  the  insults,  barbarities, 
and  tyranny  of  a  power  that  seeks  for  universal  dominion,  to 
record  the  particular  acts  of  prowess  performed  by  our  gallant 
countrymen,  is  a  duty  so  fit,  just,  and  necessary,  that  no  question 
can  arise  as  to  its  propriety,  whether  it  be  considered  as  a  grateful 
acknowledgment  to  bravery,  or  as  holding  out  an  example  of 
emulation.  To  this  mark  of  distinction  Captain  Michael  Seymour, 
the  gallant  captor  of  the  Thetis,  is  highly  entitled  ;  and  it  is  with 
particular  pleasure  that  we  seize  on  the  opportunity  afforded  us  of 
presenting  the  public  with  a  shqrt,  but  we  believe,  accurate  sketch 
of  that  officer's  services. 

For  his  birth,  Captain  Seymour  is  indebted  to  the  sister  island, 
now  happily  forming  a  component  part  of  the  British  empire. 
He  was  born  on  the  8th  of  November,  1768,  at  the  Glebe  House, 
at  Palace,  in  the  county  of  Limerick  ;  and  if  the  descent  from  vir- 
tuous and  honourable  parents  be  gratifying,  he  is  in  that  respect 
indeed  eminently  fortunate.  At  thy  time  of  his  birth,  the  Rev. 
John  Seymour  was  rector  of  Palace — a  man  of  exemplary  piety,  of 
a  most  amiable  and  benevolent  disposition,  and  endowed  with  con- 
siderable learning.  lie  A\as  beloved,  esteemed,  and  venerated  by 
his  neighbours — by  tliat  society,  of  which  he  might  justly  be  re<» 
garded  the  centre. 

.  Sol.  XXI.  K 


PO  MEMOIR   OF   THE    1'UIJLIC   SERVICES    OV 

For  his  talents,  and  many  amiable  qualities,  he  was  voluntarily 
selected  by  Dr.  Cox,  the  then  Archbishop  of  Cashel,  as  one  of  his 
domestic  chaplains.  Dr.  Cox,  who  was  as  zealous  to  reward,  as 
he  was  capable  of  appreciating  superior  merit,  soon  afterwards 
offered  him  a  valuable  living ;  but,  as  a  tribute  to  departed  virtue, 
it  deserves  to  be  told,  that  he  refused  to  accept  the  offer  until  the 
senior  chaplains  should  be  provided  for.  Preferment,  however, 
•was  at  length  bestowed ;  and  Mr.  Seymour  died,  in  the  month  of 
July,  1795,  rector  of  Abington,  which  he  held  with  the  chan- 
cellorship of  Emjy.— It  would  be  well  that  all  would  aspire  to  the 
propriety  of  his  life. 

Captain  Seymour's  mother,  who  is  still  living,  was  the  youngest 
of  two  daughters  of  William  Hobart,  Esq.  of  High  Mount,  in  the 
county  of  Cork.  She  had  five  children  ;  the  first  of  whom  was 
William  Hobart  Seymour,  an  officer  of  the  60th  regiment,  vyhe 
died  in  the  West  Indies,  in  the  year  1797  ;  having,  two  yaais 
before,  made  an  extraordinary  escape  from  the  French  prison-ship 
at  Point  a  Petre,  in  Guadaloupe,  by  swimming  from  her  in  the 
evening,  in  company  with  the  master  of  a  Bermudan  vessel. 
Having  reached  the  beach,  and  finding  a  canoe,  they  pushed  ofl', 
and  on  the  following  day,  at  noon,  were  taken  up  by  the  Bellona 
man  of  war,  off  the  Saints  Isles.  — The  second  child  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Seymour  was  Michael,  the  subject  of  this  memoir  ;  the  third, 
the  RCT.  John  Seymour,  a  most  exemplary  man,  now  rector  of 
Ulloa,  in  the  county  of  Tipperary,  in  the  diocese  of  Cashel ;  the 
fourth  was  Frances,  who  died  in  1F05  ;  and  the  fifth,  Richard, 
who  was  killed  in  March,  1806,  at  the  close  of  the  action  between 
the  Amazon  frigate,  Captain  Parker  (of  which  he.  was  the  first 
lieutenant)  and  the  Belle  Poule,  French  frigate.  He  was  a  brave 
and  an  excellent  officer.  The  testimonies  of  those  who  knew  him 
best  are  loud  in  his  praise. 

We  have  no  earlier  account  of  the  subject  of  our  memoir  than 
the  commencement  of  his  professional  career,  which  took  place  in, 
November,  1780.  lie  had  just  then  completed  his  twelfth  year, 
and  entered  the  service  under  the  auspices  of  his  gallant  and  kind 
friend  the  Hon.  Captain  James  Luttrcll,  who  then  was  in  the 
command  of  the  Merlin  sloop  of  war.  On  his  quitting  this  sloop, 
he  successively  served  with  the  same  officer  in  the  Portland}, 


CAPTAIN    MICHAEL   SEYMOUR.  $1 

Mediator,  and  Ganges,  being  all  the  ships  Captain  laittrell  ever 
commanded.* 

In  the  winter  of  1782,  whilst  serving  in  the  Mediator,  of  44 
guns,  he  participated  in  a  very  warm  action  between  that  ship  and 
fire  French  armed  ships,  mounting,  in  the  whole,  136  guns. 

As  this  was  the  first  engagement  o£  consequence  which  Mr.  Sey- 
mour witnessed,  and  as  its  coriduct  and  result  reflected  great  credit 
on  the  commander,  officers,  and  crew  of  the  Mediator,  the  follow- 
ing short  account  of  it  will  not,  it  is  presumed,  bfe  regarded  as 
tiniriteresting. 

It  was  on  the  12th  of  December,  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ling,  while  cruising  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  that  the  Mediator,  dis- 
covering five  sail  of  large  vessels  to  leeward,  bore  up  and  gare 
rhase.  On  her  approach,  they  shortened  sail;  and,  standing  un- 
der top-sails,  formed  into  the  following  line-of-battle  ahead  : — 

Ships.                  Guns.  Men.         Commanders. 

Eugene 36  133  M.  Le  Baudin. 

American  (brig) 14  70 

Menagere  (urmbe  en  Jiute~)  34  212  M.  de  Toligne. 

Alexandra 24  102  M.Gregory. 

Dauphin  Royal    28  1 20 

Total. 136  637 

Captain  Lutlrell,  not  intimidated  by  the  formidable  appearance 
of  the  enemy,  stood  resolutely  on  till  ten  o'clock,  when,  as  he 
passed  along  their  line,  they  opened  their  fire,  which  was  returned 
from  the  Mediator  with  so  much  steadiness  and  effect,  that,  in 
half  an  hour,  their  line  was  broken.  The  three  largest  of  the 
ships  wore,  under  an  easy  sail,  and  continued  to  engage  the 
Mediator  with  much  briskness,  till  eleven,  when,  by  a  skilful 
manoeuvre,  and  superior  fire,  Captain  Luttrell  cut  off  PAlexandre, 
and  compelled  her  to  strike.  Witnessing  her  fate,  and  fearing 
that  it  might  be  their  own,  her  companions  instantly  went  off 
before  the  wind,  under  a  crowd  of  sail.  At  half-past  twelve, 
having  secured  his  prize,  Captain  Luttrell  renewed  the  chase,  and 
the  enemy  separated.  At  five  in  the  evening,  he  got  within  gun-. 

*  The  Hon.  Captain  Luttrell  attained  post  rank  on  the  23d  of  February, 
1781;  and,  in  the  year  1789,  the  country  was  unfortunately  deprived  of 
kis  service?,  by  a  consumption,  which  carried  him  ofij  in  the  oriole  of  life. 


31  MEMOIR   OF   THE   PUBLIC   SERVICES   OF 

shot  of  Ie  Menagere,  and  commenced  a  smart  running  fight,  which 
continued  till  nine ;  when,  on  his  ranging  up  close  alongside  of 
her,  she  hauled  down  her  colours.  Thus  two  sail  out  of  the  fire 
were  captured.  On  the  following  morning,  at  day-break,  the 
brig  and  le  Dauphin  Royal  were  seen  in  the  offing ;  but,  being 
close  in  with  the  Spanish  coast,  and  having  340  prisoners  onboard, 
with  only  190  of  his  own  men  to  guard  them,  Captain  Luttrell 
thought  it  most  prudent  to  steer  for  England  with  his  prizes. 

In  this  action,  I'Alexandre  had  six  men  killed  and  nine  wounded; 
and  le  Mcnagere  had  four  killed  and  eight  wounded  ;  but,  in  con- 
sequence  of  the  enemy  having  directed  their  fire  chiefly  at  the  masts 
and  rigging  of  the  Mediator,  not  a  man  on  board  that  ship  was 
hurt. 

On  the  second  night  after  the  engagement,  Captain  Luttrell  was 
alarmed  by  a  violent  explosion,  and  cry  of  fire  ;  which,  on  inquiry, 
he  found  to  have  been  occasioned  by  one  of  the  lower-deck  guns 
having  been  fired  off  by  Captain  Gregory,  the  commander  of 
PAlexandre,  who  had  laid  a  plot  with  the  prisoners  to  rise  and  take 
the  Mediator.  The  firing  of  the  gun  was  the  signal  which  had 
been  agreed  upon  by  the  conspirators  to  execute  their  design ;  but, 
by  the  most  prompt  and  indefatigable  exertions  of  the  officers,  who 
instantly  placed  additional  sentinels  over  the  hatchways,  and 
secured  them  by  capstan  bars,  the  accomplishment  of  this  des- 
perate scheme  was  prevented  without  bloodshed.  The  intentions 
of  Captain  Gregory  having  been  fully  proved,  Captain  Luttrell 
considered  him  to  be  no  longer  entitled  to  his  parole  ;  and,  with 
some  of  his  accomplices,  he  was  confined  in  irons  during  the 
remainder  of  the  passage  to  England. 

Under  such  an  officer  as  Captain  Luttrell,  professional  principles 
the  most  satisfactory  were  likely  to  be  imbibed  ;  and  that  the  early 
impression  of  an  action  so  bravely  determined  on,  and,  so  skilfully 
conducted,  was  not  to  be  lost  on  the  mind  of  our  young  midship- 
man, subsequent  events  have  proved. 

From  the  time  that  he  left  the  Ganges,  in  1783,  till  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  late  war,  he  was  almost  constantly  employed  in  the 
Europa,  Antelope,  Janus,  Ariol,  Pogase,  Magnificent,  and  Marl- 
borough.  In  the  month  of  November,  1790,  he  received  his  pro- 
motion, as  lieutenant,  in  the  Magnificent ;  and  in  Lord  Howe's 
memorable  action  of  the  first  of  June,  1794,  we  find  Mr.  Seymour 


CAPTAIN  MICHAEL   SEYMOUR.  93 

junior  lieutenant  on  board  the  Marlborough,  commanded  by  the 
Hon.  Captain  (now  Admiral)  Berkeley.*  In  this  action  he  was 
so  severely  wounded,  that  he  suffered  the  loss  of  his  left  arm.  We 
believe  his  sufferings  were  marked  with  particular  severity. 

The  next  step  our  reader  may  expect  us  to  trace  will,  no  doubt, 
be  his  immediate  promotion  ;  but  here  a  blank  intervenes,  atul 
Mr.  Seymour's  applications  were  disregarded,  with  ll  official  tran- 
quility,"  until  Earl  Spencer's  administration,  when  that  distin- 
guished nobleman  promoted  him  to  the  rank  of  master  and  com- 
mander, and  in  a  few  months  added  his  further  testimony  of  ap- 
probation, by  appointing  him  to  the  Spitfire  sloop  of  war.  In 
this  sloop  Captain  Seymour  continued  four  years ;  but  during  this 
period  of  active  service  we  have  no  extraordinary  tatcs  of  wonder 
to  relate,  nor  no  violent  praise  to  bestow.  We  wish,  however,  to 
observe,  that  though  no  particular  opportunity  occurred  for  daring 
enterprise  or  gallant  heroism,  yet  every  cruise  afforded  ample  tes- 
timony, both  summer  and  winter,  amidst  calms  and  storms,  that 
the  Spitfire  was  in  active  duty. 

It  may  be  remarked,  as  the  best  proof  of  constant  exertion,  that 
•whatever  Captain  Seymour  may  have  happily  added  to  his  fortune, 
has  not  been  by  the  casual  accident  of  one  rich  prize,  but  by  the 
accumulation  of  numerous  small  ones ;  for  whatever  would  tend 
to  harass  the  enemy,  even  from  the  smallest  capture  to  that  of  a 
proud  frigate,  each  in  its  turn  has  been  seized  on  with  the  ardour 
of  a  zealous  and  brave  officer. 

At  the  end  of  four  years,  and  not  till  then,  Captain  Sey- 
mour solicited  further  promotion.  Lord  Spencer  still  pre- 
sided at  the  Admiralty,  and  with  the  same  propriety  and 
romptness  of  attention  which  (happily  for  the  navy)  uniformly 
marked  his  lordship's  conduct  during  his  administration,  Captain 
Seymour's  application  was  directly  attended  to,  by  his  promotion 
to  the  rank  of  post  captain.  It  is  delightful  to  record  facts  of 
this  description,  and  we  hope  every  year  will  multiply  them  ;  for 
what  can  support  our  gallant  countrymen,  who  patiently  submit 
to  every  privation,  in  the  execution  of  their  anxious  and  laborious 
duties,  but  the  expectation  of  reward  for  their  faithful  services  ? 

Soon  after  this  time  the  contest  of  war  ceased,  and  Captain  Sey- 
mour remained  unemployed  ;  but  immediately  on  the  renewal  of 

*  Vide  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.'Xtt.  p-jre  1.00.* 


94  MEMOlft   O*   THE   PUBLIC   SERVICED  OF 

hostilities,  he  again  offered  his  services.  Some  time,  indeed,  elapscS 
before  he  received  employment  of  any  kind,  and  when  it  did  come, 
it  was  that  of  acting  captain  ;  in  which  capacity  he  patiently  served 
in  six  successive  ships — Budging,  we  suppose,  that  the  discipline  of* 
obedience  should  subdue  all  other  feelings  of  the  mind,  and  that 
the  best  reproof  to  commands,  if  (by  accident)  improperly  direct, 
ed,  was  the  patient  observance  of  them.  At  length,  however,  in 
1806,  on  Lord  Bar  ham's  taking  charge  of  the  naval  administra- 
tion, Captain  Seymour  was  appointed  by  his  lordship  to  that  frigate 
<>f  which  he  has  proved  himself  so  worthy. 

This  brings  us  to  the  period  of  the  action  of  the  Amethyst  with 
the  French  frigate  la  Thetis. 

The  Amethyst  had  been  cruising  off  I/Orient  fourteen  weeks  : 
during  this  time  violent  gales  of  wind  had  prevailed,  and  cons e-' 
quently  added  to  the  perils  of  a  coast  at  all  times,  we  believe,  suf- 
ficiently dangerous. 

On  the  night  of  the  10th  of  November,  1808,  we  find  the  Ame- 
thyst, however,  iti  the  watchful  perseverance  of  her  duty,  standing1 
so  close  in  to  the  north-west  point  of  Groa,  that  it  became  impossible 
for  an  enemy  to  escape  ;  the  proof  of  which  has  been  fully  exem- 
plified, by  the  ineffectual  endeavours  of  the  Frerich  frigate.  The 
night  was  unusually  dark,  not  a  star  to  be  seen,  and  every  thingf 
indeed  favoured  the  attempt.  About  seven  the  flash  and  report  of 
cannon  were  distinctly  seen  and  heard  from  a  battery  on  the 
French  coast,  in  a  direction  contiguous  to  the  alarm  atid  signal' 
post.  The  conjecture  of  the  moment  supposed  rt  in  consequence 
of  the  near  approach  of  the  Amethyst ;  but  it  was  in  reality  directed! 
against  their  own  frigate,  of  the  sailing  of1  which  they  were  igno- 
rant. About  half-past  seven  a  sail  was  descried  just  ahead  :  it  was 
supposed  a  small  armed  vessel,  or  something  still  more  contempti- 
ble, and  the  deception  of  night  favoured  the  supposition.  A  mus- 
ket was  ordered  to  be  fired :  no  notice  was  taken  :  she  grew 
larger.  The  Amethyst  still  continued  under  an  easy  press  of 
sail.  A  gun  was  now  fired,  and  the  crackling  noise  of  this  shot 
was  heard  as  it  passed  through  the  cabin  windows.  This  by  the 
enemy  was  instantly  returned,  and  the  veil  of  darkness  which  had 
hitherto  obscured  her  was  now  removed,  by  the  lights  flying  in. 
every  part  of  her ;  every  inch  of  canvass  was  set ;  her  boat  cut 
from  her  stern,  and  a  ship  of  war  appeared  anxious  for  escape. 


«APTAIN    MICHAEL   SEYMOUR.  £5 

Chough  capable  of  resistance.  The  Amethyst  immediately  spread 
more  canvass,  but  allowed  her  to  gain  a  little,  lest  her  apprehen- 
sions might  induce  her  to  run  on  that  shore  which  was  then  so  near 
.them.  About  nine,  however,  those  apprehensions  were  at  an  end, 
and  the  Amethyst  closed  fast.  Her  adversary,  now  finding  all  hopes 
of  escape  at  an  end,  made  her  best  dispositions  to  receive  the 
Amethyst,  and  before  tea  o'clock  the  action  commenced,  which 
continued,  with  very  little  intermission,  until  about  twenty  minutes 
after  twelve.  The  French  ship  fell  on  board  the  Amethyst  a 
little  after  ten.  She  extricated  herself  from  that  situation  ;  but, 
at  a  quarter  past  eleven,  she  intentionally  laid  the  Amethyst  on 
board;  and  from  that  time,  until  the  moment  of  her  surrender, 
•which  was  about  an  hour,  the  contending  ships  were  locked 
together,  the  fluke  of  the  Amethyst's  best  bower  anchor  having 
entered  the  foremost  main-deck  port  of  la  Thetis.  After  great 
slaughter,  la,  Thetis  was  boarded  and  taken  possession  of,  and 
some  prisoners  were  received  from  her,  before  the  ships  were  dis- 
engaged. The  Triumph,  commanded  by  Sir  Thomas  Hardy, 
shortly  afterwards  came  up  ;  and,  subsequently,  the  Shannon, 
which  took  la  Thetis  in  tow. 

In  this  long  and  sharply  contested  action,  the  rigging  of  the 
Amethyst  was  much  cut;  and  19  of  her  crew  were  killed,  and  51 
•wounded.  The  loss  of  the  Thetis,  however,  was  still  more  shock- 
ing  to  humanity  ;  as,  exclusively  of  her  captain,  she  had  172  men 
killed,  and  102  wounded  ;  amongst  "whom  were  all  her  officers, 
excepting  three.* 

When  the  great  disparity  of  force  between  the  Amethyst  and 
Thetis  is  considered,  the  conquest  achieved  is  marked  by  particular 
brilliancy.  The  Amethyst  mounted  only  36  guns,  the  Thetis  44  ; 
consequently,  from  her  larger  size,  her  metal  was  of  superior 
weight;  her  crew,  consisting  of  360 men,  besides  106  soldiers,  had 
served  for  years  together;  added  to  this,  Mons.  Pinsun,  entrusted 
with  the  command  of  la  Thetis,  was  a  man  of  approved  courage, 
much  beloved  by  his  men,  and  deserving  in  every  respect  the  com- 
mendation of  an  excellent  officer.  Indeed,  there  are  but  few 
instances  on  record,  in  which  a  French  ship  is  known  to  have  sup- 

*  The  number  of  wounded  on  board  la  Thetis,  according  to  Captain  Sey- 
mour's ofticial  letter,  at  page  418  of  the  preceding  volume,  was  132;  but 
it  has  since  been  ascertained,  that  the  number  was  172,  as  here  stated. 


96      MEMOIR   Of   THE   PUBLIC   SERVICES    OF   CAPT.   M.  SEYMOUR. 

ported  so  long,  so  spirited,  and  so  determined  a  conflict.  But  the 
contest  was  never  for  a  moment  doubtful — all  were  animated  with 
the  glorious  spirit  that  leads  to  victory,  and  the  guns  were  served 
with  the  same  zeal  and  alacrity  the  last  hour  6f  the  fight  as  in  the 
first.  Such  is  the  simple  detail  of  this  distinguished  action,  which 
for  gallantry,  skill,  and  bravery  has  never  been  exceeded ;  which 
whilst  it  holds  up  anew  the  character  of  our  country,  must  elicit 
praise  from  every  tongue,  and  gratitude  from  every  heart. 

High  and  distinguished  as  Captain  Seymour's  public  character 
appears,  in  private  it  is  also  marked  with  every  virtue  that  makes 
it  estimable. 

His  majesty  has  been  graciously  pleased  to  signify  his  approba- 
tion, by  presenting  him  with  the  gold  medal. 

The  mayor,  aldermen,  sheriffs,  and  common  council  of  the  city  of 
Limerick  voted  him  the  freedom  of  that  city,  in  a  heart  of  oak  box, 
lined  and  ornamented  with  gold  ;  *  and  he  has  also  received  the  free- 
dom of  the  city  of  Cork,  in  a  silver  box,  "  for  his  very  great  gallan- 
try and  ability  in  the  capture  of  the  Thetis." 

The  committee  of  the  Patriotic  Fund,  at  Lloyd's,  voted  him  the 
sum  of  one  hundred  guineas,  for  the  purchase  of  a  piece  of  plate, 
commemorative  of  the  event. 

HERALDIC   PARTICULARS. 

During  the  time  that  Captain  Seymour  commanded  the  Spitfire, 
he  married  Jane,  the  third  daughter  of  the  late  brave  and  much 
respected  Captain  James  Hawker,  of  the  royal  navy  ;  by  which  lady 
he  has  a  family  of  seven  children ;  five  sons,  and  two  daughters. 

ARMS.— Argent  two  wings  conjoined  in  lure,  tips  downwards,  gujes. 

CREST. — On  a  wreath  of  the  colours  two  torches  in  saltire,  thereon  an 
eagle,  with  wings  elevated,  looking  towards  the  sun,  a.11  proper. 

MOTTO.— Foy  pour  Devoir. 

The  following  is   a  fac-simile  of    Captain    Seymours 
writing. 


Vide  the  Retrospect,  in  a  subsequent 


97 


NAVAL  ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL  HINTS,  RECOLLECTIONS,  &r. 


NANTES    IV    GUROITK    VASTO, 


ADMIRAL    BLAKE. 

Extracts  from  GiJpius  Ohscrcrttions  on  the  Western  Parts  of  England,) 

^J,alHERE  was  very  little  in  Bridgewater,   -which  was  our  next 
•    stage,   worth  a  traveller's  attention.     Its  great  boast  is  the 
celebrated  Blake,   one  of  Cromwell's   admirals,  who  was  born  in 
this  town,  and  represented  it  in  several  parliaments. 

The  name  of  Blake  can  hardly  occur  to  an  Englishman  without 
suggesting  respect.  If  ever  any  man  was  a  lover  of  his  country^ 
without  being  actuated  by  party,  or  by  any  other  sinister  motive, 
it  was  Blake.  Whether,  in  a  divided  commonwealth,  one  side  or 
the  other  should  be  cordially  chosen  by  every  citizen,  is  a  nice 
question.  Some  of  the  ancient  moralists  have  held  the  affirmative. 
But  a  man  may  see  such  errors  on  both  sides,  as  may  render  a 
choice  difficult.  This  seems  to  have  been  Blake's  case.  The  glory 
of  his  country,  therefore,  was  the  only  part  he  espoused.  He 
fought  indeed  under  Cromwell  ;  but  it  was  merely,  he  would  say, 
to  aggrandize  old  England  :  he  often  disliked  the  Protector's 
politics.  With  the  death  of  Charles  he  was  particularly  displeased, 
and  was  heard  to  mutter,  that  to  have  saved  the  king's  life,  he 
would  freely  have  ventured  his  own.  But  still  he  fought  on  ;  took 
an  immense  treasure  from  the  Portuguese,  beat  the  Dutch  in  two 
or  three  desperate  engagements,  burnt  the  Dey  of  Tunis's  fleet, 
awed  the  piratical  states  ;  and  above  all,  destroyed  the  Spanish 
plate-fleet  in  the  harbour  of  Saata  Cruz,  which  was  thought  a 
piece  of  the  most  gallant  seamanship  that  ever  was  performed. 
Something  in  the  mean  time  havpened  at  home  which  he  did  not 
like,  particularly  Cromwell's  treatment  of  the  Parliament  ;  but  he 
still  fought  on  :  and  would  say  to  his  captains,  It  is  not  for  us  to 
mind  state  matters,  but  to  keep  foreigners  from  fooling  us. 
What  is  singular  in  this  commander  is,  that  all  his  knowledge  in 
maritime  affairs  was  acquired  after  he  was  fifty  years  of  age.  He 
bad  the  theory  of  his  profession,  as  it  were,  by  intuition  ;  and 
crowded  as  many  gallant  actions  into  nine  or  te-a  years,  as  might 
fcave  immortalized  as  many  commanders.  One  personal  singularity 


2&c.  Cljron.  (HcUXXI. 


58  WAV  At.    ANECDOTES, 

is  recorded,  which  gives  us  a  sort  of  portrait  of  him.  When  hif 
choler  was  raised,  and  he  was  bent  on  some  desperate  undertaking, 
it  was  his  custom  to  twirl  his  whiskers  with  his  fore-finger.  When- 
ever that  sign  appeared,  those  about  him  well  knew  something 
dreadful  was  in  agitation. 

REMARK  .A  BIT?     ENGAGEMENT     BETWEEN    1IIS    MAJESTY'S    StOOf 
KITE,    AND    A    DANIsH    FLOTILLA. 

THE  following  particulars  have  been  furnished  by  an  officer  l>e«. 
longing  to  the  Kite  : — 

**  On  the  3d  of  September,  1808,  being  at  anchor  off  the  island 
of  Spro,  near  Nyborg,  at  ten  o'clock  in  the  evening,  the  moon 
shining  bright,  observed  we  were  enclosed  in  a  half  circle  of  Danish 
gun-boats,  to  the  number  of  22  or  24.  The  Minx  gun-brig  being  in 
t ompany,  cut  her  cable  and  made  sail,  as  the  only  means  of  saving 
herself  j  we  being  nearer  to  Nyborg,  from  whence  they  came, 
sustained  nearly  their  whole  attack  ;  almost  at  the  instant  in  which 
•we  first  perceived  them,  they  opened  a  tremendous  fire  of  round 
and  grape  shot  from  their  whole  line  of  three  divisions.  Of  onr 
crew,  nearly  one  half  were  absent  (some  in  prizes,  the  rest  lately 
taken  prisoners  in  the  boats),  those  on  board  the  least  to  be  de- 
pended upon  ;  we,  however,  manned  the  guns,  and  kept  up  a  fire 
for  some  time,  but  finding  it  impossible  to  withstand  a  force  at 
least  seven  times  that  of  our  own  (for  three  of  them  are  equal 
to  a  sloop  of  war  in  a  calm,  which  it  then  was),  wecut  our  cable  ; 
the  ship  lay  now  unmanageable  for  want  of  wind,  whilst  the  enemy, 
who  were  by  this  time  within  musket  range,  struck  us  every  time 
they  fired.  At  this  moment  our  friend,  Mr.  Thomas,  the  purser, 
and  my  servant,  \vcre  killed,  the  ship  became  leaky,  the  rigging 
much  cut,  and  several  of  the  sails  falling  do\vn  upon  deck.  Our 
situation  became  now  the  most  critical  that  ever  was  experienced, 
when  a  light  breeze  most  providentially  sprung  up,  but  a  gun-boat 
belonging  to  ourselves,  out  of  which  we  had  succeeded  in  getting 
our  people,  and  cut  away,  got  unfortunately  uudcr  our  bows,  and 
prevented  the  ship  from  getting  before  the  wind  ;  the  round  shott 
the  splinters,  and  the  iangrage,  were  flying  in  every  direction  ;  the 
U-aks  increased,  the  enemy  within  hail  in  several  places  ;  tin;  masts- 
and  square  sails,  however,  were  still  standing.  The  first  lieutenant, 
the  only  one  on  board,  as  a  last  resource,  jumped  with  a  few  brave 
fellows  into  this  gun-boat,  and  happily  succeeded  in  pushing  her 
,  which  immediately  enabled  as  to  get  before  the  wind  ;  the 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,     RECOLLECTIONS.    &C.  99 

enemy's  fire  now  became  more  excessive,  in  consequence  of  our 
having  to  take  the  people  from  the  guns  to  trim  sails ;  the  breeze, 
however,  freshened,  our  lads  strain  manned  their  guns,  and  the 
smoke  being  tolerably  cleared  away,  enabled  them  to  take  better 
aim  :  one  of  the  enemy's  boats,  with  about  70  men.  was  soon  after 
this  sunk  by  our  quarter-deck  guns,  and  the  enemy,  thinking  we 
Jiad  sent  men  in  our  gun-boat,  which  now  dropped  astern,  directed 
part  of  their  fire  to  her  so  effectually,  that  she  sunk  ;  this  desertion 
was  of  much  use  to  us,  and  -with  the  fine  little  breeze  we  now 
enjoyed  we  drew  considerably  away  from  them;  they  followed  for 
some  distance,  still  tiring,  but  now  our  crew  having  only  to  attend 
to  the  guns,  our  lire  became  much  more  brisk,  and  considerably 
galled  the  enemy.  At  half-past  11,  making  just  an  hour  and  a 
half,  they  burnt  a  blue  light,  the  signal  of  retreat,  and  we  were 
unable  to  follow.  We  steered  for  an  English  64-guu  ship,  which 
vas  within  about  12  miles  of  us,  and  anchored  near  to  her.  At 
daylight  we  found  the  ship  a  perfect  wreck,  two  killed,  as  before 
mentioned,  and  13  wounded,  being  one  out  of  every  three  of  all  oa 
board.  Six  large  shots  through  the  tottering  main-mast,  fire  through 
the  fore-top-sail  alone,  and  in  the  hull  too  many  to  be  conve- 
niently numbered  ;  tha  main  boom  shot  through,  and  lying  across 
the  deck,  and  much  water  in  the  hold.  During  the  whole  of  this 
affair  we  had  IS  Danish  prisoners  on  board  since  the  .Nyborg  action, 
which  required  some  of  our  hands,  together  with  the  sick  people}- 
to  prevent  them  from  rising,  and  assisting  their  countrymen. " 

RUSSIAN     OFFICIAL     ACCOUNT    OF    THF    LATE    NAVAL    ACTION    IN 
THE    HALTIC. 

O.v  the  9th  of  August,  Admiral  Xauckhoff  set  sail  from  Hangudd 
with  his  squadron,  composed  of  nine  sail  of  the  line  and  nine 
frigates,  for  Jungfrusund,  for  the  purpose  of  reconnoitring  the 
enemy's  position,  and  to  form  his  plan  of  operations.  He  found 
the  enemy's  fleet  at  anchor  in  Jungfrusund,  among  the  cliffs,  con- 
sisting of  18  sail,  partly  line-of-ba(tle  ships,  and  partly  frigates. 
Admiral  Nauckhoif  was  cruising  off  Jungfrusund  until  the  13th, 
when  his  headmost  shin  made  the  signal  that  the  enemy's  ift>et  was 
weighing  anchor.  Admiral  Nauckhoff  immediately  detached  a 
corvette  to  observe  the  enemy's  movements,  formed  his  fleet  in 
order  of  battle,  and  beat  about  to  the  eastward,  in  order  not  to 
be  cut  olF  from  his  port,  being  determined  to  give  battle. 

The  same  day  the  enemy's  fleet  was -observed  from  the  masthead 
working  up  towards  oar  squadron,  in  company  with  two  English 


K)0  NAVAL    ANECDOTES, 

sail  of  the  line.  Admiral  Nauckhoff  resolved  to  attack  the  enemy 
the  following  day,  and  beat  about  the  whole  night,  in  order  not  to 
lose  the  wind.  At  break  of  day,  being  oft'  Baltic  Port,  he  dis- 
covered to  leeward  the  enemy's  fleet,  composed  of  13  sail  of  the 
line  and  five  large  frigates  ;  among  the  former  were  two  English 
ships,  one  of  which  was  a  three-decker,  and  bore  the  admiral's 
pendant,  and  the  other  was  a  two-decker  of  the  largest  size ;  and 
among  the  Swedish  ships  was  also  a  three-decker.  The  enemy's 
van,  headed  by  the  two  English  sail  of  the  line,  neared  our  rear,  and 
at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  two  English  ships  attacked  suc- 
cessively the  stcrnmost  ship  of  our  line,  the  Sewolad,  which  had 
somewhat  fallen  to  leeward.  When  Admiral  Nauckhoff  saw  the 
manoeuvres  of  the  enemy,  he  bore  down  on  him  with  the  whole  of. 
his  squadron.  The  English,  fearful  to  be  cut  off  from  their  line, 
tacked,  and  were  followed  by  the  Swedes.  Captain  Rudnew, 
commander  of  the  Sewolad,  with  the  utmost  gallantry,  beat  off 
twice  the  enemy's  attack,  but  suffered  considerably  in  his  tackle 
and  rigging.  The  main-top-mast  and  yard  were  shattered  by  the 
enemy's  lire,  the  fore-top-gallant-mast  was  split,  and  the  Sewolad 
was  no  longer  able  to  maintain  her  place  in  the  line,  of  which 
Captain  Rudnew  informed  the  commander-in-chief  by  signal. 
Admiral  Nauckhoff,  who  witnessed  the  above  facts,  permitted  him, 
to  run  into  Baltic  Port,  and  a  frigate  convoyed  him  thither.  By 
this  means  our  line,  before  a  general  engagement  could  be  com- 
menced, had  lost  one  ship,  and  another,  the  Severnja  Swesda 
(North  Star),  received  on  a  sudden  so  much  damage  in  her  fore- 
top-mast,  that  she  would  not  carry  her  fore-top-sail,  and  was  con- 
sequently also  disabled  duly  to  maintain  her  place  in  the  line. 

By  this  circumstance  the  enemy  gained  a  great  superiority  of 
strength,  and  Admiral  Nauckhoff  found  it  accordingly  expedient 
to  stand  with  his  squadron  for  Baltic  Port.  The  enemy  stood,  in 
consequence  thereof,  on  the  same  coui'ie,  keeping  their  wind;  and 
the  English  ships  displayed  all  their  skill  to  cut  off  our  damaged 
ship  Sewolad,  which  was  no  longer  able  to  keep  up  with  our  line. 
In  order  to  frustrate  this  plan  of  the  enemy,  Admiral  Xauckhoff 
made  signal  for  the  rear  to  cover  the  said  ship,  and  afford  her  all 
possible  assistance  j  but  owing  to  her  having  fallen  considerably  to 
leeward,  she  was  not  able,  In  spite  of  the  utmost  exertions  made  by 
her  own  commander,  as  well  as  by  the  captains  of  the  other  ships, 
to  round  the  north  point  of  Baltic  Port,  and  enter  that  hirbour  in 
company  with  the  rest  of  our  ships,  but  necessitated  to  drop  anchor 
on  the  north  side  of  this  island.,  close  in,  with  the  shore. 


COMMERCIAL   HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  101 

In  the  mean  time  the  commander-in-chief  entered  the  above  port, 
brought  up  in  line-of-battle,  and  made  all  necessary  arrangement 
to  repulse  the  enemy,  who,  however,  made  no  attack,  but  stood 
out  to  sea  with  his  whole  fleet. 

Admiral  Nauckhoffimmediately  ordered  those  experienced  officers 
Captain- Lieutenants  Miniskoy  and  Fuludjew,  to  put  off  with  all 
the  row-boats  of  the  squadron,  to  the  assistance  of  the  Sewolad, 
and  to  endeavour  t0  bring  her  back  to  the  fleet.  These  two 
gallant  officers  used  their  best  efforts  for  that  purpose,  bat  the  two 
English  ships  of  the  line  coming  up,  successively  attacked  the 
Sewolad,  and  dispersed  the  row-boats,  which  Captain-Lieutenant 
Miniskoy,  however,  succeeded  to  rally,  and  rejoined  with  them  the 
squadron. 

Captain  Rudnew,  undismayed  by  their  retreat,  continued  to  make 
the  most  vigorous  resistance,  constantly  and  closely  engaged  with 
one  of  the  two  English  ships,  vr'-uich  suffered  severely,  and  the 
slaughter  was  groat  on  both  sides  ;  nor  would  the  conflict  have 
been  ended,  but  with  the  total  destruction  of  the  combatants,  had 
not  the  other  English  ship  also  come  up  with  the  Sewolad  and  given 
his  broadside,  by  which  she  was  completely  disabled  from  con- 
tinuing the  contest  any  longer.  It  was  but  then  that  the  English 
were  able  to  render  themselves  master  of  the  Sewolad,  or  rather 
her  wreck,  covered  with  dead  bodies  ;  56  of  her  crew  saved  them- 
selves by  swimming,  and  the  rest  were  taken  prisoners  by  the 
English.  Rear-admiral  Hood  has  sent  back  37  of  them,  who  were 
•wounded,  and  state,  that  the  loss  on  board  the  two  English  ships 
has  also  been  very  great. 

GALLANTRY  AXI>    DEATH    OF    CAPTAIN    COOMBE,    ^T    GUADALOUPI, 
IN    NOVEMBER,    1808. 

•  CAPTAIN  COOMBE,  of  the  Heureux,  had  received  information, 
on  which  he  could  depend,  that  there  Jay  in  the  harbour  of  Bay 
Mahaut  (Gaudaloupe)  seven  vessels  of  different  descriptions,  some 
loaded  and  ready  for  sea,  and  others  loading  ;  he  also  received  an 
account  of  the  strength  and  situation  of  the  batteries ;  he  had  a 
pilot  to  carry  the  boats  in,  and  a  guide  to  conduct  the  storming 
parties.  The  attack  took  place  on  the  morning  of  the  29th  of 
^November,  as  follows  : — Captain  Cuombe  in  his  barge,  and  19  men, 
to  board  the  shipping  ;  Lieutenant  Lawrence  inthe 
men,  to  storm  a  battery  of  two  24-pounders  ;  and  !Mr.  Daly,  the 
purser,  in  the  pinnace,  and  22  men,  to  storm  a  lattery  of  one  24- 


102  NAVAL    AMCDOTES, 

pounder,  within  the  town  ;  the  signal  of  cither  party  having  sue* 
ceeded  was  three  cheers ;  the  boats,  after  rowing  six  miles,  lay  on 
their  oars  until  the  moon  went  down.  At  four  o'clock  A.M.  they 
dashed  on,  and  after  a  few  minutes  of  desperate  fighting,  the  wel- 
come signal  of  success  was  given  by  all  three  parties  cheering  at 
the  same  moment.  Captain  Coombe  carried  a  schooner  of  two 
guns  mounted,  and  39  seamen  and  soldiers  on  board.  Lieutenant 
Laurence  having  spiked  the  guns  on  the  batteries  with  Mr.  Daly, 
proceeded  to  board  the  remaining  vessels,  in  which  they  succeeded  ; 
the  enemy  lined  the  shore  with  musketry,  got  three  field-pieces  to 
bear,  and  kept  up  a  very  sharp  fire  on  a  brig  and  a  schooner, 
which  was  returned  by  the  marines  and  the  guns  on  board  them  ; 
while  carrying  them  out,  they  both  unfortunately  grounded,  and 
thus  became  fixed  objects  for  the  enemy's  fire,  which  was  further 
increased  by  a  24-pounder.  Finding  it  impossible  to  get  the 
ressels  off,  the  running  riggingveut  to  pieces,  the  standing  rigging 
much  wounded,  and  it  being  daylight,  orders  were  given  to  aban- 
don, and  soon  after  Captain  Coombe  was  struck  with  a  24-pound 
round  shot  in  iiis  left  side,  and  fell  dead.  The  boats  got  out  of 
the  reach  of  the  fire  of  the  enemy  about  six  o'cock  A.M.  The  ac- 
tion continued  about  an  hour  and  three  quarters.  The  loss  of  the 
British  was  trifling,  except  that  of  Captain  Coombe  killed,  and 
Lieutenant  Lawrence  wounded  by  a  musket  ball  in  the  arm  ;  the 
enemy's  loss  was  great  in  the  attack  of  the  batteries  and  on  board- 
ing— there  were  about  forty  killed  ;  the  number  drowned  must 
have  been  very  great,  as  must  have  been  their  loss  on  shore  ;  there 
was  a  Serjeant's  party  on  board  the  vessels,  besides  the  crews. 

PEATH    OF    LIEUTENANT    G.  A.  SPEARING,    IN    AN    UNSUCCESSFUL 
ATTACK    ON    THE    ISLAND    OF   ST.    MARTIN. 

ST.  Martin's  Island  having  long  been  considered  as  a  shelter  for 
the  numerous  French  privateers  which  infest  the  West  Indies,  and 
obstruct  the  trade  of  the  country,  it  became  a  desirable  object  to 
rxtirpate  them.  Accordingly,  at  the  commencement  of  July,  his 
majesty's  schooners,  Subtle,  Balahou,  and  Elizabeth,  with  the 
Wanderer  sloop  of  war,  made  an  atterrfpt  to  carry  the  island  by  a 
coup  de  main.  Owing,  however,  to  some  false  information 
respecting  the  enemy's  strength,  the  effort  failed.  About  130  sea- 
men  and  marines,  headed  by  Lieutenant  Spearing,  of  the  Subtle, 
landed,  and  soon  obtained  possession  of  the  lower  fort,  of  six  guns, 
which  were  instantly  spiked.  Their  loss  so  far  was  trifling  ;  bat 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  10S 

on  ascending  the  rocky  heights,  covered  -with  the  prickly  pear, 
the  superiority  of  the  enemy  was  severely  felt:  as  a  number  of 
brave  fellows  fell,  among  whom  was  Lieutenant  Spearing,  who  was 
shot  through  the  chest  within  ten  yards  of  the  upper  fort,  and 
almost  instantly  expired.  His  fall  occasioned  much  consternation 
among  his  companions,  who  reluctantly  retreated  to  their  boats, 
but  were  obliged  to  surrender.  Captain  Crofton,  of  the  Wanderer, 
finding  the  fire  from  the  fort  so  tremendous  and  incessant,  sent  a 
flag  of  truce  on  shore,  which  was  accepted,  and  the  whole  of  the 
prisoners  who  could  be  removed  with  safety  were  given  up. 

Thus  fell,  in  the  prime  of  life,  in  a  most  daring  and  gallant 
attempt,  a  promising  active  officer,  whose  long  services  in  his  pro- 
fes^.ion  entitled  him  to  the  notice  of  his  country  ;  in  whose  cause 
he  had  received  11  wounds,  particularly  at  the  battle  of  Copenha- 
gen, and  in  the  West  Indies.  He  closed  a  career  of  glory,  ani- 
mating his  men  by  his  example,  on  the  batteries  of  St.  Martin's. 

Nothing  can  better  erince  the  admiration  which  even  his  enemies 
entertained  of  his  conduct  on  this  occasion,  than  the  tribute  which 
they  conferred  on  his  remains  :  he  was  interred  with  all  the  honours 
of  war;  the  French  commandant  himself  attending,  and  also  per- 
mitting part  of  the  gallant  crew  of  the  Subtle  to  pay  their  last  sad 
duty  to  their  beloved  commander. 

It  afterwards  appeared,  that  the  enemy  had  received  informatioa 
of  the  intended  attack,  and  were  prepared  accordingly  ;  upwards 
of  900  troops  being  in  the  fort,  while  the  storming  party  consisted 
only  of  ^35  men.  Out  of  43  sent  from  the  Subtle,  seven  were 
killed  and  seventeen  wounded. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  order  which  was  issued  on  this 
melancholy  occasion,  by  Captain  Crofton,  of  his  majesty's  ship 
Wanderer  : — 

"  To  the  Commanding  Officers  of  hit  M-jesty's  Schooners  Subtle  and 

HullaLou. 

<l  You  all  well  know  the  melancholy  though  glorious  death  of  Lieutenant 
G.  A.  Spearing,  late  commander  of  his  majesty's  schooner  Subtic,  who  fell 
fighting  for  his  king  and  country  ;  his  corpse  this  evening  is  to  receive  the 
honours  of  war,  conferred  by  Ins  enemies,  admirers  of  his  gallantry  and 
courage  :  you  will  join,  on  a  signal  from  ice  'wh-jn  the  fort  shall  have  fired 
a  shotted  gun),  to  fiie  minute  guns.'J 

"  DatedtthJult/:offSi.  Martins," 


104  KAVAtr  ANECDOTES, 

JEWISH    FORTITUDE. 

ABOUT  the  year  1796,   two  or  three  Jews  came  over  front 
Poland,  for  the  purpose  of  trade,   of  which  second-hand  clothing 
formed  a  considerable  part.     After  having  made  their  purchase, 
they  shipped  it  on  board  a  Prussian  vessel,   bound  from  London 
to   Dantzic,    and  accompanied  it   for   their  better  security.     At 
the  distance  of  thirty  or  forty  leagues  from  the  English  coast,  in 
a  dark  night,   the  vessel  was  ran  on  board  by  a  large  ship,  the 
shock  of  which  was  so  violent,   that  the  terrified  captain  and  crew 
sought  their  safety  by  leaping  on  boa,rdthe  larger  vessel,  expecting 
their  own  to  go  down,  leaving  the  Jews  the  only  persons  on  board. 
The  latter,  recovering  in  some  degree  from  the  consternation  into 
which  they  wore  thrown  on  discovering  themselves  abandoned  by 
the  crew,  totally  ignorant  of  navigation,  and  exposed  to  the  mercy 
of  the  winds  and  waves,  still  had  the  satisfaction  of  finding  that  the 
ship  was  tight.     A  consultation  was  thereupon  held,  in  which  the 
most  experienced   of   them   suggested,   that  he  had  observed  the 
point  of  the  compass,   and  their  course,   on  leaving  the  coast  of 
Yarmouth,  that  if  they  could  by  any  means  put  the  ship  about,  and 
endeavour  to  retrace  their  course,  that  they  should  inevitably  fall 
in  again  with  the  English  coast.     In  this  they  succeeded  ;  and,  by 
the  help  of  pilots,   were  brought  in  safety  into  the  port  of  Yar- 
mouth.    There    they  were,   to  their  great  surprise,   met  by  the 
original  captain  and  ciew,  who  gladly  came  on  board,  and  resumed 
the  direction  of  the  vessel.     These  circumstances  produced  a  con- 
siderable  charge   on   the   cargo,    in  which  many    persons    were 
interested,  and  of  which  the  Jews  must  have  borne  a  considerable 
share.     They,  however,  thought  it  hard  to  suffer  in  this  way,  after 
having  been  the  means  of  preserving  both  ship  and  cargo,   to  the 
advantage  of  all  concerned.      But  the  captain   was  deaf  to  all 
accommodation,    and   refused  them   any  remuneration  for   their 
tronble  and   risk.     The  Well-known   characters  of  Messrs.  Ben- 
jamin  and  Abraham    Goldsraid,     induced    the  Jews  to   lay  this 
peculiar  case  before  them  :    and  as  it  appeared  to  these  gentlemen 
that  there  were  sufficient  grounds  to  claim  a  salvage  of  the  ship  and 
cargo,    they   resolved  to   defend  and  support  the  cause  of  their 
stranger  brethren.     A  long  and  expensive  process  in  the  Admiralty 
Court  was,   however,   prevented  ;  and,   by  the  mediation  of  some 
mercantile  friends  with  Messrs.  Goldsmid,  it  was  agreed,  that  the 
sum  of  3001.  should  be  allowed  to  these  poor  men,  which  they  re- 
ceived with  thankfulness,  and  their  generous  friends  experienced 
that  pleasure,  which  must  ever  be  felt  by  those  whose  benevolent 
fxcrtious  are  attended  by  equal  success. 


COMMERCIAL    MINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,   &C.  105 

NEW  VOLCANO    AT    THE    AZORES. 

THE  subjoined  interesting  letter  upon  this  subject,  dated  Faya), 
June  25,  1808,  was  addressed  by  John  B.  Dabney,  Esq.  Consul 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  to  one  of  his  friends  .it  Sr. 
Michael's : — 

"    DEAR    SIR, 

<c  A  phenomenon  has  occurred  here  not  unusual  in  former  flgcw,, 
but  of  which  there  has  been  no  example  of  late  years;  it  was  well 
calculated  to  inspire  terror,  and  has  been  attended  with  the  destruc- 
tion of  lives  and  property.  On  Sunday,  the  1st  of  Ma)',  at  one 
P.M.  walking  in  the  balcony  of  my  house,  at  St.  Anthonio,  I  heard 
noises  like  the  report  of  heavy  cannon  at  a  distance,  and  concluded 
there  was  some  sea  engagement  in  the  vicinity  of  the  island.  But 
soon  after,  casting  my  eyes  towards  the  island  of  St.  George,  ten 
leagues  distant,  I  perceived  a  dense  column  of  smoke  rising  to  an 
immense  height  ;  it  was  soon  judged  that  a  volcano  had  burst  out 
about  the  centre  of  that  island,  and  this  was  rendered  certain  when 
night  came  on,  the  fire  exhibiting  an  awful  appearance. 

"  Being  desirous  of  viewing  this  wonderful  exertion  of  nature, 
I  embarked  on  the  3d  of  May,  accompanied  by  the  British  consul, 
and  ten  other  gentlemen,  for  St.  George's  ;  we  ran  over  in  five 
hours,  and  arrived  at  Vellas,  the  principal  town,  at  eleven  A.M* 
We  found  the,  poor  inhabitants  perfectly  panic-struck,  and  wholly 
givrn  up  to  religious  ceremonies  and  devotion.  We  learned  that 
the  fire  of  the  1st  of  May  had  broken  out  in  a  ditch,  in  the  midst 
of  fertile  pastures,  three  leagues  S.E.  of  Vellas,  and  had  immediately 
formed  a  crater,  in  size  about  24  acres.  In  two  days  it  had  thrown 
out  cinders  or  small  pumice  stones,  that  a  strong  iS'.E.  wind  had 
propelled  southerly  :  and  which,  independent  of  the  mass  accu- 
mulated round  the  crater,  had  covered  the  earth  from  one  foot  to 
four  in  depth,  half  a  league  in  width,  and  three  leagues  in  length; 
then  passing  the  channel  five  leagues,  had  done  some  injury  to  the 
east  point  of  Pico.  The  fire  of  this  large  crater  had  nearly  sub- 
sided, but  in  the  evening  preceding  our  arrival,  another  small  crater 
had  opened,  one  league  north  of  the  large  one,  and  only  two 
leagues  from  Vellas. 

"  After  taking  some  refreshment,  we  visited  the  second  crater; 
the  sulphureous  smoke  of  which,  driven  southerly,  rendered  it 
impracticable  to  attempt  approaching  the  large  one.  When  we 
came  within  a  mile  of  the  crater,  we  found  the  earth  rent  in  every 

J®ato,»  Spron,  21  pi.  XXI.  p 


106  NAVAL    ANECDOTES, 

direction,  and,  as  we  approached  nearer,  some  of  the  chasms  were 
six  feet  wide  ;  by  leaping  over  some. of  these  chasms,  and  making 
windings  to  avoid  the  larger  ones,  we  at  length  arrived  within  two 
hundred  yards  of  the  spot;  and  saw  it,  in  the  middle  of  a  pasture, 
distinctly,  at  intervals,  when  the  thick  smoke  which  swept  the 
earth  lighted  up  a  little.  The  mouth  of  it  was  only  about  fifty 
yards  in  circumference;  the  fire  seemed  struggling  for  vent ;  the 
force  with  which  a  pale  blue  flame  issued  forth,  resembled  a  pow, 
erful  steam  engine,  multiplied  a  hundred  fold  ;  the  noise  was 
deafening  ;  the  earth  where  we  stood  had  a  tremulous  motion  ;  the. 
whole  island  seemed  convulsed,  horrid  bel'owings  were  occasion-? 
ally  heard  from  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  and  earthquakes  were 
frequent. 

ii  Alter  remaining  here  about  ten  minutes  we  returned  to  town; 
the  inhabitants  had  mostly  quitted  thtir  houses,  and  remained  in 
the  open  air  or  under  tents.  We  passed  the.  night  at  Vellas,  and 
the  next  morning  went  by  water  to  Ursulina,  a  small  sea-port 
town,  two  leagues  s«uth  of  Vellas,  and  viewed  that  part  of  the 
country  covered  with  the  cinders  before  mentioned,  and  which  has 
turned  the  most  valuable  vineyards  in  the  island  into  a  frightful 
desert.  On  the  same  day  (the  4th  of  May),  we  returned  to  Fayal, 
and  on  the  5th  and  succeeding  days,  from  12  to  15,  small  volca- 
noes broke  out  in  the  fields  Ave  had  traversed  on  the  3d,  from  the 
chasms  before  described,  and  threw  out  a  quantity  of  lava,  which 
travelled  on  slowly  towards  Vellas. 

"  The  fire  of  those  small  craters  subsided,  and  the  lava  ceased 
running  about  the  llth  of  May  ;  on  which  day  the  large  volcano, 
that  had  lain  dormant  for  nine  days,  burst  forth  again  like  a  roar- 
ing lion,  with  horrid  belchings,  distinctly  heard  at  twelve  leagues 
distance,  throwing  up  prodigious  large  stones,  and  an  immense 
quantity  of  lava,  illuminating  at  night  the  whole  island.  This  con- 
tinued with  tremendous  force,  until  the  5th  of  June,  exhibiting  the 
awful  yet  magnificent  spectacle  of  a  perfect  river  on  fire  (distinctly 
seen  from  Fayal)  running  into  the  sea.  On  that  day  (the  5th)  we 
experienced  that  its  force  began  to  fail,  and,  in  a  few  days  after,  it 
ceased  entirely.  The  distance  of  the  crater  from  the  sea  is  about 
four  miles,  and  its  elevation  about  3,500  feet. 

"  The  lava  inundated  and  swept  away  the  town  of  Ursulina, 
and  country-houses  and  cottages  adjacent,  as  well  as  the  farm- 
houses, throughout  its  course.  It,  as  usual,  gave  timely  notice  of 
its  approach,  and  most  of  the  inhabitants  tied  ;  some  few,  however, 
remained  in  the  vicinity  of  it  too  long,  endeavouring  to  save  their 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,     &C.  107 

furniture  and  effects,  and  were  scalded  by  flashes  of  steam,  which, 
without  injuring  their  clothes,  took  oft'  not  only  their  skin  but 
their  flesh.  About  sixty  persons  were  thus  miserably  scalded, 
some  of  whom  died  on  the  spot,  or  in  a  few  days  after.  Numbers 
of  cattle  shared  the  same  fate.  The  judge  and  principal  inhabitants 
left  the  island  very  early.  The  consternation  and  anxiety  were  for 
some  days  so  great  among  the  people,  that  even  their  domestic 
concerns  were  abandoned,  and,  amidst  plenty,  they  were  in  danger 
of  starving.  Supplies  of  ready-baked  bread  were  sent  from  hence 
to  their  relief,  and  large  boats  were  sent  to  bring  away  the  inha- 
bitants who  had  lost  their  dwellings.  In  short,  the  island,  hereto- 
fore rich  in  cattle,  corn,  and  wine,  is  nearly  ruined,  and  a  scene  of 
greater  desolation  and  distress  has  seldom  been,  witnessed  in  any 
country." 

CANNIBALS    OF    NEW    ZEALAND. 

A  SHORT  time  since,  the  Venus,  a  vessel  which  had  been  seized 
and  carried  off  by  some  convicts  at  Port  Dalrymple  to  New  Zea- 
land, was  there  taken  by  the  natives,  who  killed  and  ate  all  the 
people.  The  vessel  itself  they  drew  on  shore,  and  burnt  it  for  the 
sake  of  the  iron.  This  information  was  communicated  to  the  Mer- 
cury (TL  vessel  that  touched  at  New  Zealand,  and  was  in  danger  of 
being  taken)  by  one  Druse,  a  man  who  deserted  from  the  Lady  Nel- 
son about  two  years  ago,  and  who  is  now  become  a  chief,  tattooed 
from  head  to  foot,  and  has  a  number  of  natives  under  his  command. 

LORD    NELSON    ANO    THE    HAMBURGH    WINE-MERCHANT. 

"  A  CIRCUMSTANCE  of  great  singularity,"  says  one  of  Lord 
Nelson's  biographers,  "  occurred  when  his  lordship  was  at  Ham- 
burgh,  relative  to  a  wine-merchant.  This  gentleman,  who  was 
more  than  70  years  of  age,  and  of  a  very  respectable  appearance, 
had  requested  to  speak  with  Lady  Hamilton.  Her  ladyship 
accordingly  admitted  him  to  a  private  audience,  when  he  informed 
her,  through  the  medium  of  a  Mr.  Oliver,  who  interpreted  for  both 
parties,  that  he  had  some  excellent  old  Rhenish  wine  of  the  vintage 
of  1625,  and  which  had  been  in  his  own  possession  more  than  fifty 
years.  This,  he  said,  had  been  preserved  for  some  very  extraor- 
dinary occasions ;  and  one  had  now  arrived,  far  beyond  any  he 
could  ever  have  expected.  In  short,  he  flattered  himself,  that  by 
the  kind  recommendation  of  her  ladyship,  the  great  and  glorious 
Lord  Nelson  might  be  prevailed  on  to  accept  six  dozen  bottles  of 


108  NAVAL    ANECDOTES,   &c. 

this  incomparable  wine,  part  of  which,  he  observed,  would  then 
have  the  honour  to  flow  with  the  heart's  blood  of  that  immortal 
hero  ;  a  reflection  which  could  not  fail  to  render  himself  the  most 
fortunate  man  in  existence,  during  the  remainder  of  his  days.  His 
lordship,  being  informed  of  these  curious  particulars,  immediately 
came  into  the  apartment,  and  took  the  old  gentleman  kindly  by 
the  hand,  but  politely  declined  his  present.  He  was,  however, 
finally  persuaded  to  accept  of  six  bottles,  on  condition  that  the 
worthy  wine-merchant  should  dine  with  him  next  day.  This 
being  readily  agreed  to,  a  dozen  bottles  were  sent ;  and  his  lordship, 
jocosely  remarking,  that  he  yet  hoped  to  have  half  a  dozen  more 
great  victories,  protested  he  would  keep  six  bottles  of  his  Ham- 
burgh friend's  wine,  purposely  to  drink  a  bottle  after  each.  This 
his  lordship  did  not  fail  to  remember,  on  coming  home  after  the 
battle  of  Copenhagen,  when  he  '  devoutly  drank  the  donor.''  It 
is  said,  that  this  wine-merchant,  soon  after  Lord  Nelson  had  first 
taken  him  by  the  hand,  happening  to  meet  with  an  old  triend,  who 
was  about  to  salute  him  in  a  similar  way,  immediately  declined  the 
intended  kindness,  and  said  he  could  not  suffer  any  person  to  touch 
the  hand  which  had  been  so  highly  honoured  by  receiving  that  of 
Lord  Nelson.  Certain  it  is,  that  this  man  felt  so  overcome  by 
excessive  sensibility,  that  he  literally  shed  tears  of  joy  during  the 
time  he  was  in  our  hero's  presence.'' 

ANNIVERSARY    OF    THE    AMERICAN    EMBARGO    ACT. 

NOTWITHSTANDING  all  the  demonstrations  of  hostility  and  of 
inveterate  hatred  which  appear  in  America  against  Great  Britain, 
the  popular  discontent  at  the  embargo,  and  the  other  measures  so 
hastily  adopted,  cannot  be  concealed.  At  Gloucester,  a  singular 
instance  of  dissatisfaction  at  the  conduct  of  government  and  Con- 
gress was  evinced  in  the  latter  end  of  December,  in  the  following 
•way,  as  described  in  the  American  papers  : — "  Monday,  the  26th 
of  December,  being  the  anniversary  of  the  embargo  laid  on  the 
shipping  of  this  port,  was  ushered  in  by  the  tolling  of  the  bell  at 
sun-rise,  which  continued  for  half  an  hour.  At  eleven  o'clock 
A.M.  a  procession  of  marines,  about  250  in  number,  formed  on 
one  of  the  principal  wharfs :  a  ship,  rigge|i  in  all  the  emblems  of 
distress,  occupied  the  centre,  with  the  motto,  "  Commerce 
destroyed,"  on  her  bows,  and  on  her  stern,  "  Effects  of  the 
Embargo ."  She  was  navigated  by  a  master,  boatswain,  &c.  her 
colours  -were  displayed  at  half-mast,  as  were  those  of  the  shipping 


CORRESPONDENCE.  109 

in  the  harbour.  The  procession  moved  through  the  principal 
streets  in  the  town,  during  which  time  the  bell  tolled,  minute  guns 
of  distress  were  discharged,  the  sky  zsas  enveloped  in  clouds  ^  a 
drum  muffled  in  black  crape  was  beat  to  a  solemn  dirge;  the 
movement  of  the  procession  was  slow  and  silent,  melancholy  was 
depicted  on  all  countenances,  and  nothing  broke  the  awful  silence 
but  the  sound  of  cannon,  the  tolling  of  bells,  the  mournful  drum, 
or  boatswain's  whistle:  indeed  every  emblem  significant  of  distress, 
such  as  heaving  the  lead,  tolling  the  ship's  bell,  the  boatswain's 
call,  and  master's  orders,  were  executed  in  a  manner  so  appro- 
priate, that  it  seemed  to  be  rather  the  reality  than  the  picture.  At 
sun-set  the  bell  tolled  for  half  an  hour,  a  cannon  was  discharged, 
and  the  colours  hauled  down.  No  disorder,  discord,  or  murmur 
was  heard  during  the  day." 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

PRESENT  MANAGEMENT  AND  DISCIPLINE  OF  THE  NAVY. 

LETTEE  XI. 
SIR, 

nriHERE  has  existed  a  great  difference  of  opinion  in  the  minds 
-&-  of  officers  respecting  popularity ;  and  upon  this  subject  f 
have  sometimes  differed  from  very  valuable  and  respectable  men ; 
but  although  their  holding  a  different  opinion  makes  me  naturally 
diffident  of  my  own,  yet  both  my  feelings  and  reason,  unite  in  pre- 
venting my  being  convinced  that  they  are  right  in  theirs. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  in  this  place  to  remark,  that  by  different 
characters  the  same  objects  may  apparently  be  attained  by  very 
different  means,  and  I  am  not  about  to  recommend  attempts  at 
exact  imitations  of  systems  or  manners  even  of  the  highest  charac- 
ters. Whatever  is  done  in  the  natural  character  of  a  man,  will  be 
the  best  done,  provided  the  judgment  is  clear,  and  the  intentions 
are  upright.  Great  examples  are  to  be  kept  in  view  for  the 
attainment  of  great  ends,  and  by  the  same  general  tneans^  but  no 
attempt  should  be  made  to  copy  the  little  details  of  characters  and 
discipline,  otherwise,  the  unfortunate  copiers  will  too  often  find 
themselves  like  "  the  bear  in  the  boat,"  or  "  the  ass  that  thought 
proper  to  imitate  the  lap-dog."  Let  every  officer  who  reads  the 
account  of  the  victories  of  Nelson,  and  hears  that  while  all  th» 


110  COKUESPOXDEJTCr. 

avenues  which  led  toward  strict  discipline  were  guarded  against 
relaxation,  he  had  so  won  the  confidence  and  affection  of  those 
under  him,  that,  like  his  immortal  predecessor 

••   •          "  Wolf,  where'er  he  foughtr 

Put:  so  much  of  his  heart  into  his  act, 

That  his  example  had  a  magnet's  force, 

And  all  were  swift  to  follow,  whom  all  lov'd. 

These  SUDS  are  set — Oh  rise  some  other  such  !" COWPER. 

Let  him,  I  say,  sedulously  einolate  the  same  great  results  by  the 
«ame  noble  means  ;  but  this  he  must  do  in  his  own  natural  man- 
ner :  he  may  attain  to  the  glory,  and  rival  the  virtues  of  Nelson, 
•without  any  imitation  of  minute  particulars.  It  is,  however,  to 
be  lamented,  that  those  who  require  example  most  to  lead  them 
right,  are  in  general  only  capable  of  copying  the  trifling  detail  of 
service,  but  cannot  take  in  the  finished  whole.  Weak  minds  are 
also  timid,  and  dread  to  be  candid  and  open,  for  fear  of  exposure  ; 
therefore,  if  they  have  before  them  an  example  of  the  tyranny  of 
such  a  man  as  was  nicknamed  Frederick  the  Great)  or  of  an 
Amurath  immured  in  his  seraglio,  they  can  assume  the  martinet 
severity  of  the  former,  as  a  cloak  for  their  ignorance,  and  conceive, 
that  by  imitating  the  gloomy  seclusion  of  the  latter,  they  may 
as  well  as  the  vanity,  attain  the  value  of  a  jewel.— Precious 
jewels  ! 

But  I  fear  it  is  too  true,  Mr.  Editor,  that  the  characters  whose 
excellence  makes  them  most  worthy  of  imitation,  are  either  set 
too  far  out  of  the  reach  of  the  powers  of  such  as  are  not  self-depen- 
dent; or  that  genuine  worth  can  only  be  truly  estimated  by  those 
•who  already  possess  an  adequate  portion  ;  whilst  the  harshness  of 
tyranny,  or  the  gloom  of  a  despot,  may  be  easily  assumed  by  any 
person  possessed  of  power,  let  his  abilities  be  ever  so  mean  and 
pitiful.  I  therefore  advise  all  those  who  find  themselves  placed 
(where  most  of  us  arc)  in  that  class  of  men  who  are  certain  to  see 
around  them  persons  of  dazzling  and  superior  abilities,  to  adopt 
any  attempts  at  imitation  with  caution ;  striving  only  as  before 
recommended  at  the  great  general  result  of  gallant  and  honourable 
conduct;  but  in  the  detail,  to  abide  by  their  own  inherent  charac- 
ter and  disposition  ;  by  following  the  honest  bent  of  which,  and 
guarding  against  the  weakest  parts,  they  will  in  the  mest  natural, 
and  therefore  in  the  very  best  manner,  pursue  a  steady  course  of 
conduct,  and  arrive  at  a  happy  termination  of  their  service. 
Whilst  it  is  most  difficult  to  attain  excellence  by  imitation,  it  is. 


CORRESPONDENCE.  ill 

however,  unfortunately,  but  too  easy  to  copy  the  faults  of  those 
around  us.  The  failings  of  men  in  high  situations  are  very  easily 
copied  by  those  possessed  of  a  similar  degree  of  power,  though  it 
should  ever  be  remembered,  that  the  error  adopted  by  the  imitator, 
is  not  only  more  unpardonable  than  in  the  original,  wbere  it  has 
its  rise  in  natural  weakness  or  depravity,  but  usually  causes  more 
abundant  mischief,  from  the  deep  contempt,  as  well  as  detestation, 
in  which  such  a  wretch  is  held  by  those  unfortunately  under  him. 
But  power,  that  dangerous  possession  even  in  the  hands  of  the 
moderate  and  wise,  is  so  apt  to  dazzle  the  eyes  and  mislead  the 
judgment,  that  whenever  we  see  it  carried  to  a  great  height  with 
impunity,  it  is  then  that  the  servile  herd  of  imitators  begin  to 
bestir  themselves.  That  the  malicious  or  half-witted  should  act 
thus  we  are  not  to  be  surprised,  but  I  have  seen  men,  whose 
natural  characters  wore  mild,  and  their  geueral  understandings 
above  par,  adopt  all  the  tyrannical  measures  of  a  man  in  every 
respect  their  inferior  but  in  rank  ;  and,  from  the  absurd  fear  of 
lessening  the  imaginary  dignity  of  high  birth  or  temporary  power, 
sink  their  real  and  truly  estimable  dignity  of  character  to  a  low 
ebb  indeed  !  Let  us,  therefore,  Mr.  Editor,  each  man  a  carry  on 
fhe  war"  in  his  own  way,  while  we  adhere  to  the  great  end  of  the 
public  welfare,  and  seek  to  attain  true  glory  by  the  pure  means  of 
genuine  honour. 

I  will  now  return  to  the  subject  proposed  in  the  beginning  of 
my  letter,  from  which  I  have  deviated  farther  than  I  had  intended. 
1  am  so  far  fond  of  popularity,  that  T  could  not  for  a  moment  feel 
easy  if  I  thought  any  man  under  my  command  cou'd  with  justice 
accuse  me  of  having  acted  injuriously  or  unkindly  towards  him, 
nor  would  I  be  content  with  mere  negative  satisfaction.  I  would 
have  my  mind  convinced,  that  every  man  under  my  command 
depended  upon  me,  not  cn'v  for  the  strictest  justice,  but  the  most 
active  benevolence  of  kindacss  on  all  occasions  within  my  power; 
all  this  appears  to  me  to  be  the  duty  of  every  commander,  and  the 
natural  bias  of  every  good  mind.  In  this  conviction  on  the  part 
of  the  officers  and  crew  depends  the  true  popularity  of  the  com. 
mander  ;  and  who  would  not  wish  to  possess  it  ?  Yet  I  have  heard 
some  valuable  officers  assert,  that  they  had  no  wish  to  be  beloved 
by  their  ship's  companies  ;  and  I  am  not  sure  whether  I  have  not 
heard  more  than  one  proceed  still  further,  and  assert  that  a  good 
officer  cannot  be  popular  or  beloved  by  those  about  him  ;  and  that 
discipline  wholly  consists  of  that  rigid  mechanical  system,  which 
Frederick  of  Prussia  and  his  school  would  approve.  That  cha- 


112  CORRESPONDENCE. 

Tacter  which  can  "be  attained  by  a  lax  discipline,  or  an  indulgence 
of  vice  and  indolence,  does  not  merit  the  name  of  popularity,  but 
is  a  sort  of  affection  whence  respect  and  esteem  must  be  wholly 
wanting;  and  I  conclude  that  it  must  be  only  this  spurious  sort  of 
popularity  which  is  deprecated  by  the  officers  I  have  alluded  to, 
and  that  they  will  all  join  with  me  in  the  admiration  of  the 
genuine.  The  opinion  I  have  heard,  however,  has  not  been  con- 
fined to  the  lower  classes,  but  embraced  the  uhole,  maintaining 
that  the  affections  of  neither  men  nor  officers  were  of  any  avail ; 
<l  J  zstll  do.  my  own  duty,  they  shall  do  theirs."  This  is  right :  but 
there  is  so  much  difference  within  the  narrow  precincts  of  a  ship, 
whether  it  be  the  determination  of  every  officer  and  man  that  he 
Kill  do  his  duty,  or  it  is  only  the  determination  of  the  commander 
that  they  shall,  o.r  that  they  tc/#  because  they  rcill,  and  not  merely 
because  they  must,  that  I  wonder  there  should  exist  a  difference  of 
opinion, 

A  ship's  company  should  look  up  for  paternal  care  and  strict 
justice  to  their  commander.  In  order  to  do  all  the  good  which  his 
situation  admits  of  he  should  not  appear  too  frequently  in  the 
common  transaction  of  duty,  but  as  much  as  possible  reserve  him- 
self for  particular  occasions,  when,  as  I  have  known  a  very  judi- 
cious officer  observe,  "  his  voico  should  be  heard  like  thunder," 
not  indeed  from  the  degree  of  noise,  but  with  the  same  attentive 
awe  which,  should  cause  his  orders  to  be  obeyed  as  quick  as 
lightning. 

Upon  this  subject  my  pen  is  not  easily  restrained  from  stating 
many  eminent  examples,  where  the  most  strict  discipline,  united 
with  the  most  watchful  and  benevolent  care  of  all  under  their  com- 
mand, have  raised  them  most  justly  to  the  utmost  height  of  genuine 
popularity  ;  where  every  requisite  exertion  on  trying  occasions 
was  made  with  tenfold  more  vigour  and  success  than  in  the  best 
regulated  of  those  ships  where  the  most  minute  precision  of  order 
took  place,  without  the  prevailing  sentiment  of  acting  from  prin- 
ciple; that  noble  sentiment,  which  serves  as  a  general  mind  to  the 
whole  crew,  and  renders  a  ship  under  such  circumstances,  as  much 
superior  to  the  other,  as  man,  the  noblest  jsork  of  God,  is  to  an 
automaton,  the  most  ingenious  work  of  man. 

I  remain,  sir,  yours,  &c. 

A.  F.  Y. 


CORRESPONDENCE.  113 

MR.   EDITOR,  IVIiilehaven,  February  9,  1809. 

I  HAVE  long  been  of  opinion,  that  those  who  have  had  the 
good  fortune  to  invent  or  discover  any  thing  that  they  may 
imagine  will,  by  the  disclosure,  prove  beneficial  to  mankind,  are 
very  blameable  if  they  conceal  it  within  their  own  breasts,  instead 
of  making  it  public. 

Actuated  by  this  idea,  I  took  the  liberty,  in  November  last,  to 
transmit  to  you  my  thoughts  upon  light-houses,  which  you  have 
been  so  obliging  as  to  insert  in  the  NAVAL  CHRONICLE.* 

I  now  beg  leave  to  inform  you  of  a  discovery  I'made,  many  years 
ago,  of  a  species  of  timber,  which,  I  trust,  from  the  experiments 
I  tried,  will  bid  defiance  to  the  pernicious  effects  of  the  salt  water 
worm,  and  prove  an  object  of  great  importance  in  the  art  of  ship 
building.  , 

Having  formerly  spent  a  few  years,  very  pleasantly,  in  the  hos- 
pitable region  of  the  British  West  Indies,  amongst  other  pursuits, 
I  made  some  inquiries  into  the  various  kinds  of  wood  with  which 
that  country  abounds,  and  procured  samples  of  many  that  might  be 
converted  into  very  beautiful  furniture,  &c. 

When  I  had  nearly  finished  my  collection,  a  friend,  who  was 
informed  of  my  design,  told  me,  he  apprehended  he  had  procured  a 
sort  of  timber  more  extraordinary  than  any  I  had  met  with.  I 
replied,  that  might  perhaps  be  the  case,  and  requested  he  would 
be  so  good  as  to  acquaint  me  with  the  properties  it  possessed. 
Upon  which  he  informed  me,  that  he  had  used  it  in  making  boxes 
and  drawers,  and  he  found  that  neither  ants,  cockroaches,  nor  scor- 
pions, &c.  would  approach,  or  when  thrown  in,  would  remain 
within  them ;  nay,  he  supposed  that  there  was  something  in  its 
nature  so  obnoxious  to  these  insects,  that  even  by  putting  some  of 
its  shavings  or  saw-dust  into  boxes,  &c.  constructed  of  any  other 
sort  of  timber,  they  would  carefully  avoid  them. 

It  immediately  occurred  to  me,  that  if  none  of  these  vermin, 
living  in  air,  would  approach  it,  there  was  some  probability  that 
the  salt  water  worm  also  would  not  touch  it.  I  therefore  resolved 
on  making  the  experiment,  requesting  he  would  favour  me  with 
some  of  it,  and  he  very  obligingly  sent  me  a  small  piece  of  a  plank, 
eight  inches  long,  four  wide,  and  half  an  inch  thick. 

This  piece  was  fastened,  on  the  first  day  of  December,  1778,  to 
the  mooring  chain  of  the  Custom-house  boat,  within  the  Mole 

*  See  Vol.  XX.  page  381. 
.  <Bol.  XXI.  « 


114 

Head,  at  Bridge  Town,  in  Barbadoes,  in  salt  water,  where  the  sra 
•worms  are  very  numerous  and  destructive  ;  and  having  continued 
under  water  for  near  6  months,  I  had  it  taken  up  again,  on  May 
the  29th,  1779.  Upon  examination,  I  found  it  had  not  been  in 
the  smallest  degree  injured  by  the  worms ;  neither  was  there  any 
grass,  barnacles,  or  other  shells,  adhering  to  it ;  notwithstanding 
there  were  several  barnacles  sticking  to  the  iron  chain  which  held 
the  Custom-house  boat. 

Although  I  might  reasonably  suppose  the  above  trial  might  be 
considered  sufficiently  satisfactory,  nevertheless,  having  in  my 
possession  another  piece  of  the  same  kind  of  wood,  of  a  larger 
size,  I  got  it  nailed  to  the  bottom  of  the  Philip  and  Mary,  John 
Bell,  master,  in  the  harbour  of  Mary-port.  This  brig  went  to 
Barbadoes,  and  returned  back  to  the  above  mentioned  harbour,  by 
the  way  of  London,  where  she  discharged  a  cargo  of  sugar,  &c» 
being  afloat  all  that  time. 

When  the  tide  of  ebb  had  left  this  vessel  dry,  the  piece  was  taken 
off  and  brought  to  me,  and,  upon  inspection,  I  perceived  it  had 
not,  as  in  the  former  trial,  received  the  least  injury  from  the  sea 
-worms ;  though  the  brig's  bottetn  was  much  eaten  by  them ;  nor 
were  there  any  shells  or  grass  adhering  to  it.  The  only  alteration 
I  found  in  both  of  my  experiments,  appeared  on  the  outside  of 
them,  which  was  turned  of  a  greenish  colour. 

This  wood  is  called  serrawabolla,  and  grows  at  Demerara,  in 
South  America  ;  but  as  I  never  was  in  that  colony  (now  in  the 
possession  of  Great  Britain),  I  am  unable  either  to  compose  or 
obtain  the  natural  history  of  that  tree;  but  from  what  I  have  been 
informed  concerning  it,  I  understand  it  grows  to  a  large  size,  is 
easily  worked,  and  I  presume  will  answer  excellently  well  for 
sheathing  of  ships. 

The  specimens  I  procured  are  of  a  yellowish  colour,  and  have 
an  agreeable  smell,  somewhat  resembling  the  fragrance  of  Marechal 
powder.  If  I  am  not  misinformed,  there  are  two  sorts  of  this  tim- 
ter  in  that  plantation,  which  are  known  by  the  same  name. 

1  am,  sir, 
Your  obedient  humble  servant, 


/ 

P.S-.  I  forgot  to  mention  to  you,  in  my  letter  concerning  light- 
houses, or  pharoses.,  that  in  case  the  apertures  of  the  lights  are  not 


CORRESPONDENCE.  115 

sufficiently  distinguishable  in  the  day-time,  I  would  recommend 
some  boards  to  be  fixed  occasionally  on  the  outside  of  them,  and 
painted  either  white  or  black,  so  as  to  make  the  greatest  contrast 
with  the  colour  of  the  building,  by  which  means  an  observer  will 
the  more  readily  take  the  angle,  when  he  is  desirous  of  knowing 
•what  distance  he  is  from  it. 


MR.   EDITOR,  Chatham,  January  16,  1809. 

IEVERAL  false  reports  being  in  circulation  respecting  a  late 
visit  of  the  crew  of  the  Standard  to  London,  and  their  appli- 
cation to  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty,  1  send  you  the  following 
account,  the  correctness  of  which  you  may  depend  on  : — 

The  Standard  and  Thunderer  arrived  here  together  from  the 
Mediterranean  ;  the  Thunderer's  crew  were  paid  off,  and  had  liberty 
for  fourteen  days  ;  the  Standard's  crew,  conceiving  they  had  a  right 
to  the  same  indulgence,  both  ships  having  been  on  the  same  station, 
petitioned  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty  to  that  effect,  and  their  ap- 
plication was  granted.  Thinking  their  commander  was  tardy  in 
complying  with  the  order  of  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty,  when 
called  upon,  on  Wednesday  se'nnighr,  to  wash  decks  and  scrub  the 
ship,  they  refused,  and  went  aft  in  a  body  to  the  quarter-deck  ; 
they  requested  to  know  why  their  leave  was  kept  back,  and 
entreated  it  should  be  immediately  granted.  The  first  lieutenant 
told  them  it  was  the  captain's  wish  (who  was  absent  on  leave)  that 
only  a  watch  should  have  liberty  at  once,  and  on  their  return,  the 
other  watch  should  have  the  same  indulgence.  They  replied  in 
one  voice,  "  No,  all  or  none.'1  On  Thursday,  the  whole  of  the 
crew  were  granted  fourteen  days'  liberty,  but  were  not  paid  off. 
On  their  getting  on  shore  they  formed  into  a  body,  and  marched 
for  London,  with  a  drum  and  fife,  and  union  jack  flying— many 
of  the  poor  fellows  without  a  farthing  in  their  pockets.  On  their 
arrival  at  the  Admiralty,  they  sent  their  petty  officers  forward, 
with  a  petition,  stating  the  hardship  of  being  allowed  liberty  with- 
ont  receiving  a  part  of  their  pay.  They  were  told  it  was  unusual 
to  grant  liberty,  except  when  the  ship  was  paid  off,  but  from  the 
good  character  their  captain  had  given  them,  it  was  granted  to 
them,  and  they  must  return  immediately  to  Chatham  ;  that  orders 
should  be  sent  that  night  for  payment  to  be  made  to  them  next 
morning,  and  entreated  they  would  conduct  themselves  peaceably 
and  quietly ;  that  they  would  be  accommodated  for  that  day  ou 


116  CORRESPONDENCE. 

board  the  receiving  ship  off  the  Tower,  and  be  supplied  Afith  pro- 
visions;  and  that  also  the  Gravesend  boats  should  be  engaged  to 
take  them  down  by  that  night's  tide.  They  complied  in  the  most 
orderly  manner,  and  arrived  at  Chatham  on  Saturday  morning ; 
but  the  ship's  books  not  being  made  up,  they  were  informed  they 
could  not  be  paid  until  Monday  last.  They  appeared  satisfied, 
and  said  they  wished  for  no  more  indulgence  than  the  Thunderer's 
crew  had  received.  Their  conduct  has  been  perfectly  peaceable 
throughout. 


PAINE'S  SYSTEM  OF  NATIONAL  DEFENCE. 

MR.    EDITOR, 

TTF  the  name  of  Paine  should  not  operate  as  a  repellent,  some 
"^  useful  ideas  may  be  derived  from  a  perusal  of  the  following 
recent  production  of  that  writer.  He  does  not  appear  fully  to 
comprehend  the  subject  in  all  its  points ;  but  several  of  his 
remarks  are  deserving  of  notice;  and  the  information  which  he 
gives,  relative  to  the  expenses  of  ship-building  in  America,  will,  I 
doubt  not,  prove  acceptable  to -many  of  your  readers. 

I  am,  &c.  .      H.  L. 

"  Natural  defence,  by  men,  is  common  to  all  nations ;  but 
artificial  defence,  as  an  auxiliary  to  human  strength,  must  be 
adapted  to  the  local  conditions  and  circumstances  of  a  country. 

"  What  may  be  suitable  to  one  country,  or  in  one  state  of  cir- 
cumstances, may  not  be  so  in  another. 

li  The  United  States  have  a  long  line  of  coast,  of  more  than  two 
thousand  miles,  every  part  of  which  requires  defence,  because 
every  part  is  approachable  by  water. 

"  The  right  principle  for  the  United  States  to  go  upon,  as  a 
defence  for  the  coast,  is  that  of  combining  the  greatest  practical 
power  with  the  least  possible  bulk,  that  the  whole  quantity  of 
power  may  be  better  distributed  through  the  several  parts  of  such 
an  extensive  coast. 

"  The  power  of  a  ship  of  war  is  altogether  in  the  number  and 
size  of  the  guns  she  carries,  for  the  ship  of  itself  has  no  power. 

'•  Ships  cannot  struggle  with  each  other  like  animals;  and  be- 
sides this,  as  half  her  guns  are  on  one  side  of  the  ship,  and  half  on 
the  other ;  and  as  she  can  use  only  the  guns  on  one  side  at  a  time, 
her  real  power  \a  only  equal  to  half  her  number  of  guns.  A 


CORUESPONDENCE,  117 

seventy-four  can  use  only  thirty-seven  guns.  She  must  tack  about 
to  bring  the  other  half  into  action,  and  Avhile  she  is  doing  this  she 
is  defenceless  and  exposed. 

"  As  this  is  the  case  with  ships  of  war,  a  question  naturally 
arises  therefrom,  which  is,  whether  seventy-four  guns,  or  any  othcf 
number,  cannot  be  more  effectually  employed,  and  that  with  much, 
less  expense,  than  by  putting  them  all  into  one  ship  of  such  au 
enormous  bulk,  that  it  cannot  approach  a  shore  either  to  defend 
it  or  attack  it ;  and  though  the  ship  can  change  its  place,  the 
whole  number  of  guns  can  be  only  at  one  place  at  a  time,  and  only 
half  that  number  can  be  used  at  a  time. 

u  This  is  a  true  statement  of  the  case  between  ships  of  war  and 
gun-boats,  for  the  defence  of  a  coast,  and  of  towns  situated  near  a 
coast. 

"  But  the  case  often  is,  that  men  are  led.  away  by  the  greatness 
of  an  idea,  and  not  by  the  justness  of  it !  This  is  always  the  case 
with  those  who  are  advocates  for  natives  and  large  ships. 

*'  A  gun-boat,  carrying  as  heavy  metal  as  a  ship  of  100  guns 
can  carry,  is  a  one  gun  ship  of  the  line  ;  and  seventy-i'our  of  them, 
which  would  cost  much  less  than  a  74  gun-ship  would  cost,  would 
be  able  to  blow  a  74  gun-ship  out  of  theAvater.  They  have  in  the 
use  of  their  guns  double  the  power  of  the  ship,  that  is,  they  have 
the  use  of  their  whole  number  of  seventy-four  to  thirty-seven. 

"  Having  thus  stated  the  general  outlines  of  the  subject,  I  come 
to  particulars. 

"  That  I  might  have  correct  data  to  go  upon  with  respect  t» 
ships  and  gun-boats,  I  wrote  to  the  head  of  one  of  the  departments 
at  Washington  for  information  on  the  subject. 

"  The  following  is  the  answer  I  received  : — 

"  Calculating  the  cost  of  a  74  or  100  gun-ship,  from  the  actual  cost  of 
the  ship  United  States,  of  44  guns,  built  at  Philadelphia,  between  the  years 
1795  aiid  1798,  which  amounted  to  300,000  dollars,  it  may  be  presumed, 
that  a  74  gun-ship  would  cost  500,000  dollars,  and  a  100  gun-ship  700,000 
dollars.  • 

"Gun-boats,  calculated  merely  for  the  defence  of  harbours  and  rivers, 
will,  on  an  average,  cost  about  4,000  dollars  each,  when  fit  to  receive  the 
crew  and  provisions.5' 

"  On  the  data  here  given  I  proceed  to  state  comparative  calcu- 
lations respecting  ships  and  gun-boats. 

"  The  ship  United  States  cost  300,000  dollars,  gun-boats  cost 
4,000  dollars  each,  consequently  the  300,000  dollars  expended  on 
the  ship,  for  the  purpose  of  getting  the  use  of  -44  guns,  aud  those 


118  CORRESFOND-ENCX. 

most  heavy  metal,  would  have  built  seventy-five  gun-boats,  each 
carrying  a  cannon  of  the  same  weight  of  metal  that  a  ship  of  100 
guns  can  carry. 

"  The  difference  therefore  is,  that  the  gun-boats  give  the  use  of 
thirty-one  guns,  heavy  metal,  more  than  can  be  obtained  by  the 
ship,  and  the  expense  in  both  cases  equal. 

**  A  74  gun-ship  costs  500,000  dollars.  The  same  money 
•would  build  125  gun-boats.  The  gain  by  gun-boats  is  the  use  of 
forty-one  more  guns  than  can  be  obtained  by  expending  the  money 
on  a  ship  of  74  guns. 

"  The  cost  of  an  100  gun-ship  is  700,000  dollars.  This  money 
would  build  175  gun-boats;  the  gain  therefore  by  the  boats  is  the 
use  of  seventy-five  guns  more  than  by  the  ship. 

"  Though  I  had  a  general  impression,  ever  since  I  had  the 
knowledge  of  gun-boats,  that  any  given  sum  would  go  farther  in 
building"  gun-boats  than  in  building  ships  of  war,  and  that  gun- 
boats were  preferable  to  ships  for  home  defence;  I  did  not  suppose 
the  difference  was  so  great  as  the  calculations  above  given  prove 
them  to  be,  for  it  is  almost  double  in  favour  of  gun-boats.  It  is 
as  175  to  100.  The  cause  of  this  difference  is  easily  explained. 
The  fact  is,  that  all  that  part  of  the  expense  in  building  a  ship  from 
the  deck  upward,  including  masts,  yards,  sails,  and  rigging,  is 
saved  by  building  gun-boats,  which  are  moved  by  oars,  or  a 
light  sail  occasionally. 

<c  The  difference  also  in  point  of  repairs,  between  ships  of  war 
and  gun-boats,  is  not  only  great,  but  it  is  greater  in  proportion 
than  in  their  first  cost.  The  repair  of  ships  of  war  is  annually 
from  one-fourteenth  to  one-tenth  of  their  first  cost.  The  annual 
expense  of  repairs  of  a  ship  that  cost  300,000  dollars,  will  be  above 
21,000  dollars  ;  the  greatest  part  of  this  expense  is  in  her  sails  and 
rigging,  which  gun-boats  are  free  from. 

"  The  difference  also  in  point  of  duration  is  great. 

"  Gun-boats,  when  not  in  use,  can  b«  put  under  shelter,  and 
preserved  from  the  weather,  but  ships  cannot ;  or  boats  can  be 
sunk  in  the  water  or  mud.  This  is  the  way  the  nuts  of  cider  mills 
for  grinding  apples  are  preserved.  Were  they  to  be  exposed  to 
the  dry  and  hot  air,  after  coining  wet  from  the  mill,  they  would 
crack  and  split,  and  be  good  for  nothing.  But  timber  under  water 
wil!  continue  sound  several  hundred  years,  provided  there  be  no 
worms. 

"  Another  advantage  in  favour  of  gun-boats,  is  the  expedition 
•with  which  a  great  number  of  them  can  be  built  at  once.  A  hun- 


CORRESPONDENCE.  119 

ilred  may  be  built  as  soon  as  one,  if  there  be  hands  enough  to  set 
about  them  separately.  They  do  not  require  preparations  for 
building  them  that  ships  require,  nor  deep  water  to  launch  them 
in.  They  can  be  built  on  the  shore  of  shallow  waters  ;  or  they 
might  be  framed  in  the  woods  or  forests,  and  the  parts  brought 
separately  down  and  put  together  on  the  shore.  But  ships  tak« 
up  a  long  time  in  building. 

*e  The  ship  United  States  took  up  two  whole  years,  1798  and 
1797,  and  part  of  the  years  1795  and  1798,  and  all  this  for  the 
purpose  of  getting  the  use  of  44  guns,  and  those  not  heavy  metal. 

61  This  foolish  aflair  was  not  in  the  days  of  the  present  admi- 
nistration. 

<c  Ships  and  gun-boats  are  for  different  services.  Ships  are  for 
distant  expeditions  ;  gun-boats  for  home  defence.  The  one  for 
the  ocean,  the  other  for  the  shore. 

"  Gun-boats,  being  moved  by  oars,  cannot  be  deprived  of  motion 
by  calms,  for  the  calmer  the  weather  the  better  for  the  boat.  But 
a  hostile  ship  becalmed  in  any  of  our  waters  can  be  taken  by  gun. 
boats  moved  by  oars,  let  the  rate  of  the  ship  be  what  it  may.  A 
IQO-gim  man-of-xar  becalmed  is  like  a  giant  in  a  dead  palsy ; 
ei-ery  little  fellow  can  kick  him. 

"  The  United  States  ought  to  have  500  gun-boats  stationed  in 
different  parts  of  the  coast,  each  carrying  a  thirty-two  or  thirty- 
*ix  pounder.  Hostile  ships  would  not  then  venture  to  lie  within 
our  Abaters,  were  it  only  for  the  certainty  of  being  sometimes  be- 
calme  d.  They  would  then  become  prize,  and  the  insulting  bullies 
on  the  ocean  become  prisoners  in  our  own  waters. 

"  II  \ving  thus  stated  the  comparative  powers  and  expense  of 
<hips  of  war  and  gun-boats,  I  come  to  speak  of  fortifications. 
"  For  tifications  may  be  comprehended  under  two  general  head3. 
"First.  Fortified  towns ;  that  is,  towns  enclosed  within  a  for- 
iified  poly  »on,  of  which  there  are  many  on  the  continent  of  Europe, 
but  not  an}'  in  England. 

"  Second.  Y.  Simple  forts  and  batteries.  These  are  not  formed  on 
the  regular  p  tinciples  of  fortification  ;  that  is,  they  are  not  formed 
for  the  purpos «  of  standing  a  sk'ge  as  a  fortified  polygon,  is.  They 
are  for  the  pur  pose  of  obstructing  or  annoying  the  progress  of  an 
enemy  by  land  vr  water. 

"  Batteries  ai  e  formidable  in  defending  narrow  passes  by  land, 
such  as  the  passage  of  a  bridge,  or  of  a  road  cut  through  a  rough 
and  craggy  mount,  vn,  that  cannot  be  passed  any  where  else.  But 
they  are  not  formit.  'abler  in  defending  water-passes,  because  a  ship, 


120  ,  .  CORRESPONDENCE,' 

with  a  brisk  wind  and  tide,  running  at  the  rate  of  ten  miles  an 
hour,  will  be  out  of  the  reach  of  the  fire  of  the  battery  in  fifteen 
or  twenty  minutes  ;  and  being  a  swift  moving  object  all  the  time, 
it  would  be  a  mere  chance  that  any  shot  struck  her. 

"  When  the  object  of  a  ship  is  that  of  passing  a  battery,  for  the 
purpose  of  attaining  or  attacking  some  other  object,  it  is  not  cus- 
tomary for  the  ship  to  fire  at  the  battery,  lest  it  should  disturb  her 
course.  Three  or  four  men  are  kept  on  deck  to  attend  the  helm, 
and  the  rest,  having  nothing  to  do,  go  below. 

"  Duckworth,  in  passing  the  Dardanelles  up  to  Constantinople, 
did  not  fire  at  the  batteries. 

f(  When  batteries,  for  the  defence  of  water-passes,  can  be 
erected  without  any  great  expense,  and  the  men  not  exposed  to 
capture,  it  may  be  very  proper  to  have  them.  They  may  keep  off 
small  piratical  vessels,  but  they  are  not  to  be  trusted  to  for 
defence. 

li  Fortifications  give,  in  general,  a  delusive  idea  of  protection  : 
all  our  principal  losses  in  the  revolutionary  war  were  occasioned  by 
trusting  to  fortifications. 

"  Fort  Washington,  with  a  garrison  of  2,500  men,  was  taken 
in  less  than  four  hours,  and  the  men  prisoners  of  war.  The  same 
fate  had  befallen  Fort  Lee,  on  the  opposite  shore,  if  General  Lee 
had  not  moved  hastily  off,  and  gained  Hackimsack  bridge.  General 
Lincoln  fortified  Charleston,  in  South  Carolina,  and  himself  and 
his  army  were  made  prisoners  of  war. 

"  General  Washington  began  fortifying  New  York,  in  177&» 
General  Howe  passed  up  the  east  river,  landed  his  army  at  Frog's 
Point,  about  twenty  miles  above  the  city,  and  marched  down  upon 
it ;  and  had  not  General  Washington  stole  silently  and  suddenly 
off  on  the  north  river  side  of  York  island,  himself  and  Ms  army 
had  also  been  prisoners. 

"  Trust  not  to  fortifications,  otherwise  than  as  batteries,  that 
can  be  abandoned  at  discretion. 

"  The  case,  however,  is,  that  battteries,  as  a  water  defence 
against  the  passage  of  ships,  cannot  do  much.  Were  any  given 
number  of  guns  to  be  put  in  a  battery  for  that  purpose,  and  aa 
equal  number  of  the  same  weight  of  metal  put  in  gun-boats  for  the, 
«anie  purpose,  those  in  the  bo'ats  would  be  more  effectual  than  those- 
in  the  battery. 

"  The  reason  of  this  is  obvious.  A  battery  i$  stationary.  Its, 
fire  is  limited  to  about  two  miles,  and  there  its  power  ceases.  But 
every  guu-bo^t  moved  by.  oars  is  a  moveable  fortification,  that  caa 


CORRESPONDENCE.  121 

follow  up  its  fire,  and  change  its  place  and  its  position  as  circum- 
stances may  require  ;  arid  besides  this,  gun-boats  in  calms  are  the 
sovereigns  of  ships. 

u  As  the  matter  interests  the  public,  and  most  probably  will 
come  before  Congress  at  its  next  meeting,  if  the  printers  in  any  of 
the  States,  after  publishing  it  in  their  newspapers,  have  a  mind  to 
publish  it  in  a  pamphlet  form,  together  with  my  former  piece  on 
gun-boats,  tlu:y  have  my  consent  frtely. 

"  I  neither  take  copy-right  nor  pnjit  from  any  thing  I 
publish. 

"  THOMAS  PAINE." 

MR.    ED  I  tO  R, 

E  following  relation  of  a  surprising  circumstance  was  handed 
to  me  by  one  of  the  officers  of  his  majesty's  ship  Daedalus, 
on  board  of  which  ship  it  happened,  whilst  laying  at  Samana,  St. 
Domingo  :•— 

"  Several  sharks  were  seen  swimming  about  the  ship  early  on 
the  forenoon  of  the  20th  of  November,  1808,  waiting  their  prey. 
A  hook  and  bait  were  put  overboard,  which  one  of  them  imme- 
diately seized  with  voraciousness.  Its  attempts  to  escape  were  frus- 
trated by  a  rope  being  passed  over  its  fins,  with  which  it  was 
hoisted  on  board,  by  no  less  a  number  of  men  than  twenty  :  in  its 
maw  was  found  a  calf  that  had  been  hove  overboard  a  few  hours 
previously  to  its  being  caught :  its  length  from  the  snout  to  the  ex- 
tremity of  the  tail  was  ten  feet,  and  the  circumference  of  the  body 
proportionate:  the  jaws,  when  extended,  passed  over  the  body  of 
the  stoutest  man  in  the  ship.  Three  others  were  successively 
caught,  of  equal  size  with  the  first;  in  the  last  of  which  was  found 
sixty-two  young  ones,  a  turkey,  and  a  live  hawk's-bill  turtle) 
measuring  two  feet  six  inches  in  length,  and  one  foot  nine  inches 
in  breadth  :  it  swam  about  immediately  after  its  release,  in  a  tub 
of  water,  apparently  not  the  least  injured  by  its  singular  con- 
finement." 

An  instance  of  so  extraordinary  a  nature  deserves  to  be  re- 
corded ;  and  it  may  be  said  without  deviating  from  the  truth,  that 
with  one  hook,  sixty-three  sharks  were  caught  at  one  time,  and 

all  alive. 

A  CORRESPONDENT. 

Jamaica,  1st  January,  1809. 

ol,  XXL  R 


122  CORRESPONDENCE. 

LETTER  X. 
SIR,  February  4,  1809. 

I  HAD  no  intention  of  again  troubling  you  with  any  remarks 
which  might  allude  to  measures  proper  to  be  pursued  in  Par- 
liament, but  some  passing  occurrences  appear  so  strikingly  deserv- 
ing of  parliamentary  discussion,  that  after  my  former  observations, 
I  could  not  consistently  let  them  pass  unnoticed.  I  trust  the  first 
matter  I  mean  to  submit  to  your  consideration,  may  prove  to  be  a 
false  report ;  but  when  such  a  report  is  in  circulation,  it  is  of 
sufficient  magnitude  to  merit  inquiry,  and  of  sufficient  consequence 
to  require  either  refutation  or  examination. 

I  am  informed  that  the  captains  of  the  navy  at  the  sea-ports 
have  lately  thought  proper  to  petition,  in  a  proper  and  respectful 
manner,  for  an  increase  of  pay,  on  the  plea  of  the  high  prices  of 
all  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  the  recent  diminution  of  their  pro- 
portion of  prize-money.  Now,  Sir,  it  matters  not  whether  the 
petition  be  well  timed,  or  whether  the  prayer  of  it  should  b« 
granted  or  denied  ;  as  surely  there  exists  an  undoubted  right  in  the 
subjects  of  these  kingdoms  to  petition,  whenever  they  judge  it  ex- 
pedient, and  it  is  only  a  disrespectful  or  unconstitutional  manner 
of  wording  or  presenting  it,  which  could  merit  either  rebuke  or 
punishment ;  nor  will  any  one  man  in  his  sound  senses  atlirm,  that 
the  petitioners  are  a  body  of  men  whom  either  justice  or  policy 
•would  treat  with  harshness  or  contempt.  As  the  good  citizens  of 
London  met  with  a  severe  rebuke  on  a  late  occasion,  so  on  the 
present  it  is  said  that  a  more  arbitrary  mark  of  displeasure  has 
taken  place;  no  less  than  the  dismissal  of  the  late  admirable  and 
worthy  commander-in-chief  at  Portsmouth  from  his  command,  for 
merely  having  forwarded  this  petition  to  the  Admiralty,  or  perhaps 
to  the  General  who  commands  at  that  Board.  Are  such  things  so, 
and  this  the  land  of  constitutional  freedom  ? 

I  now  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  the  letter  in  your  17th  volume, 
•without  signature — See  page  46,  line  12,  et  seq.  and  let  us  ob- 
serve the  encouragement  the  navy  receives  from  the  government. 
In  Gobbet's  Weekly  Register  of  January  21,  amongst  other  mat- 
ter well  worth  the  consideration  of  the  naval  legislator  (for  it  is 
time  for  us  to  speak  for  ourselves),  is  the  following  sentence  : — 
"  The  island  of  St.  Croix  it  is  well  known  was  taken  about  a  year 
ago,  by  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane  and  General  Bowyer,  who 
jointly,  according  to  the  usual  custom  in  such  cases,  made  appoint- 
ments  of  harbour  masters  and  naval  officers.  They  bestowed  the 
four  offices  upon  three  persons,  in'  the  following  manner :— Cap- 


CORRESPONDENCE.  123 

tain  T.  Cochrane,  of  the  navy,  son  to  the  admiral,  was  appointed 
harbour-master  of  the  two  ports  ;  Captain  Pickmere,  of  the  navy, 
was  made  naval  officer  of  the  port  of  Fredericksted  ;  and  Brigadier- 
general  Ramsay  naval  officer  of  the  port  of  Christiansted  :  all  these 
appointments  were  set  aside  by  Lord  Castlereagh,  and  the  four 
ojjices  united  in  the  person  of  his  uncle^  Lord  G.  Seymour," 
&c.  &c.  There  is  much  more  in  the  same  number,  of  great  naval 
interest ;  and  perhaps  you  may  think  it  right  to  add  another  ex- 
tract  or  two  of  what  is  merely  to  that  effect. 

If  a  branch  of  the  noble  family  of  Seymour  is  to  have  public  sup- 
port, i  should  think  it  would  at  least  spurn  with  indignation  the 
act  of  taking  it  from  the  brave  soldiers  and  seamen  who  had  borne 
the  dangers  of  the  battle  and  the  climate;  and  1  trust,  that  when 
this  affair  comes  into  discussion  before  Parliament,  no  seltish  mo- 
tives will  prevent  every  member  connected  with  it  from  support- 
ing the  cause  of  justice  and  right,  against  oppression,  partiality, 
aud  wrong. 

I  perceive  also  that  the  government  of  New  South  Wales  is 
transferred  to  the  army  from  the  navy,  although  a  volume  of  sound 
reasons  might  be  produced  to  shew  the  appointment  should  take 
place  from  the  latter. 

1  trust  that  some  able  advocate  will  appear  to  defend  the  cause 
of  the  naval  service,  which  I  must  consider  as  ill  used  and  oppressed 
in  various  instances  ;  and  that  the  tried  loyalty  and  patriotic  exer- 
tions of  the  great  bulwark  of  Britain,  will  receive  from  a  grateful 
country  a  due  attention  to  its  proper  interests. 

i  remain,  Sir,  yours,  &c. 

E.  G,  F. 

N.B.  I  fear  you  will  be  fired  of  my  correspondence,  but  in  the 
light  the  subjects  mentioned  above  struck  me,  1  thought  they  could 
not  too  soon  be  oft'ered  to  public  notice  in  your  work,  in  the 
course  of  which  I  have  ever  had  reason  to  believe  you  the  seaman's 
friend* 

MR.    EDITOR, 

f  II  ^HE  discipline  of  our  navy  is  now  in  so  perfect  a  state,  that  it 
-*-  rarely  indeed  happens  that  examples  of  severity  are  necessary 
to  maintain  it.  Before  this  desirable  end  was  accomplished,  the  case 
must  have  been  otherwise,  as  it  was  indispensable  to  let  the  coward 
feel  more  than  disgrace  and  contempt,  when  it  seemed  probable  or 
possible  his  conduct  might  prove  infectious  among  a  brave  crew  ; 
but  when  a  commander  or  his  officers  exhibited  symptoms  of  fear, 


124  CORRESPONDENCE. 

every  consideration  demanded  instant  punishment—Tit  has  been 
promptly  and  rigidly  inflicted,  and  we  are  now  enjoying  the  happy 
consequences  of  the  stern  patriotic  virtue  of  our  ancestors — for 
instance  :  a  court  martial  was  held  on  board  his  majesty's  yacht, 
September  16,  1670,  "  called  the  Bezan,  in  the  river  of  Thames, 
near  Tower  Wharf,  for  the  trial  of  Captain  John  Pierce,  com- 
mander of  his  majesty's  ship  the  Saphire,  unfortunately  lost  the 
31st  of  March  last,  upon  the  coast  of  Sicily,  and  of  his  lieutenant, 
Andrew  Logan;  when,  upon  diligent  examination  and  inquisition, 
it  was  fully  and  clearly  evidenced,  by  the  testimony  of  twelve  cre- 
dible witnesses  upon  oath,  that  the  said  ship  was  basely  and  shame- 
fully lost  through  the  default  and  cowardice  of  the  said  captain 
and  lieutenant,  who  upon  the  approach  of  four  sail,  supposed  to 
be  Turks  men  of  war,  being  possessed  of  a  panic  fear,  ordered  the 
ship  to  run  from  them,  refusing  to  let  go  the  anchor,  till  the  ship 
was  struck,  contrary  to  the  sense,  not  only  of  the  master  and  pur- 
ser, who  persuaded  them  to  fight,  the  ship  being  in  a  fit  posture, 
but  of  the  whole  company,  who  declared  their  readiness  and  desire 
of  it  by  their  cheerful  acclamations.  Upon  these  and  other 
evidences,  the  said  captain  and  lieutenant  were,  by  a  general  and 
unanimous  consent,  adjudged  and  sentenced  to  be  shot  to  duath,  on 
Monday  the  26th  instant,  on  board  any  of  his  majesty's  ships  or 
vessels  of  war,  according  as  the  president  of  that  court,  Sir 
Jeremiah  Smith,  should  direct." 

Such  was  {he  disgraceful  termination  of  the  naval  career  of 
Messrs.  Pierce  and  Logan,  whose  conduct  affords  a  disgusting  con- 
trast with  that  of  the  brave  Clark  and  his  hardy  crew,  fit  associates 
for  those  of  the  Saphire,  an  account  of  which  follows.  The  author 
of  this  narrative  dates  his  information  from  Cadiz,  and  adds  : — 
«  Here  is  now  riding  in  this  bay  the  Holmes  frigate,  Captain  Henry 
Clark,  commander,  lately  come  in  from  the  coast  of  Barbary,  before 
Sallec,  where  having  been  cruising,  on  the  5th  instant,  about 
twelve  of  the  clock,  he  discovered  two  sail  coming  along  by  the 
shore  from  the  southward,  with  the  wind  at  north-west ;  one  of 
them,  a  man  of  war,  kept  the  offing,  and  weathered  the  Holmes 
about  musket-shot,  whereupon  the  captain  tacked  upon  the  broad- 
side of  her,  and  kept  there  for  the  space  of  an  hour  ;  firing  many 
broadsides  upon  her ;  it  afterwards  proving  little  wind,  arid  that 
shifting  to  the  southward  of  the  west,  the  Sallee  man  got  large 
from  him,  and  afterwards  forced  it  to  Sallee  over  the  bar  very 
much  shattered  ;  the  captain  then  bore  up  for  the  other  vessel, 
which  was  under  the  shore,  supposed  to  be  a  prize,  which  imme- 


CORRESPONDENCE.  125 

diately  run  on  shore,  and  there  struck,  and  that  night  overset,  and 
staved  to  pieces. 

"  The  14th  instant,  about  six  in  the  morning,  he  discovered  three 
sail  coming  in  from  sea,  having  but  little  wind  from  south,  standing 
in,  in  hopes  to  weather  him ;  between  seven  and  eight  they  met 
together,  within  musket-shot,  or  less,  at  which  time  it  proved  a 
dead  culm,  two  of  these  proved  to  be  the  admiral  and  vice-admiral 
of  Sallee,  having  each  of  them  about  eight  guns,  and  as  many 
pederos,  and  very  full  of  men :  before  eight  of  the  clock  in  the 
forenoon,  they  begun  to  engage,  and  continued  in  fight  until  six  in 
the  afternoon,  in  all  which  time  the  captain  could  not  (with  all  the 
arts  he  could  use)  get  aboard  either  of  them  ;  between  five  and  six 
in  the  afternoon,  the  vice-admiral  being  very  much  shattered  ami 
torn,  ran  on  shore  with  the  third  ship,  supposed  to  be  a  prize, 
when  they  both  immediately  struck,  the  vice-admiral  oversetting  ; 
the  admiral  came  to  an  anchor  just  without  the  creek  of  the  shore, 
whom  the  captain  presently  ?)eat  from  his  anchor,  after  which  he 
ran  to  the  southward,  just  without  the  creek,  whither,  it  being  now 
night,  the  captain  thought  not  fit  to  follow,  being  also  desirous  to 
see  the  other  wholly  destroyed.  The  next  day  the  admiral  was 
seen  riding  within  a  ledge  of  rocks,  about  six  leagues  to  the 
southward  of  Sallee  ;  but  then  the  captain,  finding  his  ammunition 
spent  to  three  rounds  of  powder,  and  his  ship  somewhat  disordered 
by  the  former  service,  thought  it  more  convenient  to  return  for  this 
port ;  in  this  fight  he  had  but  two  men  killed  outright,  and  ten 
hurt,  of  which  three  are  supposed  to  be  in  danger." 

Yours,  &c.  ROBUR. 


Letter  from  Captain  GEOUSE  BYNG,  of  the  Belliqueux,  to  Sir 
EDWARD  PELLEW,  Bart,  relating  the  Result  of  an  Attack  on  a 
Malay  Prors. 

Belliqueux,  Macassar  Straits, 
SIR,  29M  August,  1807. 

I  HAVE  a  most  painful  task  in  informing  you,  that  in  conse- 
quence of  boarding  a  Malay  prow  in  the  Straits  of  Macassar, 
I  have  the  mortification  to  have  killed,  Mr.  Turner,  doing  duty  as 
acting  lieutenant,  and  six  men,  the  particulars  of  which  are  as 
follows : — 

On  the  26th  of  August,   in  the  forenoon,  discovered  three 
Malay  prows  to  windward;  gave  chase,  and  brought  them  to  about 


128  CORRESPONDENCE. 

five  P.M.  and  had  them  all  within  pistol  shot ;  as  the  day  was  fast 
closing,  and  the  night  dark,  to  prevent  any  unnecessary  delay,  I 
ordered  out  three J)oats,  armed,  and  a  lieutenant  in  each,  to  examine 
them,  and  if  they  had  reason  to  believe  they  had  Dutch  property 
or  papers,  to  return  and  acquaint  me,  giving  the  officers  every 
caution  to  guard  against  the  treachery  of  the  Malays. 

The  rear  one,  boarded  by  Mr.  Turner,  he  had  dismissed,  and 
she  made  sail.  Mr.  Turner  having  a  servant  of  mine  that  could 
speak  the  Malay  language,  on  his  return  back  he  called  on  board 
the  one  boarded  by  my  fourth  lieutenant,  Passmore,  to  aid  him  in 
his  inquiries. 

My  third  lieutenant,  Carew,  who  boarded  the  other,  returned 
on  board,  saying  he  had  found  Dutch  colours,  which  looking  sus- 
picious, I  directed  him  to  go  back  immediately  (night  closing  fast) 
and  anchor  the  vessel,  and  send  the  boat  to  direct  the  same  to  the 
other,  and  1  came  to  an  anchor  myself;  I  had  just  sent  him  away 
•when  I  discovered  a  confusion  in  the  prow  Lieutenant  Passmore 
•was  on  board,  and  our  people  jumping  overboard.  I  had  my 
launch  and  pinnace  got  out  with  an  expedition  that  did  credit  to 
my  crew,  and  sent  my  first  lieutenant,  Fellows,  and  second 
lieutenant,  Stanton,  in  them,  well  armed  and  manned  with  marines, 
and  with  orders  to  attack,  and  if  possible,  carry  her.  Though  at 
this  time  she  was  under  my  guns,  yet  1  saw  one  of  my  boats  along- 
side, and  being  totally  ignorant  of  the  situation  of  my  people,  I  did 
not  like  to  fire  into  her,  and  by  the  time  the  pinnace  and  launch 
had  got  near  her,  it  was  near  dark  ;  but  1  saw  my  boats  were  close 
to  her,  and  a  smart  fire  kept  up  on  both  sides.  It  began  to  blow 
fresh,  and  she  had  got  sail  on  her,  though  the  boats  got  hold 
more  than  once,  from  the  velocity  of  her  way.  The  boats  returned 
about  eleven  o'clock,  with  one  man  killed  and  three  wounded,  not 
having  succeeded. 

In  the  mean  time,  I  sent  the  barge  with  a  reinforcement  to 
Lieutenant  Carew,  and  to  prevent  a  similar  business  or  escape, 
brought  her  alongside  ;  I  found  she  had  below  upwards  of  thirty 
men,  all  armed,  and  six  brass  pieces  mounted.  In  getting  the  war- 
like implements  out  of  her,  intending  to  dismiss  her  afterwards 
•with  her  crew,  much  sea  running,  she  bilged,  and  filled  before  it 
was  fully  accomplished. 

Lieutenant  Passmore's  statement  is  as  follows  : — Seeing  the 
Malays  attempt  to  throw  a  box  or  two  overboard,  which  he  pre- 
rented,  and  was  in  the  act  of  opening  one,  when  thirty  or  forty 
Malays,  armed,  rushed  up  from  below,  and  attacked  them  most 


PHILOSOPHICAL    PAPER.  127 

furiously,  killed  Mr.  Turner  and  four  men,  and  drove  the  rest 
overboard.  The  jolly  boat  alongside,  with  two  men  in,  they 
immediately  threw  heavy  weights,  &c.  into  her,  knocked  the  men 
down,  and  swamped  the  boat  before  they  had  power  to  get  clear. 

From  every  investigation  I  have  been  enabled  to  make,  I  have 
reason  to  believe  the  above  is  a  true  statement,  and  that  not  the 
least  offence  on  the  part  of  my  officers  and  men  was  given,  and 
that  they  were  absolutely  three  piratical  vessels.  The  cargo  of  the 
one  sunk  being  chiefly  matts  and  rattan  cane. 

Though  the  vessel  was  not  carried  by  the  pinnace  and  launch,  I 
am  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  gallant  conduct  and  endeavours  of 
the  officers  and  men  in  them. 

The  daring  way  the  Malays  faced  our  fire,  and  threw  their 
spears,  is  spoken  of  with  admiration  as  to  their  bravery,  by  the 
officers  in  the  boats,  and  though  numbers  were  killed,  fell  over- 
board, and  passed  our  boats,  yet  their  places  were  directly  supplied. 
They  appeared  to  have  upwards 'of  seventy  men  on  board  the 
said  prow. 

Mr.  Turner  had  served  five  years  under  my  command  ;  a  more 
steady  and  worthy  officer  could  not  exist,  and  I  shall  ever  respect 
his  memory  and  regret  his  loss. 

The  28th  I  stood  in  for  Borneo,  and  landed  the  Malay  pri- 
soners. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

GEORGE  BYNG. , 

To  his  Excellency  Sir  Edward  Pellcx,  Bart, 
rear-admiral  of' the  red,  fyc. 


PHILOSOPHICAL  PAPER. 

SEA    SERPENT.* 

f  IplHE  following  subject  being  altogether  uncommon,  and  the 
-**-  existence  of  the  creature  described  having  been  considered  as 
problematical  by  most,  and  even  derided  by  many,  we  are  induced 
to  insert  such  accounts  of  it,  as  may  dissipate  all  further  doubt. 
We  are  happy  to  find  that  it  has  been  inquired  into  by  scientific 
men,  whose  names  authenticate  the  report : — 

"  At  a  late  meeting  of  the  Wernerian  Natural  History  Society, 

*  This  curious  and  interesting  paper  is   copied   from   the  LITERARY 
PANORAMA, 


128  PHILOSOPHICAL  PAriR, 

Mr.  P.  Neill  read  an  account  of  a  great  sea  snake,  lately  cast 
ashore  in  Orkney,  This  curious  animal,  it  appears,  was  stranded 
in  Rothsolm  Bay,  in  the  island  of  Stronsa.  Malcolm  Laing,  Esq. 
M.P.  being  in  Orkney  at  the  time,  communicated  the  circumstance 
to  his  brother.  Gilbert  Laing,  Esq.  advocate,  at  Edinburgh,  on 
whose  property  the  animal  had  been  cast.  Through  this  authentic 
channel,  Mr.  Neill  received  his  information.  The  body  measured 
fifty-five  feet  in  length,  and  the  circumference  of  the  thickest  part 
might  be  equal  to  the  girth  of  an  Orkney  poney.  The  head  was 
not  larger  than  that  of  a  seal,  and  \vas  furnished  with  two  blow 
holes.  From  the  back  a  number  of  filaments  (resembling  in  tex- 
ture the  fishing  tackle  known  by  the  name  of  silkworm  gut)  hung 
down  like  a  mane.  On  each  side  of  the  body  were  three  large 
fins,  shaped  like  paws,  and  jointed.  The  body  was  unluckily 
knocked  to  pieces  by  a  tempest;  but  the  fragments  have  been 
collected  by  Mr.  Laing,  and  are  to  be  transmitted  to  the  museum 
at  Edinburgh.  Mr.  Neill  concluded  with  remarking,  that  no 
doubt  could  be  entertained  that  this  was  the  kind  of  animal  de- 
scribed by  Ramus,  Egede,  and  Pontoppidan,  but  which  scientific 
and  systematic  naturalists  had  hitherto  rejected  as  spurious  and 
ideal." 

We  confidently  hope,  that  the  particulars  of  this  event  will 
appear  at  full,  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Wernerian  Society, 
when  published.  In  the  mean  time,  we  add  another  letter  that  ha* 
appeared  in  print,  which,  though  written  in  a  style  and  manner 
hardly  proper  to  a  naturalist,  yet  contains  some  additional  points 
of  information.. 

The  following  account  is  communicated  by  an  intelligent 
naturalist  resident  at  Edinburgh,  to  a  gentleman  at  Norwich  : — 

"  The  Serpens  Marinus  Magnus^  of  Pontoppidan,  has  hitherto 
been  considered  as  a  fabulous  monster,  and  denied  '  a  local  habita- 
tion and  a  name '  by  all  scientific  and  systematic  naturalists,  who 
have  affected  to  pity  the  credulity  of  the  good  bishop  of  Bergen. 
One  of  these  monsters,  however  (indignant,  may  I  not  say,  at  the 
scepticism  of  the  disciples  of  the  Linnean  school  ?)  has,  effectually 
to  prove  its  existence,  been  heroic  enough  to  wreck  himself  on 
the  Orkney  islands.  He  came  ashore  at  Rothsolm,  or  Rougom 
Bay,  in  Stronsa,  near  to  Shearers.  It  was  55  feet  long ;  but  the 
tail  seemed  to  have  been  broken  by  dashing  among  the  rocks  :  so 
it  was  calculated  to  have  been  60  feet  in  the  whole.  Where 


PHILOSOPHICAL    PAPER.  129 

thickest,  it  might  equal  the  girth  of  an  Orkney  horso,  which,  you. 
know,  is  a  starved  English  poney.  The  head  was  not  larger  than 
a  seal's,  and  had  two  spiracles  or  blow  holes.  From  the  back 
hung  down  numerous  filaments,  eighteen  inches  long  (the  inane 
described  by  Pontoppidan).  These  filaments  bear  the  most  per- 
fect resemblance  to  the  silkworm  gut,  or  India  sea-grass  used  in 
fronting.  The  monster  had  three  pair  of  fins,  or  rather  paws  ;  the 
first  pair  5~  feet  long,  with  a  joint  at  the  distance  of  four  feet 
from  the  body.  Alas !  a  tempest  beat  the  carcass  to  pieces  before 
men  and  ropes  could  be  collected  ;  and  only  a  fragment  (about  five 
ieet)  of  the  back  bone,  and  a  whole  paw,  are  presarved.  M. 
Laing,  Esq.  M.  P.  has  got  these,  and  is  to  send  them  to  our 
University  Museum." 

These  accounts  are  completely  in  conformity  to  what  had  been 
already  communicated  by  writers  on  natural  history  :  and  they 
happily  vindicate  the  veracity  of  such  writers,  who,  because  they 
have  related  instances  of  rare  occurrence,  have  been  treated  as 
incapable  of  just  discernment,  if  not  as  immoral ;  for  such  is  the 
nature  of  the  accusation  of  attempting  to  impose  on  their  readers 
fiction  instead  of  truth. 

What  has  been  published  on  this  subject,  is  supported  by  the 
following  testimony  : — 

Egede  (a  very  reputable  author)  says,  that  "  on  the  6th  day  of 
July,  17 34,  a  large  and  frightful  sea  monster  raised  itself  so  high 
out  of  the  water,  that  its  head  reached  above  the  main-top-mast  of 
the  ship  ;  that  it  had  a  long  sharp  snout,  broad  paws,  and  spouted 
water  like  a  whale;  that  the  body  seemed  to  be  covered  with 
scales ;  the  skin  was  uneven  and  wrinkled,  and  the  lower  part  was 
formed  like  a  snake.  The  bpdy  of  this  monster  is  said  to  be  as 
thick  as  a  hogshead ;  his  skin  is  variegated  like  a  tortoise-shell ; 
and  his  excrement,  which  floats  on  the  surface  of  the  water,  is 
corrosive,  and  blisters  the  hands  of  the  seamen  if  they  handle  it." 

In  175G,  one  of  them  was  shot  by  a  master  of  a  ship;  its  head 
resembling  that  of  the  horse  ;  the  mouth  was  large  and  black,  as 
were  the  eyes ;  a  white  mane  hanging  from  its  neck,  it  floated  on 
the  surface  of  the  water,  and  held  its  head  at  least  two  feet  out  of 
the  sea ;  between  the  head  and  neck  were  seven  or  eight  folds, 
which  were  very  thick  ;  and  the  length  of  this  snake  was  more  than 
i  hundred  yards,  some  say  fathoms.  Thoy  have  a  remarkable 

ffiafc.  ertton.  (Hoi.  XXI.  s 


130  fniLosormcA!  PAPER; 


aversion  to  the  smell  of  castor  ;  for  which  reason,  ship,  boat,  and 
bark-masters  provide  themselves  with  quantities  of  that  drug,  to 
prevent  being  overset,  the  serpent's  olfactory  nerves  being 
remarkably  exquisite.  The  particulars  related  of  this  animal  would 
be  incredible,  were  they  not  attested  upon  oath. 

Every  particular  here  mentioned  may  be  corroborated  by  the 
sea-serpent  stranded  in  Rothsolm  Bay  :  the  blow  holes,  out  of 
which  it  certainly  could  have  "spouted  water  like  a  whale;" 
the  "long  sharp  snout"  and  the  "broad  paws;"  which  prove- 
to  be  jointed  ;  and  this  is  as  remarkable  a  particular  as  any  that  is 
mentioned.  As  naturalists,  we  are  doubtful  as  to  the  propriety  of 
classing  this  creature  among  serpents  :  although  we  know  that  th» 
collecting  link  between  the  lizard  and  the  serpent  tribes,  has  pro- 
jecting  members,  which  some  call  feet.  The  Seps,  and  the  Chalcide^ 
which  are  found  in  Italy,  are  clear  instances  of  this  conformation  : 
these  are  sometimes  two  or  three  feet  in  length,  and  have  four  short 
Jeer. 

The  Slang  Hagedis,  or  serpent  described  by  Vosmaer  (Amster- 
dam, 1774)  from  a  living  specimen  in  the  Prince  of  Orange's 
cabinet  at  the  Hague  ;  with  the  worm  Hagedis,  from  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  (in  the  same  plate),  may  also  be  referred  to.  The 
first  has  four  projecting  long  scales  rather  than  feet  ;  the  second 
has  four  feet,  but  apparently  of  feeble  powers.  Of  biped  rep- 
tiles, Count  de  la  Cepede  gives  two  specimens,  of  very  small 
dimensions,  found  in  South  America.  The  whole  of  the  lizard 
tribe  have  four  feet,  but  this  mighty  inhabitant  of  the  waters,  has,- 
it  appears,  six  feet,  or  fins  j  but  rather  feet,  if  the  terms  be  correct, 
<{  shaped  like  paws,  and  jointed;"  the  joint  "being  four  feet 
distant  from  the  body."  This  singularity  seems  to  imply  tke 
power  of  crawling  along  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  climbing  up  rocks, 
and  holding  strongly  by  such  protuberant  masses  as  it  has  occasion 
to  pass.  We  shall  be  glad  to  find  that  some  delineation  of  it  from 
the  real  subject  has  been  preserved. 

The  Laccrta  Syren,  of  Linnaeus,  found  by  Dr.  Garden  in  Caro* 
Jina,  should  not  be  forgotten  on  this  occasion. 

This  sea-serpent  does  not  seem  to  be  a  creature  prepared  for 
carnage  and  devastation  ;  and  whether  it  may  possess  venom  of 
any  kind,  probably  was  not  examined  by  those  who  discovered  it. 
We  rather  think  it  to  be  slow,  languid,  aud  quiet:  like  the  whale, 


MARINE  SCENERY.  431 

which  it  resembles  in  its  power  of  ejecting  water  through  its 
'blow-holes. 

It  remains  that  we'hint  at  the  inquiry  whether  this  specimen,  of 
the  length  of  60  feet,  had  attained  the  full  size  of  its  species.  We 
rather  incline  to  think  it  was  but  a  small  one  :  seeing  that  every 
other  particular  of  those  who  formerly  described  this  creature  has 
been  justified,  we  see  no  reason  for  impeaching  their  correctness, 
in  the  estimation  they  made  of  its  dimensions.  We  observe,  too, 
that  a  body  the  thickness  of  a  hogshead,  is  but  in  proportion  for 
one  for  a  hundred  yards  in  length,  to  a  body  the  thickness  of  a 
poney  for  one  of  sixty  feet. 

We  rtay  also  add,  that  in  the  regions  of  which  it  is  native,  pos- 
sibly it  meets  with  but  few  enemies  capable  of  shortening  its  life : 
and  MC  have  every  reason  for  believing  Pliny,  who  describes 
whales  of  120  feet  and  upwards  in  length,  as  being  formerly  extant 
in  the  North  Seas,  although  we  now  find  the  same  description  of 
fish  seldom  attain  the  length  of  60  feet.  The  cause  is  the  interested 
necessity  of  man,  which  does  not  allow  them  to  attain  their  full 
growth,  but  destroys  them  before  their  time.  The  skeleton  of  a 
whale  was  some  time  ago  found  on  the  western  coast  of  North 
America,  that  was  105  feet  in  length.  This  contributes  to  vindi- 
cate Pliny  :  and  even  the  correctness  of  his  account  of  the  pro- 
digious  serpent  slain  by  Regulus,  is  strongly  vouched  for  by  such 
discoveries. 

We  say  nothing  on  the  support  this  yields  to  the  accounts  of 
other  immense  inhabitants  of  the  waters:  the  inference  cannot 
escape  the  reader.  Accident  may  throw  a  Kraken  on  our  coast. 
As  to  the  spots  on  the  body  of  this  serpent,  we  know  that  the 
skin  of  each  species  of  serpent  is  distinguished  by  a  peculiar  pat- 
tern ;  some  of  which  are  extremely  handsome. 


MARINE  SCENERY. 

GILPIiN's    WESTERN    COUNTIES. 

THE  exhibition  we  just  nad  of  the  fogs  leaving  the  Welch  coast 
was  a  pleasing  one,  but  Avhere  there  is  a  coincidence  of  grand 
objects  under  such  circumstances  the  exhibition  is  often  sublime. 
One  of  the  grandest  I  remember  to  have. met  with,  was  presented 
at  the  sieg^  of  Gibraltar.* 

*  See  Drinkwater's  Journal. 


132  MARINE   SCENKIIY. 

It  was  near  daybreak  on  the  12th  of  April,  1781,  when  a 
message  was  brought  from  the  signal-house  at  the  summit  of  the 
rock,  that  the  long-expected  fleet,  under  Admiral  Darby,  was  in 
sight.  Innumerable  masts  were  just  discerned  from  that  lofty 
situation  ;  but  could  not  be  seen  from  the  lower  parts  of  the 
castle,  being  obscured  by  a  thick  fog,  which  had  set  in  from  the 
west,  and  totally  over>prcad  the  opening  of  the  straits.  In  this 
uncertainty  the  garrison  remained  for  some  time  ;  while  the  fleet, 
invested  in  obscurity,  moved  slowly  towards  the  castle.  In  the 
mean  time,  the  sun  becoming  powerful,  the  fog  rose  like  the  cur. 
tain  of  a  vast  theatre,  and  discovered  at  once  the  whole  fleet,  full 
and  distinct  before  the  eye.  The  convoy,  consisting  of  near  three 
hundred  vessels,  were  in  a  compact  body,  led  on  by  twenty-eight 
sail  of  the  line,  and  a  number  of  tenders  and  other  smaller  vessels, 
A  gentle  wind  just  filled  their  sails,  and  brought  them  forward  with 
a  slow  and  solemn  motion.  Had  all  this  grand  exhibition  been 
presented  gradually,  the  sublimity  of  it  would  have  been  injured 
by  the  acquaintance  the  eye  would  have  made  with  it,  during  its 
approach  ;  but  the  appearance  of  it  in  all  its  greatness  at  once, 
before  the  eye  had  examined  the  detail,  had  a  wonderful  effect. 

To  this  account  of  a  grand  effect  from  the  clearing  away  of  a 
foe,  I  shall  subjoin  another,  which,  though  of  the  horrid  kind,  is 
grand  and  sublime  in  the  highest  degree.  It  is  taken  from  Captain 
jNIeares's  voyage  from  China  to  the  northern  latitudes  of  America. 
That  navigator  having  gained  the  inhospitable  coast  he  >vas  in  pur- 
suit of,  was  sailing  among  unknown  bays  and  gulfs,  when  he  was 
suddenly  immersed  i;i  HO  thick  a  fog,  that  the  seamen  could  not 
even  discern  an  object  from  one  end  of  the  ship  to  the  other. 
Ni^ht  too  came  on,  which  rendered  every  thing  still  more  dismal. 
While  the  unhappy  crew  were  ruminating  on  the  variety  of  dis- 
tresses that  surrounded  them,  about  midnight  they  were  alarmed, 
•with  the  sound  of  waves  bursting  and  dashing  amongst  rocks, 
•within  a  little  distance  of  the  head  of  the  ship.  Instantly  turning 
the  helm,  they  tacked  about.  But  they  had  sailed  only  a  short  way 
in  this  new  direction,  when  they  were  terrified  with  the  same  dread, 
ful  sound  a  second  time.  They  altered  their  course  again:  but 
the  same  tremendous  noise  again  recurred.  At  length  day  cams 
on  ;  but  the  fog  continuing  as  intense*  as  before,  they  could  see 
uolV:ir~.  All  they  knew  was,  that  they  were  surrounded  by  rocks 
on  every  side  ;  but  how  to  escape  they  had  no  idea.  Once,  during 
a  momentary  interruption  of  the  fog,  they  got  a  glimpse  of  the 
summit  of  an  immense  cliff,  covered  with  snow,  towering  over  the 


PL  ATE    CCLXXYII.  J33 

rnast,  but  the  fog  instantly  shut  it  in.  A  more  dreadful  situation 
cannot  easily  be  conceived.  They  had  steered  in  every  direction, 
but  always  found  they  were  land-locked,  and  though  they  were 
continually  close  to  the  shore,  on  sounding  they  could  find  no 
bottom.  Their  anchors,  therefore,  \vere  of  no  use.  Four  days 
they  continued  in  this  dreadful  suspense,  tacking  from  side  to  side  : 
on  the  fifth  the  fog  cleared  away,  and  they  had  a  view  at  once  of 
the  terrors  that  surrouuded  them.  They  had  by  some  strange 
accident,  found  their  way  into  a  bay,  environed  on  all  sides  with 
precipices  of  immense  height,  covered  with  snow,  and  falling  down 
to  the  water,  in  lofty  rocks,  which  were  every  where  perpendicular, 
except  in  some  parts  where  the  constant  beating  of  the  surge  had 
hollowed  them  into  caverns.  The  sound  they  heard  was  from  the 
waters  swelling  and  rushing  into  these  caverns,  which  absorbing 
them,  drove  them  out  again  with  great  fury  against  the  rocks  at 
their  mouths,  dashing  them  into  foam  with  a  tremendous  sound. 
Captain  Meares  now  perceived  the  passage,  through  which  he  had 
Jjeen  driven  into  this  scene  ol  horrors,  and  made  his  escape. 


PLATE   CCLXXVIJ. 

THE  annexed  view  of  Ilfracombe,  taken  from  the  vcstward, 
is  from  a  drawing  by  Mr.  Pocock,  engraved  by  Rickards. 

Ilfracombe,  or  Ilfordcombe,  is  a  seaport  and  market  town  in 
Devonshire,  48  miles  north-west  by  north  from  Exeter,  and  1S1 
west  by  south  from  London.  It  consists  chiefly  of  one  irregular 
street,  from  the  church  to  the  sea-side,  upwards  of  a  mile  long, 
and  is  a  neat,  well-built,  populous,  and  thriving  place. 

The  harbour  is  very  commodiously  situated ;  so  that  ships  can 
run  in  there,  when  it  would  be  dangerous  to  go>  to  Bideford  or 
Barnstaple ;  consequently,  several  of  the  traders  of  the  latter  town 
do  a  great  deal  of  their  port  business  at  Ilfracombe.  The  vessel* 
belonging  to  this  place  are  chiefly  employed  as  coasters,  in  carrying- 
ore,  corn,  £c.  from  Cornwall  and  Devonshire  to  Bristol,  and  in 
fishing. 

For  the  security  of  the  harbour,  and  the  protection  of  shipping, 
A  pier  was  long  since  built,  and  a  light-house  erected;  but  tho*sc 
accommodations  were  made  solely  at  the  expence  of  the  owner  of 
the  soil  ;  and,  some  disputes  arising  about  the  customary  duties  to 
be  paid  to  the  lord  of  the  manor,  it  was  found  necessary  to  apply 
to  the  legislature  for  settling  those  duties.  An  act  of  Parliament 


131  CORRECT    RELAT10X   OF  SHIPWRECKS. 

was  accordingly  obtained,  in  the  year  1781,  making  them  payable 
to  the  lord  of  the  manor,  and  providing  that  all  the  money  raised 
by  them,  or  recovered  by  forfeitures  under  the  act,  shall  be  laid 
out  in  repairing  and  supporting  the  pier,  light-house,  warp,  warp, 
house,  boats,  and  harbour  j  so  that  an  ample  fund  has  been 
established  for  keeping  them  in  excellent  condition.  The  pier 
forms  a  quay  upwards  of  800  feet  in  length. — Outside  the  pier  are 
several  coves  admirably  adapted  for  bathing,  for  which  purpose 
convenient  machines  are  kept. 

There  are  packets  ftom  Ilfracombe  to  Bristol,  Swansea,  Milford 
Haven,  &c. 

On  a  high  point  near  the  bay,  Sir  Bourchicr  Wray,  the  lord  of 
the  manor,  some  time  ago  built  a  summer  house,  which  commands 
a  beautiful  and  extensive  prospect  of  the  ocean. 

Ilfracombe  church,  which  is  a  large  plain  structure,  contains  a 
monument  to  the  memory  of  Captain  Thomas  Bowen,  who  was 
killed  in  the  unsuccessful  attack  upon  Teneriffe,  where  he  acted 
with  Lord  Nelson.  This  monument  was  erected  at  the  expense  of 
the  nation. 

On  the  22d  of  February,  1797,  three  French  frigates -appeared 
off  Ilfracombe,  scuttled  several  merchantmen,  and  attempted  to 
destroy  the  shipping  in  the  harbour.  They  also  landed  1,400 
troops,  and  soon  after  set  sail,  leaving  the  men  to  be  taken 
prisoners. 


CORRECT  RELATION  OF  SHIPWRECKS. 
No.  XXXIII.     . 

Again  the  dismal  prospect  opens  round, 

The  wreck,  the  shore,  the  dying,  and  die  dr«wn'd. 

FALCONER. 

SUFFERINGS    OF    THE    CREW    OF    A    PORTUGUESE    SLOOP,     WRECKED 
NEAR    TUB    CALAMIAN    ISLANDS,    IN    THE    YEAR    1688. 


EMELLI  CARRERI,  a  Neapolitan,  was  one  of  the  most 
enlightened  navigators  that  have  sailed  round  the  globe. 
Having  arrived  at  Canton,  in  the  month  of  January,  1696,  he  was 
under  the  necessity  of  passing  several  weeks  in  that  city,  and  even 
returning  a  second  time  in  March  the  same  year.  He  also  visited 
Macao,  and  after  seeing  every  thing  worthy  of  notice  in  that  town, 
he  crossed  over  to  the  Green  Island,  at  that  time  belonging  to  the 


CORRECT  RELATION  OF  SHIPWRECKS.  135 

college  of  Jesuits.  It  is  situated  at  a  small  distance  from  Macao, 
and  is  only  a  mile  in  circumference.  Though  nothing  more  than 
a.  sterile  rock,  the  Jesuits  had  erected  there  a  delightful  pleasure- 
house.  They  had  likewise  succeeded  in  rearing  plantains,  bananas, 
and  several  other  fruit-trees,  which  surround  the  edifice.  Among 
other  Jesuits  who  resided  there  was  one  equally  esteemed  for  his 
piety  and  the  charms  of  his  conversation.  In  the  different  inter- 
views which  Carreri  had  with  him,  he  was  highly  gratified  by 
receiving  from  his  mouth  the  confirmation  of  a$  extraordinary 
event,  of  which  he  had  before  heard,  but  without  being  able  to 
ascertain  the  degree  of  credit  that  was  due  to  it. 

In  1688,  a  Portuguese  sloop,  bound  from  the  coast  of  Corotnan- 
del  to  the  Philippines,  anchored  in  safety  in  the  port  of  •Cavite, 
and  sailed  again  soon  afterwards,  laden  with  the  commodities  of 
the  country.  The  vessel  had  on  board  about  sixty  persons,  Moors, 
Gentoos,  and  Portuguese,  among  whom  was  the  Jesuit  missionary 
found  by  Ccrreri  on  the  Green  Island.  The  captain  and  pilot 
were  not  sufficiently  vigilant  while  navigating  the  sea  of  the 
Philippines,  which  is  extremely  dangerous,  from  the  multitude  of 
rocks  :  the  sloop  struck  on  a  sand-bank  near  the  Calamian  islands, 
and  instantly  went  to  pieces.  The  Moors  and  Gentoos,  of  whom 
the  greatest  part  of  the  crew  was  composed,  immediately  seized  the 
long-boat,  with  a  view  to  get  on  shore  on  a  neighbouring  island, 
but  a  violent  gale  arising  during  their  passage,  the  boat  foundered, 
and  every  person  was  entombed  in  a  watery  grave.  The  others, 
who  had  the  good  fortune  to  keep  their  station  upon  the  sand, 
took  advantage  of  a  quantity  of  planks  floating  near  them  to  reach 
successively  the  nearest  island,  distant  two  miles  from  the  spot 
where  they  were  wrecked.  After  a  minute  search,  they  found  it 
was  destitute  of  water.  The  success  of  their  first  attempt  induced 
them  to  endeavour  to  pass  over  to  another  island,  at  the  distance 
of  about  three  leagues.  They  arrived  there  in  safety  by  tha 
method  they  had  before  employed.  This  island,  however,  was  like 
the  former,  very  small,  low,  and  without  wood  or  water.  For 
four  (lays  they  were  obliged  to  drink  the  blood  of  tortoises  to  allay 
their  thirst.  Necessity  at  length  supplied  them  with  invention  ; 
they  employed  their  planks  to  make-  trenches  level  with  the  surface 
of  the  water.  That  which  remained  in  them,  lost  in  a  few  days 
part  of  its  saltness.  The  (aste  was  at  first  disgusting;  but  finding 
that  it  was  not  pernicious,  tht-y  soon  overcame  the  dislike  they  at 
first  took  to  drink  it.  Providence,  in  conducting  to  this  island 
the  sraajl  number  of  persons  who  had  escaped  from  the  wreck,  had 


136  COIlilKCT    UKtATION*    OP   SHir-WttECKS. 

supplied  them  on  this  barren  spot  with  resources  against  t7i6 
cravings  of  hunger  and  thirst:  the  latter,  in  the  manner  we  hare 
already  seen,  and  the  former  in  the  extraordinary  abundance  of  tur- 
tles, it  being  then  the  season  of  laying.  They  flocked  every  night 
from  the  sea  to  deposit  their  eggs  in  the  sand.  The  mariners 
matched  them,  and  as  soon  as  they  were  at  a  little  distance  from 
the  water,  they  threw  them  on  their  backs  ;  from  the  facility  of 
killing  them,  they  procured  such  a  number  as  to  supply  them  with 
foftd  during  six  months. 

Provisions  began  to  run  short,  and  they  had  scarcely  sufficient 
for  a  few  days,  when  they  saw  a  large  species  of  sea-bird,  called 
boobies,  arrive  on  the  island.  They  came  regularly  every  year  to 
these  islands,  to  build  their  nests  and  lay  their  eggs.  The  eggs 
and  the  young  were  a  twofold  resource  to  the  unfortunate  Por- 
tuguese, who  likewise  killed  many  of  the  parent  birds.  They  used 
pieces  of  the  planks  to  kill  them,  and  they  laid  up  a  store  sufficient 
for  half  a  year.  Thus  the  turiles  and  the  boobies  .furnished  them 
regularly  with  provisions  for  the  two  parts  of  the  year,  without 
any  other  preparation  than  drying  their  flesh  in  the  sun.  They 
likewise  ate  it  fresh,  stewed  in  vessels  made  of  a  kind  of  earth. 
These  they  had  succeeded  in  moulding  after  many  attempts,  but 
they  could  not  use  them  more  than  once,  either  from  the  want  of 
a  furnace,  or  because  the  earth  they  employed  was  not  sufficiently 
argillaceous. 

Sickness,  and  the  hardships  of  tfceir  situation,  had  reduced  the 
number  of  these  unfortunate  exiles  to  eighteen.  Their  clothes 
were  worn  out  in  time,  when  they  contrived  to  sew  together  the 
skins  of  the  birds  they  killed,  with  needles,  which  one  of  them 
chanced  to  have  about  him  when  the  vessel  was  east  away.  A  few 
small  scattered  palm-trees,  at  a  small  distance  from  the  coast,  fur- 
nished them  with  a  kind  of  thread  for  the  purpose.  Upon  the 
approach  of  winter,  they  retired  to  skreen  themselves  from  the 
cold,  into  subterraneous  grottos  which  they  had  scooped  out  with 
their  hands.  They  were  situated  on  a  gentle  ascent  facing  the 
south. 

Several  years  elapsed  without  any  change  in  the  situation  of  these 
unhappy  men.  They  sometimes  perceived  vessels  in  full  sail  very 
near  their  island.  In  vain  they  claimed  relief  by  their  cries ;  in  vain 
they  waved  skins  in  the  air,  and  made  fires  on  the  elevations. 
Doubtless  the  fear  of  the  sands  and  shallows  deterred  the  pilots  : 
all  passed  without  bringing  to.  By  the  quantity  of  planks  and 
other  fragments  thrown  upon  the  sand,  during  this  long  interval, 


CORRECT    RELATION    OF   SHIPWRECKS.  137 

they  even  conjectured  that  shipwrecks  were  frequent  in  these  seas, 
and  that  they  alone  were  not  condemned  to  misfortune. 

The  annual  return  of  the  turtles  and  birds,  which  furnished  them 
with  a  certain  subsistence,  caused  them  to  endure  their  melancholy 
fate  with  courage  for  six  years.  At  the  beginning  of  the  seventh, 
their  hopes  were  still  kept  alive  by  the  arrival  of  the  turtles,  which 
appeared  in  the  same  abundance  as  ever ;  but  in  the  second  season 
they  were  cruelly  disappointed.  The  boobies,  undoubtedly  terri- 
fied by  the  incessant  persecution  on  this  spot  for  several  years, 
returned  in  such  small  numbers,  that  the  shipwrecked  troop  was 
soon  seized  with  the  utmost  consternation.  At  the  same  time  two 
of  them,  sinking  beneath  the  wright  of  the  evils  that  overwhelmed 
them,  and  the  dreary  prospects  of  the  future,  ended  their  days  in 
the  land  of  exile.  The  others,  being  reduced  in  number  to  sixteen, 
grew  so  meagre  that  they  appeared  like  spectres  rather  than  men. 
In  the  agitation  of  their  minds  some  resigned  themselves  to  despair, 
"while  others  still  retained  in  their  bosoms  a  spark  of  hope. 

By  degrees,  however,  all  recovered  their  tranquility,  and  having 
assembled,  they,  after  some  debate,  resolved,  as  the  last  expedient* 
to  quit  the  island,  with  the  chance  of  landing  a  second  time  ou 
some  uninhabited  coast.  They  instantly  fell  to  work,  and,  with, 
the  planks  and  fragments  of  vessels  thrown  upon  the  shore  by  the 
sea,  they  in  a  few  days  constructed  a  kind  of  vessel,  or  rather  a 
box.  This  they  caulked  with  a  mixture  of  feathers,  sand,  and 
turtle  fat:  the  rigging  was  composed  of  the  nerves  of  turtles 
doubled  several  times,  and  the  sails  of  boobies'  skins,  sewed 
together.  Though  the  construction  was  rude,  yet  the  bark  made 
no  water,  and  yielded  to  the  impulse  either  of  wind  or  of  oars. 
They  took  on  board  with  them  the  small  quantity  of  provisions 
that  remained. 

^Vith  these  slender  resource?  they  set  sail,  on  a  fine  day,  im- 
ploring the  assistance  of  Heaven.  An  uncertain  navigation  of 
eight  days,  under  the  guidance  of  the  winds  and  waves  alone, 
brought  them  to  the  island  of  Hayman,  off  the  south  coast  of 
China.  After  landing  on  a  shore  which  they  perceived  to  be 
inhabited,  their  first  care  was  to  pour  forth  the  grateful  effusions 
of  their  hearts  to  Divine  Providence  ;  after  which  they  proceeded 
up  the  country.  The  first  natives  who  descried  them  were  terriiied, 
and  tied  with  precipitation.  However,  some  of  the  Portuguese, 
who  understood  the  Chinese  language,  increasing  their  pace,  those 
of  the  inhabitants  who  were  least  alarmed,  qbserved  that  the 

er&ion,  ftci.XXI.  X 


138  IMPROVEMEXTS   IX   NAVAL   ARCHITECTURE. 

strangers  were  without  arms,  and  waited  for  them.  A  brief  recital  of 
their  misfortunes  drew  tears  from  their  eyes,  they  immediately 
offered  them  provisions,  and  shewed  them  a  spring  of  fresh  water. 
After  th'.y  had  satisfied  the  pressing  necessities  of  thirst,  they  were 
conducted  to  the  mandarin  of  the  island,  who  with  eager  solicitude 
provided  lodgings,  and  supplied  them  with  every  thing  their  situa- 
tion required.  He  afterwards  procured  them  the  means  of  return, 
ing  to  their  families.  The  Portuguese,  who  were  not  far  from. 
Macao,  arrived  there  in  a  few  days.  One  of  them,  who  was  sup- 
posed by  his  wife  to  be  dead,  was  surprised  to  find  her  married 
again.  Their  mutual  friends  prevailed  upon  him  to  forgive  a  levity 
which  seven  years  absence  rendered  very  excusable. 

The  missionary,  who  confirmed  the  truth  of  this  event,  had  been 
sent  to  the  Green  Island  to  recover  from  the  hardships  he  had 
endured,  and  though  he  had  resided  there  above  a  year,  his  health 
and  strength  had  scarcely  begun  to  be  re-established. 


IMPROVEMENTS   IN  NAVAL   ARCHITECTURE. 

THE  following  remarks  on  an  article  which  appeared  in  our 
NAVAL  CHRONICLE  for  November  last,  having  appeared  in 
a  contemporary  work*  of  great  literary  and  scientific  merit,  we  are 
induced,  for  the  further  elucidation  of  the  subject,  and  the  gratifi- 
cation of  our  naval  readers,  to  insert  them. 

An  Examination  of  tlie  Notion  entertained  by  Seamen,  that  the  Weakness 
or  Looseness  of  a  Vessel's  Frame  makes  her  sail  foster.  By  Captain  Malcolm 
Coican."  •  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  No.  120. 

Captain  Cowan  observes,  that  the  generality  of  seamen  have  an 
idea  that  the  strength  of  ships  is  an  impediment  to  their  sailing, 
which  makes  them  give  too  ready  an  assent  to  any  objection  that 
may  be  made  to  the  improvements  in  naval  architecture,  which 
have  been  contrived  for  strengthening  ships,  and  consequently 
adding  to  their  safety ;  not  considering  how  many  are  interested 
in  the  continuation  of  ancient  errors  and  absurdities,  and  enriched 
by  the  existing  abuses  in  the  construction  and  equipment  of  ships. 
This  is  a  subject  in  which  seamen  are  more  particularly  interested, 
from  being  liable  to  be  the  greatest  sufferers  by  any  mistake  relative 
to  it,  and  which  therefore  demands  their  peculiar  attention. 

*  Athenaeum  for  February,  1809« 


IMPROVEMENTS   I Jf   NAVAL    ARCHITECTURE.  139 

Captain  Cowan  supposes  the  notion  to  be  erroneous,  that  the 
part  of  ships  immersed  in  the  water  can  twist  or  bend  in  any  way 
to  effect  their  sailing,  as  they  are  too  firmly  bound  by  the  decks 
and  knees,  to  admit  of  any  sufficient  motion  in  this  way  for  this 
effect ;  he  however  admits  the  possibility  of  this  twisting  and  bend- 
ing, in  order  to  investigate  the  consequences  of  it  on  the  sailing, 
and  to  shew  that  they  would  be  nearly  the  reverse  of  what  is  com- 
monly supposed. 

If  a  vessel  should  bend  upwards  or  downwards,  she  would  make 
more  resistance  to  the  water,  by  opposing  a  greater  surface  to  it 
transversely ;  a  hollow  or  concave  keel  is  well  known  to  be  one 
of  the  greatest  impediments  to  a  vessel's  sailing  :  and  if  the  vessel, 
on  the  contrary,  is  sunk  lower  in  the  middle,  it  is  evident  the 
transverse  section  of  her  immersed  part  must  be  proportionably 
increased  in  depth,  along  with  her  resistance  to  forward  motion, 
which  depends  on  it. 

If  the  bend  or  fwist  should  be  sideways,  the  transverse  section 
would  be  increased  in  breadth,  and  the  resistance  become  propor- 
tionably greater  ;  besides  this,  it  would  make  a  resistance  diagonally 
to  the  proper  course,  which  would  operate  to  make  the  vessel  steer 
in  the  direction  of  the  bend  at  the  head.  These  reasons  Captain 
Cowan  justly  supposes  are  conclusive,  but  they  are  rendered  more 
apparent  by  drawings,  which  he  has  made  of  ships  twisted  as  sea- 
men suppose  they  may  be  :  a  single  inspection  of  the  roughest 
sketch  of  this  kind  is  sufficient  to  demonstrate  the  absurdity  of  the 
idea  (to  any  but  the  obstinately  ignorant),  that  such  twisting  can 
be  an  advantage. 

Captain  Cowan  attributes  the  effect  which  takes  place  on  the 
sailing  of  vessels  by  cutting  through  the  gunnels  (which  is  prac- 
tised sometimes  in  small  privateers),  entirely  to  the  loosening  of 
the  upper  tzorks,  and  thereby  giving  more  play  to  the  masts  and 
sails.  It  often  happens,  that  by  slacking  the  rigging,  a  vessel's 
sailing  is  improved ;  and  it  is  usual  in  cutters  to  slack  the  runners 
and  tackles  (which  support  the  mast)  when  in  chase,  in  order  to 
give  the  mast  as  much  play  or  motion  as  possible;  in  large,  and 
particularly  in  lofty  ships,  the  rolling  motion  causes  the  sides  to 
bend  over  somewhat  from  their  natural  position,  and  this  causes 
a  material  alteration  in  the  position  of  the  masts  and  sails,  besides 
giving  them  more  play,  as  the  length  of  the  masts  multiplies  the 
alteration  of  place  at  the  sails,  in  proportion  to  their  distance  from 
the  centre  of  motion. 

By  cutting  through  a  vessel's  gunnels,  the  upper  works  may  be 


140  IMPROVKMEtfTS    IN   JJATAL    ARCHITECTURE. 

made  very  loose  ;  but  as  the  deck  must  keep  every  part  beneath  it 
under  water  from  bending  or  twisting  so  as  to  affect  the  sailing, 
it  must  be  entirely  from  the  effect  which  the  looseness  of  the 
upper  works  has  on  the  masts  and  sails,  that  any  alteration  in. 
sailing  can  arise. 

Captain  Cowan  observes,  in  concluding,  that  ships  sometimes  sail 
faster  when  new  and  firm,  than  when  they  get  old  and  weak ;  that 
the  best  sailing  trim  of  a  vessel  must  depend  entirely  on  the  draught 
of  water,  the  stowage  of  the  hold,  and  the  position  and  trim  of  the 
masts,  sails,  and  rigging,  as  no  improvement  in  the  sailing  of  a  ship 
can  be  produced  by  her  bending  or  twisting  beneath  the  surface 
of  the  water,  however  weak  or  loose  she  may  be. 

It  is  easy  to  demonstrate  that  when  any  part  of  the  frame  of  a 
ship  loosens,  so  as  to  be  capable  of  motion  on  the  neighbouring 
parts,  from  that  moment  the  vessel  begins  to  decay;  and  it  is  all  a 
matter  of  chance  whether  her  destruction  should  be  gradual,  by  a 
progressive  loosening  and  wearing  of  the  whole  frame,  or  whether 
the  partial  motion  of  a  single  timber  may  not  start  a  plank,  and 
send  her  and  her  crew,  and  cargo,  at  once  to  the  bottom.  Captain 
Cowan  has  therefore  done  a  singular  service  to  seamen  in  pointing 
out  their  errors  on  this  subject,  by  shewing,  that  it  is  the  part  of 
the  vessel  above  water  which  affects  the  sailing  by  its  action  on  the 
masts  and  yards,  and  not  the  alteration  of  the  shape  of  the  im- 
mersed part,  as  was  falsely  imagined. 

The  effect  which  the  giving  play  or  motion  to  the  masts  has  on 
the  sailing,  we  are  convinced,  arises  entirely  from  the  greater 
spring  or  elasticity  which  they  are  then  capable  of  exercising.  It 
has  been  long  since  proved,  that  the  springs  added  to  wheel 
carriages  enable  a  given  force  to  produce  a  greater  effect  in  moving 
them  forward,  and  prevent  impediments  on  the  road  from  diminish, 
ing  their  velocity  of  motion  in  a  very  great  degree,  if  not  entirely. 
The  waves  on  the  sea  may  be  considered  as  forming  obstructions 
to  the  velocity  of  a  ship,  in  a  similar  manner  to  that  which  obsta- 
cles on  a  road  do  to  the  motion  of  a  carriage;  and  it  may  easily  be 
conceived,  that  the  introduction  of  the  principle  of  the  spring, 
in  making  the  motion  of  the  ship  more  uniform,  must  be  equally 
beneficial. 

But  surely  the  dangerous  expedient  of  damaging  the  vessel,  by 
the  process  of  loosening  it,  as  it  is  called,  cannot  be  absolutely 
necessary  to  give  this  spring  ;  or  granting  that  it  aids  somewhat  in 
this  way;  yet  certainly  many  better  methods  can  be  devised,  and 


IMPROVEMENTS    IN   NAVAL    ARCHITECTURE.  141 

certainly  none  worse,  and  it  is  evidently  a  disgrace  to  the  ingenuity 
of  seameR,  not  to  be  able  to  contrive  a  better  expedient  than  tha 
very  barbarous  one  which  they  have  adopted.  Springs  have  been 
added  to  the  blocks  for  the  sheets  and  halyards,  in  several  American, 
vessels,  according  to  the  contrivance  of  Mr.  Hopkinson,  and  have 
been  found  of  great  utility :  there  can  be  no  donht  but  that  the 
slings  of  the  yards  might  be  also  attached  to  springs,  and  tha.t  the 
effect  would  not  only  be  beneficial  to  the  sailing  of  the  ship,  but 
also  in  preventing  the  sails  from  being  rent  by  sudden  squalls. 
The  wind  varies  likewise,  from  the  intensity  of  its  action  on  the 
sail  for  momentary  intervals  at  other  times,  as  well  as  in  squalls ; 
and  the  action  of  the  ship  in  pitching  and  rolling  tends  also  to 
make  the  operation  of  the  w  ind  on  the  sail  very  variable,  increasing 
it  as  the  mast  rolls  towards  the  wind,  and  diminishing  it  as  it  rolls 
from  it.  Springs  at  the  slings  and  at  the  halyard  blocks  would 
equalize  this  action  of  the  wind  more  effectually  than  cutting  the 
gunnels,  or  loosening  the  rig-ing,  so  as  to  endanger  the  masts 
being  brought  by  the  board.  All  unprejudiced  persons  will  at 
least  grant  that  this,  and  every  other  safe  expedient,  should  be 
tried  for  the  purpose,  before  the  very  dangerous  methods  above- 
mentioned  should  be  attempted. 

It  has  been  proved  by  experimental  philosophers,  that  a  pyra- 
midical  or  conoidal  body  of  wood,  forced  into  the  water,  will 
react  in  the  same  manner  as  a  spring ;  this  principle  may  be  also 
adopted  to  give  the  action  of  a  spring  to  the  masts,  without  injuring 
the  ship,  for  its  hull  may  be  so  shaped,  that,  both  in  rolling  and 
pitching,  the  resistance  may  gradually  increase,  as  it  inclines  from, 
the  veriical  position,  and  that  the  reaction  may  be  in  the  same  pro- 
portion :  the  wedge  shape  which  many  ships  have  vertically  at  the 
head  and  stern,  is  well  calculated  for  this  purpose,  and  if  the  sides 
were  made  so  as  to  project  as  they  rose,  instead  of  inclining  in. 
wards,  or  tumbling  home,  as  it  is  called,  the  vessel  would  have 
the  best  form  for  this  purpose,  and  one  which  would  be  very  good 
in  other  respects  also.  Much  depends  upon  ballasting  the  ship,  in 
making  the  operation  of  its  immersed  part  have  the  operation  of  a 
spring  on  the  masts :  for  if  the  ballast  is  too  low,  this  effect  would 
be  injured  by  its  rendering,  as  it  were,  the  spring  too  stiff;  and  if, 
on  the  contrary,  the  centre  of  gravity  is  placed  too  high,  the  spring 
will  be  too  weak,  besides  risking  the  upsetting  of  the  ship. 

As  a  proof  that  the  stiffness  of  the  framing  of  a  ship  can  in  no 
wise  affect  the  sailing,  we  have  to  state  the  example  of  the  ship 
Economy,  described  in  a  former  number,  which  is  so  stiffened  by 


142  IMPROVEMENTS   IN    NATAL   ARCHITECTURE. 

her  internal  framing,  that  she  can  neither  twist  nor  bend  in  any 
direction ;  and  yet  she  has  sailed  in  all  her  voyages  much  better 
than  most  merchant  vessels  on  a  wood  sheathing,  and  has  fre- 
quently outsailed  coppered  ships. 

The  interest  which.  Captain  Cowan  remarks-,  many  take  in  the 
continuation  of  ancient  errors  in  the  construction  and  equipment  of 
ships,  is  a  melancholy  consideration,  when  the  fate  of  the  nation 
depends  so  much  on  its  naval  superiority  :  especially  as  some,  who 
favour  those  errors,  unfortunately  have  the  power,  from  their  sta- 
tions, to  continue  them ;  which  power  they  now  exert,  not  only 
in  discouraging  and  rejecting  proposed  improvements,  bat  even  hi 
persecuting  those  who  bring  them  forward. 

We  have  before  stated,  in  the  account  of  the  ship  Economy,  an 
instance  of  the  system  that  influences  those  at  the  head  of  the  naval 
department,  in  the  rejection  of  improvements ;  we  are  sorry  that 
the  instance  of  persecution  on  a  similar  account,  which  we  have  to 
state,  should  be  that  of  Captain  Cowan  himself.  The  captain 
respectfully  remonstrated  to  the  navy  board,  for  the  impediments 
and  delays  (and  the  various  other  modes  of  rendering  an  improve- 
ment of  no  avail,  which  cannot  be  openly  rejected)  which  have 
been  used,  in  preventing  the  introduction  in  ships  of  war  of  his 
patent  method  of  reefing  sails,*  and  other  improvements  respecting 
them,  to  the  extent  they  deserved,  notwithstanding  their  being  ap- 
proved of  universally  by  all  the  naval  captains  who  have  tried 
them  fairly;  and  for  this  just  remonstrance,  the  captain  has  been 
officially  censured  by  the  Board  of  Admiralty.  It  would  open  toe* 
large  a  discussion  at  present,  to  enter  on  the  subject  of  the  legal 
powers  of  this  board  ;  but  certainly  it  most  materially  behoves  all 
naval  officers  to  do  so,  and  to  have  it  decided,  whether  they  can 
justly  receive  a  censure^  or  other  punishment,  from  any  body  sub- 
ordinate to  the  legislature,  zstthout  a  court-martial,  or  ttny  legal 
trial  whatsoever,  to  investigate  whether  such  censure  would  be 
deserved,  or  would  merely  be  the  result  of  arbitrary,  and  perhaps 
assumed  power. 

The  fate  of  Captain  Cartier  should  open  the  eyes  of  naval  offi- 
cers to  what  they  have  to  trust.  Is  it  possible  that  they  are  unac- 
quainted with  ii?  The  public  at  large,  we  hope,  will  soon  be 
informed  of  this  disgraceful  business,  and  those  who  were  the 
authors  of  the  injustice  he  has  experienced  meet  that  abhorrence 
they  deserve. 

We  trust  our  readers  will  excuse  the  length  of  this  note,  on 

*  Vide  NAVAL  CIIROXICLE,  Vol.  XV.  p.  333;  Vol.  XVIII.  p.  389;  and 
Vol.  XX.  p.  373. 


IMPROVEMENTS   IN    NATAL   ARCHITECTURE.  143 

account  of  the  national  importance  of  the  subject.  If,  in  its  own 
nature,  improvement  in  all  arts,  particularly  in  those  which  con. 
tribute  to  the  defence  of  the  state,  is  not  thought  of  sufficiently 
obvious  use  and  importance  to  demand  attention,  we  have  to  urge 
in  its  favour  a  proof  of  the  most  tremendous  kind:  let  the  enemies 
to  improvement  seriously  consider  to  what  the  French  chiefly  owe 
their  rapid  conquests  on  the  continent;  every  improvement  in  the 
art  of  war,  and  in  every  other  art  which  can  assist  it,  has  -been 
encouraged,  rewarded,  and  put  in  practice  by  them;  and  those  who 
obstinately  rejected  improvement,  and  discouraged  and  persecuted 
its  advocates,  and  adhered  pertinaciously  to  old  systems,  have  uni- 
formly fallen  before  their  arms  with  a  most  disgraceful  facility. 
Fas  est  et  ab  hoste  doceri. 

As  yet  the  seas  are  our  own,  but  if  the  same  system  which  has 
ruined  the  continent,  is  pursued  in  our  naval  departments,  and  if 
all  improvement  be  obstinately  rejected  there,  while  our  inveterate 
enemies  eagerly  and  diligently  encourage  it  in  their  service,  no 
gift  of  prophecy  is  required  to  foretell  what  must  in  time  be  the 
event.  No  idea  can  be  more  false,  than  that  the  construction  and 
management  of  ships  are  brought  to  the  full  perfection  of  which 
they  are  capable.  We  laugh  at  the  Chinese,  for  holding  this 
opinion  with  regard  to  their  junks:  but  in  us  it  is  much  more 
ridiculous,  for  a  wise  policy  prevents  foreign  commerce  to  that 
nation,  to  whom  it  is  worth  nothing,  or  worse,  though  to  us  it  is 
every  thing.  Art  ij  so  far  from  being  exhausted  on  this  subject, 
that  it  is  no  exaggeration  to  say,  that  it  is  yet  completely  withia. 
its  limits  to  diminish  the  dangers  of  the  sea  to  navigators,  fully  one 
half  of  what  they  are  at  present.  And  in  no  country  in  the 
world  could  men  be  found  more  capable  of  making  improvements 
in  those  arts,  than  in  this;  but  as  yet  they  meet  only  with  dis- 
couragement, loss,  and  censure. 

"  Let  those  that  stand  take  heed  lest  they  fall :"  the  system 
which  has  been  so  successful  at  land  to  our  enemies  may  prove 
equally  so  to  them  at  sea,  when  their  rulers  have  leisure  to  bend 
their  energies  to  nautical  improvement,  if  this  is  not  counteracted 
by  equal  vigilance,  activity,  and  attention  to  improvement  in  our 
naval  service.  If  this  country  is  to  escape  the  general  wreck,  as 
we  trust  it  will,  it  must  arise  from  our  learning  wisdom  from  th.0 
fate  of  other  nations,  and  carefully  avoiding  their  errors;  and  we 
should  ever  hold  in  remembrance,  that  the  kingdoms  of  Europe 
have  fallen  by  adhering  blindly  to  old  systems,  and  rejecting  the 
aid  of  art;  while  the  French  have  risen  to  their  present  pre-em,U 
nence,  by  encouraging  and  rewarding  every  art  and  science  which 
can  assist  their  arms. 


144 

Abstract  of  u  Voyage  for  the  Discovery  of  a  north-west  Passage 
into  the  South  Sea,  performed  in  the  Years  1631  and  1632,  by 
Captain  THOMAS  JAMES. 

[Continued  from  Vol.  XI.  page  38?.] 

rjflHE  18th,  wind  and  weather  being  more  favourable,  stood  in 

• 
-J*-    again  south.    Came  into  eight,  seven,  and  six  fathom,  and 

then  stood  off  again,  it  growing  foggy. 

The  19th,  being  clear  weather,  stood  in  again.  In  the  evening, 
the  wind  came  up  at  W.  and  then  we  stood  E.  S.  E.  into  ten  and 
eight,  and  afterwards  S.  E.  as  our  depth  did  guide  us  by  our  lead, 
and  the  colour  of  the  water,  into  seven  and  six  fathoms. 

The  20th,  at  six  in  the  morning,  says  Captain  James,  we  saw 
the  land,  it  being  a  very  low  flat  land.  We  stood  into  five  fathoms, 
to  make  it  the  batter,  and  so  stood  along  it.  At  noon  M'e  were  in 
lat.  57.  00.  We  named  it  the  New  Principality  of  South  Wales, 
and  drank  a  health  in  the  best  liquor  we  had  to  Prince  Charles,  his 
highness,  whom  God  preserve  !  We  stood  along  it,  and  came  to  a 
point  where  it  tends  to  the  southward,  near  to  which  point  there 
are  two  small  islands.  In  the  evening  it  was  calm,  and  we  came  to 
an  anchor;  the  tide  set  as  aforesaid  :  there  we  rid  all  that  night 
and  the  next  day,  by  reason  the  wind  was  contrary.  There  was  a 
chopping  short  sea.  and  the  ship  did  labour  at  it  exceedingly, 
leaping  in  sprit-sail-yard,  forecastle  and  all ;  for  as  yet  we  had  not 
trimmed  her  well  to  ride.  About  nine  at  night  it  was  very  dark, 
and  it  did  blow  hard.  We  did  perceive  by  the  lead  that  the  ship 
did  drive  ;  wherefore,  bringing  the  cable  to  capstan,  to  heave  in 
our  cable  (for  we  did  think  we  had  lost  our  anchor),  the  anchor 
hitched  again,  and  upon  the  chopping  of  a  sea,  threw  the  men 
from  the  capstan.  A  small  rope  in  the  dark  had  gotten  foul  about 
the  cable,  and  about  the  master's  leg  too,  but,  with  the  help  of 
G?cd,  he  did  cleaj  himself,  though  not  without  sore  bruising.  The 
two  mates  were  hurt,  the  one  in  the  head,  the  other  in  the  arm. 
One  of  our  lustiest  men  was  stricken  on  the  breast  with  a  bar, 
that  he  lay  sprawling  for  life;  another  had  his  head  betwixt  the 
cable,  and  hardly  escaped.  The  rest  were  flung  where  they  Avere 
sore  bruised;  but  our  gunner  (an  honest  and  a  diligent  man)  had 
his  leg  taken  between  the  cable  and  the  capstan,  which  wrung  off 
his  foot,  and  tore  all  the  flesh  off  his  leg,  and  crushed  the  bone  to 
pieces,  and  sorely  withal  bruised  all  his  whole  body;  in  which 
miserable  manner  he  remained  crying  till  we  had  recovered  our* 


ABSTRACT    OF    A   VOYAGE   OF   DISCOVERY.  145 

Delves,  our  memory)  and  strength,  to  clear  him.  Whilst  \ve  were 
putting  him  and  the  rest  down  to  the  chirurgeon,  the  ship  drove 
into  shoal  water,  which  put- us  all  in  tear,  we  being  so  sorely 
weakened  by  this  blow,  which  had  hurt  eight  of  our  men.  It 
pleased  God  that  the  anchor  held  again,  and  she  rid  it  out  all  night. 
iJy  midnight  the  chirurgeon  had  taken  off  the  gunner's  leg  at  the 
gartering  place,  and  dressed  the  others  that  wore  hurt  and  bruised  j 
after  which  we  comforted  each  other  as  well  as  we  could. 

The  22d,  weighed  and  stood  off  into  deeper  water.  In  the  after- 
noon, the  wind  being  favourable,  stood  in  and  along  shore. 

The  26th,  sprung  up  a  fine  gale  at  W.  but  very  thick  weather. 
At  noon,  it  cleared,  and  we  could  see  that  we  were  embayed  in  a 
little  bay,  the  land  being  almost  round  about  us. 

We  stood  out  of  it,  and  so  along  it,  in  sight,  says  the  journalist, 
till  the  27th  in  the  morning,  when  we  came  to  higher  land  than 
any  we  had  yet  seen  since  we  came  from  Nottingham  Island.  We 
stood  in  to  it,  and  came  to  an  anchor  in  five  fathoms.  I  sent  off  the 
boat,  well  manned  and  armed,  with  orders  in  writing  what  they 
were  to  do,  and  a  charge  to  return  again  before  sunset.  The  even- 
ing came,  and  no  news  of  our  boat ;  we  shot  and  made  false  fires, 
but  had  no  answer,  which  did  much  perplex  us,  doubting  that 
there  had  been  some  disaster  befallen  her,  through  carelessness; 
and  in  her  we  should  lose  all.  We  aboard,  at  present,  were  not 
able  to  weigh  our  anchor,  nor  sail  the  ship.  At  last  we  saw  a  fire 
upon  the  shore,  which  made  us  the  more  doubtful,  because  they 
did  not  answer  our  shot,  nor  false  fires,  with  the  like.  We  thought 
withal  that  it  had  been  the  savages,  who  did  now  triumph  in  their 
conquest.  At  length  they  came,  all  and  well;  and  excused  them- 
selves in  that,  upon  their  coming  ashore,  it  did  ebb  so  suddenly, 
that  a  bank  of  sand  was  so  presently  dry  without  them,  as  they 
could  not  come  away,  till  that  was  covered  again  ;  and  with  that 
they  pacilied  me.  They  reported  that  there  was  great  store  of 
drift-wood  on  the  shore,  and  a  good  quantity  growing  on  the 
land.  That  they  saw  the  tracks  of  deer  and  bears,  good  store  of 
fowl  (of  which  they  had  killed  gome),  but  no  sign  of  people  :  that 
they  passed  over  two  little  rivers,  and  came  to  a  third,  which  they 
could  not  pass  :  that  it  did  flow  near  three  fathoms  sometimes,  as 
appeared  by  the  shore:  that  it  was  low  water  at  four  o'clock  : 
that  the  flood  came  from  the  N.  W.  and  that  it  flowed  half  tida, 
which  both'  they  and  we  had  perceived  by  the  ship.  At  low  water 
we  had  but  three  fathoms  where  we  did  ride.  The  wind  began  to 

£2a».  £f>ron,  OJol,  XXL  u 


146  ABSTRACT  or  A  VOYAGE  o?  DISCOTTERY. 

blow  hard  at  E.  whereupon  we  weighed  and  stood  to  the  north* 
ward,  till  midnight,  then  in  again  ;  and,  in  the  morning,  we  saw 
the  land,  and  then  it  began  to  blow  hard,  and  as*  we  stood  off,  it 
increased  to  a  very  storm,  so  that  at  length  we  could  not  maintain 
a  pair  of  courses,  but  tried  under  our  main  course  all  day  and  all 
night;  some  time  turning  her  head  to  the  landward,  some  time  to 
the  offing. 

The  29th,  in  the  morning,  we  made  account  we  had  driven 
back  again  some  16  or  18  leagues;  and,  in  the  morning  (as  it 
cleared),  we  saw  a  ship  to  leeward  of  us  some  three  or  four 
leagues;  so  we  made  sail,  and  bore  up  with  her.  She  was  then  at 
anchor  in  13  fathoms  water.  It  was  his  majesty's  ship,  and  Cap- 
tain Fox  commanded  in  her. 

I  saluted  him  according  to  the  manner  of  the  sea,  and  received 
the  like  of  him.  So  I  stood  in  to  sec  the  land,  and  thought  to  tack 
about,  and  keep  weather  of  him,  and  send  my  boat  on  board  of 
him  ;  but  the  wind  shifted,  so  that,  for  some  time,  I  could  not. 
In  the  evening,,  I  came  to  weather  of  him,  and  sent  my  boat  on 
board  of  him,  who  presently  weighed,  and  stood  off  with  me  till 
midnight,  and  then  we  stood  in  again. 

In  the  morning,  Captain  Fox  and  his  friends  came  on  board  me, 
where  I  entertained  them  fn  the  best  manner  I  conld,  and  \vith 
such  fresh  meat  as  I  had  gotten  from  the  shore.  I  told  him  how  I 
had  named  the  land  (he  Principality  of  South  Hales.  I  shewed 
him  how  far  I  had  been  to  the  eastward,  where  I  had  landed ;  and, 
in  brkf,  I  made  known  to  him  all  the  dangers  of  this  coast,  as  far 
as  I  had  been.  He  told  me  how  he  himself  had  been  in  Port  Nelson, 
and  had  made  but  a  cursory  discovery  hitherto  ;  and  that  he  had 
not  been  a-land,  nor  had  not  many  times  seen  the  land.  In  the 
evening,  after  I  had  given  his  men  some  necessaries,  with  tobacco 
*nd  other  things  which  they  wanted,  he  departed  on  board  his  ship, 
and,  the  next  morning,  stood  away  S.  S.  W.  since  which  time  I 
never  saw  him.  The  wind  something  favouring  me,  I  stood  in  for 
the  shore,  and  so  proceeded  along  it  in  sight. 

The  month  of  August  ended  with  snow  and  hail. 

The  1st  of  September,  the  surgeon  gave  the  information  that 
divers  of  the  men  were  tainted  with  sickness. 

The  2d,  we  found  the  land  to  trend  S.  S.  E.  and  S.  so  that  we 
knew  we  were  at  a  cape  land,  and  named  it  Cape  Henrietta  Muriny 
by  her  majesty's  name,  who  had  before  named  our  ship.  At  noon, 
we  were  in  lat.  55.  05.  and  that  is  the  height  of  the  cape. 

The  4th?  in  the  evening,  there  came  a  great  rolling  Sea  out  of 


ABSTRACT    OT    A    YOYAGF.    OF    PJSCOVLRV.  147 

the  N.  iV.  E.  and  by  eight  o'clock  it  blew  very  hard  at  S.  E.  We 
shipped  many  seas,  hut  one  most  dangerous,  which  raked  us  fore 
and  aft.  The  ship  laboured  terribly. 

The  5th,  in  the  morning,  the  wind  shifted  to  S.  W.  but  conti- 
nued as  high  as  ever,  in  the  afternoon,  it  shifted  again  to  the  N.  W. 
At  eight  in  .the  evening  the  storm  broke  up. 

The  fith,  the  wind  was  at  S.  W.  so  that  we  could  do  no  good  to 
the  westward  ;  therefore  employed  the  time  in  trimming  the  ship. 

The  7th,  in  the  morning,  the  wind  came  up  at  S.  E.  and  we 
stood  away  S.  W.  under  all  the  sail  we  could  make.  In  this  course, 
we  sav,  an  Hand,  came  close  about  it,  and  had  twenty  fathoms 
vatrr.  Tins  island  stands  in  lat.  54.  10.  In  the  afternoon,  stood 
away  S.  W.  and,  in  the  evening,  had  the  shoaling  of  the  western 
fchoi  o  in  ten,  eight,  and  seven  fathom  ;  but  it  was  so  thick  that  we 
conld  not  sec  the  land.  It  is  about  14  leagues  between  this  island 
and  the  m  'in. 

The  IGth,  made  the  land,  finding  it  an  island  of  about  eight  or 
nine  leagues  long,  in  lat.  53.  5.  about  fifteen  leagues  from  the 
western  shore.  The  part  of  it  that  we  coasted  trends  W.  N.  W. 
Nar  ied  it  3/y  Lord  IVeston's  Island.  Stood  still  away  to  the  east- 
ward. In  the  afternoon  descried  land  to  the  eastward  of  us,  which 
made  like  three  hills  or  hammocks.  Sailed  towards  them.  At 
length  also  saw  land  to  the  southward  of  us.  Luffed  up,  and  now 
made  for  that,  by  course  as  we  had  set  it  in  the  thick  dark  fog. 
Came  among  sueh  low  "broken  grounds,  breaches,  and  rocks,  that 
we  knew  not  which  way  to  turn.  The  night  proved  calm  and  fair, 
and  we  rid  quietly. 

The  llth,  in  the  morning,  the  captain  went  ashore  in  the  boat, 
but  found  the  island  "  utterly  barren  of  all  goodness."  There  was 
neither  scurvy-grass,  sorrel,  or  any  herb  to  refresh  the  sick  peo- 
ple. The  captain  returned  on  board,  and  sent  many  of  the  sick 
men  to  another  part  of  the  island,  but  they  were  equally  unsuc- 
cessful. At  noon  in  lat.  52.  45.  In  the  evening  weighed,  and  stood 
to  the  westward,  coming  to  an  anchor  under  another  island,  in 
20  fathoms. 

The  12th,  in  the  morning,  says  the  journalist,  it  began  to  blow 
hard  at  S.  E.  which  was  partly  off  the  shore,  and  the  ship  began 
to  drive,  it  being  soft  ground.  We  heaved  in  our  anchor  there- 
upon, and  came  to  sail  under  two  courses.  Whilst  the  most  were 
busy  in  heaving  out  of  topsails,  some  that  should  have  had  special 
care  of  the  ship,  saw  her  ashore  upon  the  rocks,  out  of  mere  care- 
in  looking  cut  and  about;  or  heaving  of  the  lead  after 


148  ABSTRACT    OF    A    VOYAGE    OF   DISCOTEKY. 

they  had  seen  the  land  all  night  long,  and  might  even  then  liif« 
seen  it,  if  they  had  not  been  blinded  with  self  conceit,  and  been 
enviously  opposite  in  opinions.  The  first  blow  struck  me  out  of  a 
deep  sleep  ;  and  I,  running  out  of  my  cabin,  thought  no  other  at 
first  but  I  had  been  wakened  (when  1  saw  our  danger)  to  provide 
myself  for  another  world. 

After  I  had  controuled  a  little  passion  in  myself,  and  had  check- 
ed some  bad  counsel  that  was  given  me,  to  revenge  myself  upon 
those  that  had  committed  this  error,  I  ordered  what  should  be 
done  to  get  off  these  rocks  and  stones.  First,  we  hauled  all  our 
sails  a-back-stays;  but  that  did  no  good,  but  made  her  beat  the 
harder :  whereupon  we  struck  all  our  sails  a-main,  and  furled  them 
up  close,  tearing  down  our  stern,  to  bring  the  cable  through  the 
cabin  to  the  capstan,  and  so  laid  out  an  anchor  to  heave  her  astern. 
I  made  all  the  -rater  in  the  hold  to  be  staved,  and  set  some  to  the 
pumps  to  pump  it  out,  and  did  intend  to  do  the  same  with  our 
Leer.  Others  I  put  to  throw  out  all  our  boats,  which  was  soon 
arid  speedily  done.  We  coiled  out  our  cables  into  the  long  boat; 
all  this  while  the  ship  beating  so  fearfully  that  we  saw  some  of  the 
sheathing  swim  by  us.  Then  stood  we,  as  many  as  we  could  tathe 
capstan,  and  heaved  with  such  a  good  will,  that  the  cable  brake, 
and  we  lost  our  anchor.  Out,  with  all  speed,  therefore,  we  put 
another.  We  could  not  now  perceive  whether  she  did  leak  or  no ; 
and  that  by  reason  we  were  employed  in  pumping  out  the  water, 
which  we  had  bulged  in  the  hold  ;  though  we  much  doubted  that 
she  had  received  her  death's  wound;  wherefore,  we  put  into  the 
boat  the  carpenter's  tools,  a  barrel  of  bread,  a  barrel  of  powder, 
six  muskets^  with  some  match,  and  a  tinder-box,  fish-hooks  and 
lines,  pitch  and  oakum ;  and,  to  be  brief,  whatever  could  be 
thought  on  in  such  an  extremity.  All  this  we  sent  ashore,  to  pro- 
long a  miserable  life  for  a  few  days.  We  were  five  hours  thus  beat- 
ing,  in  which  time  she  struck  100  blows,  insomuch  that  we  thought 
every  stroke  had  been  the  last  that  it  was  possible  she  pould  have 
endured.  The  water  we  could  not  perceive,  in  all  this  time,  to  flow- 
any  thing  at  all ;  at  length  it  pleased  God  she  beat  over  all  the 
rocks,  though  yet  we  kne\v  not  whether  she  were  staunch.  Where- 
upon to  pumping  we  gp,  on  all  hands,  till  we  made  the  pumps  suck, 
and  then  we  saw  how  much  water  she  did  make  in  a  glass.  We 
found  her  to  be  very  leaky;  but  we  went  to  prayer,  and  gave  God 
thanks  it  was  m>  worse;  and  so  fitted  all  things  again,  and  got 
further  off,  and  came  to  an  anchor.  In  the  evening,  it  began  tc« 
blow  very  hard  af  W.  S.  W.  which  Jf  it  had  done  while  w.e  were  on 


ABSTRACT    OF    A   VOYAGE    OF    DISCOTEUY.  149 

the  rocks,  we  hart  lost  our  ship  without  any  redemption.  With 
much  ado  v.  weighed  our  anchor,  and  let  her  drive  to  the  cast- 
ward  amongst  the  broken  grounds  and  rocks,  the  boat  going  be- 
fore sounding.  At  length  we  came  amongst  breaches,  and  the  boat 
made  signs  to  us  thai  there  was  no  going  farther.  Amongst  the 
rocks,  therefore,  we  again  came  to  an  anchor,  where  we  did  ride 
all  night,  and  where  our  men,  who  were  tired  out  with  extreme 

O          7  W 

labour,  were  indifferently  well  refreshed.  Here  I  first  noted  that 
when  the  wind  was  at  S.  it  flowed  very  little  or  no  water  at  all, 
so  that  we  could  not  bring  our  ship  a-ground  to  look  to  her,  for 
we  did  pump  almost  continually. 

The  13th.  at  noon,  we  weighed  and  stood  to  the  westward  ;  but 
in  that  course  it  was  all  broken  grounds,  shoals  and  sunken  rocks, 
so  that  we  wondered  with  ourselves  how  we  came  in  amongst  them 
in  a  thick  fog.  Then  we  shaped  our  course  to  the  northward,  and 
after  some  consultation  with  my  associates,  I  resolved  to  get  about 
this  land,  and  so  to  go  dow.i  into  the  bottom  of  Hudson's  Bay, 
and  see  if  I  could  discover  a  way  in  the  river  of  Canada,  and,  if  I 
failed  -of  that,  then  to  winter  on  the  main  land,  where  there  is 
more  comfort  to  be  expected,  than  among  rocks  or  islands.  We 
stood  along  the  shore,  insight  of  many  breaches:  when  it  was 
night  we  stood  under  our  fore-sail,  the  lead  still  going.  At  last, 
the  water  shoaled  upon  us  to  ten  fathoms,  and  it  began  to  blow 
hard.  \Ve  tacked  about,  and  it  did  deepen  to  12  or  14  fathoms, 
but  by  and  by  it  shoaled  again  to  8  fathoms.  Then  we  tacked  about 
again,  and  suddenly  it  shoaled  to  6  and  5  fathoms,  so  we  struck 
our  sail  a-main,  and  chopt  to  an  anchor,  resolving  to  ride  it  out 
for  life  and  death.  We  rid  all  night  a  great  stress,  so  that  our  bits 
did  rise,  and  we  thought  that  they  would  have  been  torn  to  pieces. 

At  break  of  day,  the  14th,  we  were  joyful  men;  and,  when  we 
could  look  about,  we  descried  an  island  some  two  leagues  o(T,  at 
W.  by  N.  and  this  was  the  shoal  that  lay  about  it.  Here  did  run  a 
detracted,  but  yet  a  very  quick  tide,  of  which  we  taking  the  op- 
portunity, got  up  our  anchor,  and  stood  N.  W.  to  clear  ourselves 
of  this  shoal.  In  the  afternoon,  the  wind  came  up  at  N.  E.  and  we 
stood  along  the  eastern  shore  in  sight  of  a  multitude  of  breaches.  In 
the  afternoon,  it  began  to  blow  a  storm  not  sail-worthy,  and  the 
«ea  went  very  high,  and  was  all  in  a  breach.  Our  shallop  whieh  we 
did  now  tow  at  stern,  being  moored  with  two  hawsers,  was  sunk, 
and  did  spin  by  her  mooring  Avith  her  keel  up,  twenty  times  in  an 
hour.  This  made  our  ship  to  hull  very  broad,  so  that  the  sea  did  con- 
tinually over-rake  us.  yet  we  endured  it,  and  thought  to  recover 


!50  ABSTRACT    OF    A    VOYAGE    OF    DISCOTERY. 

her.  All  the  night  the  storm  continued  with  violence,  and  with  some 
rain  in  the  morning,  it  then  being  very  thick  weather.  The  water 
shoaled  apace,  with  such  an  overgrown  sea  withal,  that  her  sail 
was  not  to  be  endured  ;  and  what  was  as  ill  there  was  no  trusting 
to  an  anchor.  Now,  therefore,  began  we  to  prepare  ourselves  how 
to  make  a  good  end  of  a  miserable  life.  About  noon,  as  it  cleared 
up,  we  saw  two  islands  under  our  lee,  "whereupon  M-e  bare  up  to 
<hem,  and,  seeing  an  opening  betwixt  them,  we  endeavoured  to  get 
into  it  before  night ;  therefore,  come  life,  come  death,  we  must 
run  this  hazard.  We  found  it  to  be  a  good  sound,  where  we  rid  all 
night  safely,  and  recovered  our  strengths  a.'.ain,  which  were  much 
impaired  with  continual  labour.  But  before  we  could  get  into  this 
good  place,  our  shallop  broke  away  (being  moored  with  two 
hawsers),  and  we  lost  her  to  our  great  grief.  Thus  now  had  we 
but  the  ship's  boat,  and  she  was  all  torn  and  bruised  too.  This 
island  was  the  same  that  we  had  formerly  coasted  the  western  side 
of,  and  named  my  Lord  Weston's  island.  Here  we  remained  till 
the  19th,  in  which  time  it  did  nothing  but  snow  and  blow  ex- 
tremely, insomuch  that  we  durst  not  put  our  boat  overboard. 

The  19th,  the  wind  shifted  N.N.E.  and  we  weighed  and  stood 
to  the  southward ;  but  by  noon  the  wind  came  up  at  S.  and  so  we 
came  to  an  anchor  under  another  island,  on  which  J  went  ashore, 
and  named  it  the  Earl  of  Bristol's  Island.  The  carpenter  wrought 
hard  in  repairing  our  boat;  whilst  I  wandered  up  and  down  on 
this  desert  island.  I  could  not  perceive  that  ever  there  had  been 
any  savages  on  it ;  and  in  brief,  we  could  neither  find  fish,  fowl, 
nor  herb  upon  it,  so  that  I  returned  comfortless  on  board  again. 
The  tides  rise  high  about  some  six  feet,  now  that  the  wind  is  nor- 
therly. The  flood  comes  from  the  north,  and  it  doth  flow  half 
tide.  The  full  sea  this  day  was  at  one  o'clock.  Here  seeing  the 
wipds  continue  so  northerly,  that  we  could  not  get  about  to  get 
iatQr  Hudson's  Bay,  we  considered  again  what  was  best  to  do  to 
look  out  for  a  watering  place.  Some  advised  me  to  go  for  Port 
Nelson,  because  we  were  certain  there  was  a  cove,  where  we 
might  bring  in  our  ship.  I  liked  not  that  counsel ;  for  that  it  is 
a  most  perilous  place,  and  that  it  might  be  so  long  ere  we  could 
get  thither,  that  we  might  be  debarred  by  the  ice :  moreover, 
seeing  it  was  so  cold  here,  as  that  every  night  our  rigging  did 
freeze,  and  that  sometimes  in  the  morning  we  did  shovel  away  the 
snow  half  a  foot  deep  off  our  decks,  and  in  that  latitude  too;  I 
thought  it  far  worse  in  the  other  place.  I  resolved  thereupon  to 
stand  again  to  the  southward,  there  to  look  for  some  little  creel; 
ox  cove  for  our  ship. 


ABSTRACT   OF   A  YOYAGE   OF   DISCOVERY.  151 

The  21st  the  wind  came  up  at  N.  and  we  weighed,  although  it 
was  a  very  thick  fog,  and  stood  away  S.W.  to  clear  ourselves  of 
the  shoals  that  were  on  the  point  of  this  island,  which  is  in  lat. 
53°  10. '  When  we  cleared,  we  steered  away  S. 

The  22d,  in  (he  morning,  proceeds  Captain  James,  when  we 
could  look  about  us,  we  saw  an  island  under  our  lee,  some 
leagues  off,  all  being  shoals  and  breaches  betwixt  us  and  it.  At 
noon  (with  the  help  of  the  windward  tide,)  we  attempted  to  heave 
up  our  anchor,  although  the  sea  still  went  very  lofty.  Joinifyn- 
all  our  strengths  therefore  with  our  best  skill,  God  be  thanked*! 
we  got  it  up;  but  before  we  could  set  our  sails,  we  were  driven 
into  nine  fathom.  Endeavouring  thereupon  to  double  a  point,  to 
get  under  the  lee  of  this  island,  the  water  shoaled,  to  seven,  six, 
and  five  fathom,  but  when  we  were  about,  it  did  deepen  again,  and 
we  came  to  an  anchor  in  a  very  good  place ;  and  it  was  very  good 
for  us  that  we  did,  for  the  wind  increased  to  a  very  great  storm. 
Here  we  rid  well  all  the  night,  took  good  rest,  and  recovered  our 
spent  strengths  again.  The  last  night,  and  this  morning,  it  did 
snow  and  hail,  and  was  very  cold  :  nevertheless,  I  took  the  boat, 
and  went  ashore,  to  look  for  some  creek  or  cove,  to  hove  in  our 
ship,  for  she  was  very  leaky,  and  the  company  become  sickly  and 
weak,  with  much  pumping  and  extreme  labour.  This  island, 
when  we  came  to  the  shore,  was  nothing  but  ledges  of  rocks 
and  banks  of  sand,  and  there  went  a  very  great  surf  on  them. 
Nevertheless,  I  made  them  row  throughout  it,  and  ashore  I  got 
with  two  more,  and  made  them  row  off  without  the  breaches,  and 
there  to  come  to  an  anchor,  and  there  to  stay  for  me;  I  made 
what  speed  I  couM  to  the  top  of  a  hill,  to  discover  about,  but  could 
not  see  what  we  looked  for.  Thus,  because  it  began  to  blow  hard, 
I  made  haste  towards  the  boat  again,  I  found  that  it  had  ebbed  so 
low,  that  the  boat  could  not  by  any  means  come  near  the  shore  for 
me;  so  that  we  were  fain  to  wade  through  the  surf  and  breaches 
to  her;  in  which  some  took  such  a  cold,  that  they  did  complain 
of  it  to  their  dying  day.  But  now  it  began  to  blow  hard,  so  that 
we  could  not  get  but  little  to  windward  toward  onr  ship,  for  the 
wind  was  shifted  since  we  went  ashore  ;  and  return  to  the  shore  we 
could  not,  by  reason  of  the  surf.  Well,  we  row  for  life  ;  they  in 
the  ship  let  out  a  buoy  by  a  long  warp,  and  by  God's  assistance 
we  got  to  it,  and  so  haled  up  to  the  ship,  where  we  were  well 
welcomed,  and  we  all  rejoiced  together.  This  was  a  precaution 
to  us,  to  be  careful  how  we  sent  off  the  ooat,  for  that  it  was  win- 
ter weather  already.  I  named  this  island  Sir  Thomas  Roe's 


152  NAVAL  POETRY. 

Island.  It  is  full  of  small  wood,  but  in  other  benefits  not  very 
rich,  and  stands  in  hit.  'S~l  dcg.  10  min.  At  noon,  we  weighed, 
seeing  an  island  that  bore  S.S.E.  of  us,  for  some  leagues  off, 
which  was  the  highest  land  we  had  yet  seen  in  this  bay ;  but  as  we 
came  near  it,  it  suddenly  shoaled  to  six,  five,  and  four  fathoms, 
•wherefore  we  struck  our  sails  amain,  and  chopt  to  an  anchor ;  but 
it  was  very  foul  ground,  and  when  the  ship  was  winded  up,  we 
had  but  three  fathom  at  her  stern.  As  it  cleared,  we  could  see 
the  breaches  all  along  under  our  lee  ;  not  holding  it  safe  therefor* 
to  stay  long  here,  we  settled  every  thing  in  order,  for  the  ship  to 
fall  the  right  way.  We  had  up  our  anchor,  got  into  deep  water, 
and  stood  over  again  for  Sir  Thomas  Roe's  Island,  which  by  night 
we  brought  in.  the  wind  of  us,  some  two  leagues  off,  which  did  well 
shelter  us,  the  tides  run  very  quick  here  amongst  these  shoals; 
and  their  times  of  running  ebb  or  flood  be  very  uncertain.  Their 
currents  are  likewise  so  distracted,  that  in  the  night  there  is  no 
sailing  by  the  compass ;  wherefore  we  were  fain  to  seek  every 
night  some  new  place  of  security  to  come  to  an  anchor. 
|_To  be  continued.] 


"IT 
L 


$afcal 

The  heart's  remote  recesses  to  explore, 

Aud  touch  U;»  springs,  when  probe  avail'd  no  more. 

FALCONER. 


MU.   EDITOR^,  Dover,  14th  February,  1809. 

AM  induced,  by  mention  made,  in  the  Obituary  of  the  NAVA& 
CHRONICLE  (page  SS),  of  the  late  General  Edward  Smith,  to 
communicate  some  information  concerning  another  naval  member 
of  that  same  family  (namely,  the  general's  father,  an  intrepid  sailor 
like  lus  grandson,  Sir  Sidney  Smith).  And  in  the  first  place  I  beg 
leave  to  refer  you  to  the  following  article  in  the  London  Magazine 
for  1743:— 

Extract  of  a  Let  Icr  from  Antigua,  1st  April. 

"  By  tetters  from  Captain  John  Osborue,  of  'Lieutenant-general  Dalzell's 
rcjimcnt,  dattd  on  board  the  Burford,  at  Curacoa,  to  our  Governor-general 
Miiihews,  we  have  the  following  account  :•—  That  on  the  19th  February 
about  1  P.2\I.  Commodore  Knowlcs>'s  squadron  attacked  the  forts  ac  la 
Guuira,  on  the  C.irracca  coast  ;  hut  that  a  great  swell  prevented  their  going 
nearer  than  half  a  mile  of  the  forts.  About  five  the  Burford,  having  re- 


NAVAL   POETRY.  153 

ceiveil  nineteen  shot  iu  her  hull,  one  in  her  bowsprit,  one  in  her  main-yard, 
and  one  in  her  rudder,  mostly  42-pounders,  and  her  commander,  Captain 
F.  Lushington,  being  struck  on  the  thigh  with  a  cannon  ball,  she  was  forced 
to  slip  her  cable  ;  which  the  commodore  observing,  made  a  signal  for  the 
Norwich  to  slip  also  and  assist  her,  which  that  ship  accordingly  did;  and 
they  both  went  for  Curacoa,  where  Captain  Lushington  was  landed,  and 
died  in  about  half  an  hour  afterwards.  The  Norwich  is  very  much  damaged, 
has  several  of  her  men  killed  and  wounded  ;  among  the  latter  is  Captain 
Gregory.  The  Assistance,  Captain  Smith  Callace,  and  the  Eltham,  Captain 
Edward  Smith,  arrived  at  Curacoa,  both  very  much  damaged  :  the  latter 
had  no  less  than  70  of  her  crew  killed  and  wounded ;  and  among  the  wounded 
is  Captain  Smith  himself." 

The  preceding  is  the  brief  chronicle  of  the  catastrophe  to  which 
the  following  lines,  by  the  late  Thomas  Delamain,  Esq.  relate  :  and 
perhaps,  as  commemorating  the  fall  of  a  distinguished  naval 
(officer,  -whose  military  virtues  have  been  inherited  by  his  lion- 
hearted*  grandson,  you  may  deem  them  deserving  of  being  rescued 
from  the  usual  oblivion  that  awaits  fugitive  effusions,  by  granting 
thcjn  an  asylum  amongst  the  naval  poetry  of  your  instructive  and 
interesting  work.  Yours,  £c. 

A  FREEMAN  OF  DOVER. 

To  Mrs.  EMZABETH  SMITH,  zzith  an  Epitaph  on  her  Husband, 
Captain  EDWARD  SMITH,  of  Dover,  v:ho  died  at  Antigua,  June 
the  2.1st)  1743,  Commander  of  his  Majesty's  Ship  the  Bur- 
ford,  CJ'C. 

E  A  Til !  What  is  death  ?  A  nothing  which  we  make 
A  something,  and  a  shade  for  substance  take  : 


Why  at  thy  image  feels  the  soul  such  awe, 

For  who  yet  death  beyond  its  image  saw  ? 

In  vain  the  straining  foresight  tires  the  mind. 

We  fail  to  tell  the  secret  when  we  find. 

Is  it  the  palid  visage,  mourner's  suit, 

The  m'let  eye,  or  friend  in  sorrow  mute. 

The  winding  sheet,  the  widow's  nightly  lamp, 

The  grave,  the  skull — are  these  the  heart's  sick  damp  ? 

No— for  they  move  not,  Smith. — Say,  what  is  life? 

Converse  with  men,  a  country,  friend,  a  wife  : 

Then  death's  no  more  than  quitting  life  with  men. 

To  end  our  business  or  be  born  again. 

The  homage  at  the  passport  gate  we  lay  : 

As  the  soul  journeys  to  eternity, 

in  augmentation  of  his 


*  Sir  Sidney  Smith's  motto,  granted  by  the  king,  in  au 
family  arms  atter  the  defence  of  Acre,  is  "  CO-.U.T  de,  Lion, 


.  fl&ton.  (Hoi.  XXI. 


154  NAVAL   POETRY. 

That  length  of  waste*,  where  joyless  ghosts  unblcst 
Wander,  still  restless  for  some  place  of  rest; 
Or  fleet  o'er  moonlight  seas,  in  flames,  now  run, 
Now  plunge  for  ease  in  frost,  now  freeze,  now  burn. 
That  scene,  where  spirits  of  the  virtuous  stray, 
Through  worlds  of  bliss,  gilt  with  perpetual  day, 
la  various  joys  employed.     Some  sacred  praise, 
Some  nature's  -view  to  heavenly  raptures  raise; 
Or,  friends  toman,  the  virtuous  make  their  care, 
And  are,  perhaps,  our  guardian-angels  here. 
Whence  then  the  grief,  but  absence  that's  unkind, 
Our  friend  goes  first,  and  leaves  his  friend  behind. 
Thus  to  myself  I  thought,  when  you  assign'd, 
O  SMITH,  a  task,  my  sorrow  had  declin'd  ; 
But  that  I  judg'd,  when  strangers  drop  a  tear, 
A  friend  should  not  refuse  a  larger  share ; 
Yet  to  th'  indebted  work  I  see  no  end, 
So  many  virtues  prompt  me  to  commend, 
la  the  bright  crowd  what  fifst  what  last  to  choose. 
So  large  the  subject,  so  urwkill'd  the  muse. 

Sometimes  affected  with  poetic  zeal, 
All  nature  speaks  a  sorrow  at  the  tale, 
The  weeping  pleiads  in  dark  splendour  rise, 
And  sit  in  tears  the  mourners  of  the  skies  : 
Big  heavy  clouds  hang  o'er  the  blacken'ddecp, 
And  ravens  croak  above  th'  impending  steep. 
Shrill  notes  the  lakes,  hoarse  groans  the  caverns  send, 
And  frighted  nymphs  their  mountain  cedars  rend. 
Now  in  the  midst  of  ocean  move  along, 
Neptune,  and  all  his  gods  in  funeral  song : 
Sea- weeds  with  coral  M'ave  around  'em  hung, 
With  ill-tun'd  strains  their  harps  to  sorrow  strung  $ 
The  shell  that  held  the  god  is  changed  to  jet, 
His  horses  black,  their  manes  the  chariot  wet. 
Thetis,  with  all  her  maids,  in  mourning  veils. 
Follows  behind  :  then  last  Britannia  sails; 
And,  weeping,  reads  the  monumental  stone. 
The  Tritons'  horns  are  wrcath'd  of  blackest  shell, 
The  tortoise  scale,  which  scarce  thro' grief  they  swell; 
The  sad  procession  thro'  the  deep  moves  slow. 
To  music's  sympathy  in  sounds  of  woe; 


NAVAL   POETRY.  155 

The  passing  waves  haste  to  each  distant  shore, 
And  catch  the  dying  note  that  SMITH'S  no  morej 
Whilst  Dover's  sea  nymphs  in  their  chalky  cave, 
Sigh  plaintive  to  the  tale  of  ev'ry  wave. 
Another  time,   when  I  his  life  pursue, 
And  brave,  wise,  active,  loyal,  him  review, 
My  country's  loss  I  mourn,  and  think  to  paint 
In  lines  more  bold  the  hero  and  the  saint ; 
The  battle's  fought,  the  vent'rous  prize  is  won, 
The  danger's  past,   and  age  unblemish'd  run. 
But  M  hilst  to  deeds  abroad  I  wish  to  roam, 
The  tend'rest  subject  keeps  me  still  at  home; 
You  and  his  mourning  children  to  me  rise, 
Like  blasted  poplars  in  the  black  disguise; 
And  fain  my  care  would  that  high  office  reach, 
To  temper  virtue,  and  each  sorrow  teach 
The  pious  duty  to  his  laurclPd  urn  ; 
Not  less  to  know  your  grief,  but  less  to  mourn  ; 
Tho'  in  all  else  you  best  advice  could  lend, 
Yet  I  presume  one  pardon  of  a  friend, 
For  sorrow  shews  thy  sense  in  faitest  light, 
As  stars  shine  brightest  through  the  darkest  night. 

"  If  the  quick  soul  still  lives,  'twas  that  yon  lov'd  : 
Death's  then  but  absence,  or  but  sight  remov'd. 
Jleav'ii  well  has  taught  yon  absence  age  to  bear, 
And  soon  life's  minutes  run  you'll  meet  him  there. 
With  mildness  Heaven  its  strict  commissions  deals 
Pains  by  degrees,  and  as  it  wounds  it  heals  ; 
Tho'  oft'  the  virtuous  grave  they  seldom  fall, 
And  tho'  it  largely  takes,  it  takes  not  all. 
So  for  a  while,  tho'  Ileav'n  deprives  you  of  him, 
It  leaves  his  children  you,  and  gives  you  them. 
Your  worldly  care,  for  him  you  must  regard, 
"With  Ileav'n,  perhaps,  meant  there  your  last  reward. 
()  may  his  sons,  true  copies  of  his  face, 
llecall  the  father  in  each  manly  grace  ; 
Jn  every  virtue  with  his  honour  vie, 
And  live  as  well,  to  learn  as  well  <o  die. 
And  may  thy  daughter's  mind,  which  like  a  ray, 
Shot  from  the  pmpling  c;i-t.   gives  signs  of  day; 
Strengthen  in  sense,  as  she  in.  form  grows  bright. 
Till  all  the  virgin  shiucs  in  virtue's  light: 


156  NAVAL   HISTORY    OF  THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

Whilst  the  plcas'd  mother  sorrow's  care  beguiles, 
And,  in  her  daughter,  on  her  image  smiles  : 
Yet,  not  to  shun  the  debt  fame  's  bound  to  pay, 
This  epitaph  we'll  o'er  his  ashes  lay. 


THE  EPITAPH. 

On  a  Slab,  in  St.  John's  Cliurch~yardt  Antigua, 

Britons  !  whoe'er,  through  various  seas  and  toil, 
Strays  from  your  happy  to  this  fatal  soil, 
Slacken  your  sails,  and  pay  a  fuu'ral  tear 
In  duty  to  a  true-born  Briton  here : 
Here  rests  the  soldier  in  eternal  peace, 
Here  from  the  ills  of  life  a  saint 's  at  ease. 
Sedate  in  tumults,  in  the  tempest  calm, 
Health  to  the  valiant,  to  the  wounded  balm; 
Amidst  the  battle,  at  the  council  brave, 
Gay  to  the  virtuous,  to  the  vicious  grave; 
A  patriot  husband,  father,  brother,  friend, 
"Who  even  scandal  did  like  praise  commend : 
To  death  well  known,  yet  sole  to  heav'n  resign'd 
He  fell  alone  by  heav'n — but  heav'n  was  kind. 

Note.  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Smith,  to  whom  the  preceding  lines  were  addressed, 
was  daughter  of  Captain  John  Douglas,  royal  navy,  of  his  majesty's  ship 
Content,  in  King  William's  reign.  lie  was  a  twin,  and  22d  child  of  Lord 
John  Douglas,  survived  all  his  brothers  and  sisters,  and  yet  died  at  the  early 
age  of  34,  at  St.  Helena,  in  1701. 

Captain  Smith,  the  hero  of  the  tale,  was  appointed  post-captain  of  the 
Eltham  frigate,  16th  November,  1739,  and  died  of  wounds  at  Antigua,  ^Ist 
June,  1743,  in  the  command  of  his  majesty's  ship  Burford. 


NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESEN7T  YEAR,  1809. 

(January — February. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE  AND  MISCELLANEOUS. 

ESCAPE  OF  THE  BREST  FLEET. 

(From  MOTTLEY'S  "  Telegraph,"  Portsmouth,  Saturday,  Feb.  25,  1809.) 
npUHS  morning  arrived  the  Kacoon  sloop  of  war,  Captain  Welsh,  Mitli 
intelligenfcc  of  the  Escape  of  the  French  Fleet  at  Brest. — 
The  Kncoon  was  on  her  passage  to  Cadiz,  when,  on  Thursday  noon 
ast,  off  Ushant,  she  fell  in  with  the  Lyra  sloop  of  war,  Captain  Beivaus, 


NAVAL   HISTOUY    OF   THE  PRESENT   YEAR,    1809.  \b7 

tvhich  sliip  had  been  just  despatched  to  Plymouth,  by  the  reconnoitring 
frigate  stationed  off  Brest,  -with  intelligence,  that  all  the  ships  of  war 
ihat  were  ready  for  sea  in  Brest  had  escaped  out,  either  on  Monday  night 
last,  or  early  on  Tuesday  morning.  They  had  not  been  seen  by  any  of 
the  ships  on  that  station — the  course  they  steered  is  not  known,  nor  \s 
their  destination — the  wind  was  northerly.  Captain  Welsh  conceiving  it 
to  be  of  essential  importance  that  early  information  should  be  commn- 
nicated  to  the  Admiralty  of  the  circumstance,  made  every  possible  haste 
to  this  port :  on  his  arrival  here,  it  was  immediately  communicated  la 
London  by  telegraph. 

It  is  supposed  that,  as  Lord  Gambler,  who  sailed  from  Torbay 
on  Tuesday  afternoon,  was  not  in  his  station  on  Thursday,  his  lordship 
had  received  the  information,  and  had  gone  in  pursuit.  The  opinion  as 
to  their  destination  is  divided  between  Cadiz  and  Martinique.  It  is 
apprehended  that  they  will  be  joined  by  the  six  sail  of  the  line,  two  of 
Afhich  are  three  deckers)  which  the  French  took  possession  of  at  Ferrol. 
The  following  ships  sailed  from  Torbay  with  Lord  Gambier,  viz.— 
Caledonia,  110,  Admiral  Lord  Gambier,  Captain  Sir  II.  Burrard  Xcale 
(captain  of  the  fleet),  Captain  Bedford  ;  Royal  George,  100,  Vice- 
admiral  Sir  John  Thomas  Duckworth,  Captain  Dunn  ;  St.  George,  98, 
It  ear-admiral  fcliab  Harvey,  Captain  Hillyar;  Dreadnaiight,  98,  Rear- 
admiral  Sotheby,  Captain  Salt ;  Temerairc,  9S,  Sir  C,  Hamilton; 
Achille,  74,  Sir  Rkhard  Kiug ;  Impetueux,  74,  Captain  Lawfordi 
Christian  Vllth,  Captain  J.  Hancock,  acting  ;  Warspite,  "4,  Hon. 
Captain  Black  wood. — The  Hero,  74,  Captain  Newman,  looked  into 
Torbay  on  Wednesday,  and  then  proceeded  for  the  station  <>rt'  Ushant, 
to  join  his  lordship. — The  Brest  fieet  is  believed  to  consist  often  sail  of 
the  line  and  several  frigates. 

The  Barfleur,  9S,  Captain  Linzee ;  Zealous,  74,  Captain  Boys;  and 
the  Elizabeth,  74,  Hon.  Captain  Curzon,  sailed  from  Plymouth  ou 
Jlonday,  to  cruise  off  Ferrol. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  common  council  of  the  city  of  Limerick,  "held 
the  13th  day  of  February,  1S09,  the  following  resolution  was  unani- 
mously agreed  to: — 

"  That  the  freedom  of  the  city  be  presented  to  Captain  Michael  Sey- 
mour, of  his  majesty's  ship  Amethyst,  in  a  heart  of  oak  box,  orua- 
mcnted  with  gold,  accompanied  with  the  following  address: 

*'  SIR, 

"  Tho  freedom  of  this  ancient  and  loyal  city  hns  been  "Unanimously 
voted  by  us,  the  mayor,  aldermen,  sheriffs,  and  common  council,  to  be 
presented  to  you  in  a  heart  of  oak  box,  ornamented  with  gold,  a*> 
emblematic  of  the  glorious  profession  YOU  fill,  with  so  much  honour  io 
yourself  and  advantage  to  your  country. 

"  The  engagement  between  his  majesty's  ship  Atnethyst,  under  your 
command,  and  the  French  ship  TJielis,  in  which  you  triumphed  over  a 


158  NAVAL   HISTORY   OF  THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

very  superior  force,  rnnks  amongst  the  most  brilliant  exploits  that  haTC 
raised  our  navy  to  such  unrivalled  fame. 

"  To  the  satisfaetion  we  feel  in  offering1  this  -ivdl-earned  tribute  i* 
added  the  pride  of  knowing,  that  it  is  to,  our  fellow-citizen  it  is  paid. 

(Signed')  "  JOHN  CRIPS,  Mayor. 

"  EDWARD  PARKER,  Town-clerk." 


The  principal  event  in  the  naval  history  of  the  preceding  mor>th.  ha* 
been  the  rejection  by  the  Board  of  Admiralty,  of  the  ca:>t;iv.v.s*  petition 
for  an  increase  of  pay,  which  was  sent  in  through  Admiral  Montagu, 
Every  article  of  life  has  certainly  of  late  years  experienced  a  mojt  i:\tr.ior- 
dinary  rise;  and,  according  tq  a  statement  which  we  i>ave  see»,  the  ihare 
of  prize  money  that  a  captain  now  receives,  when  compared  with  niiar  he 
had  a  right  to  in  1793,  at  the  beginning  of  the  French  war.  has  betn  re- 
duced, bv  subsequent  regulations,  nearly  one  half.  Admiral  Montagu  has 
been  succeeded  at  Portsmouth  by  Sir  It.  Curtis.  Previous  to  the  former 
oilicer's  leaving  that  port,  where  he  has  been  so  generally  respected,  be 
hail,  it  is  said,  proposed  to  Government,  to  fit  out  all  tiic  Danish  ships  of 
war  as  transports;  offering  to  restore  them  to  their  original  state,  after 
they  had  thus  been  employed,  at  a  trifling  expcnce. 

In  South  America,  its  independence  has  been  proclaimed  tinder  General 
Uniers,  as  their  chief,  which  will  probably  give  a  new  turn  to  the  present 
eventful  war.  A  treaty  has,  it  is  said,  been  signed  between  this  country 
and  tl>e  king  of  Spain,  which  was  lately  mentioned  by  Mr.  Canning  in  the 
house.  The  prospect  of  peace  with  France  seems,  if  possible,  nu>;-»  .istant 
than  ever.  As  Lord  Grosvemn-  said,  in  his  speech  on  the  state  <>t  the 
nation,  February  7,  "  This  nation  has  now  suffered  for  seventeen  years, 
with  the  intermission  of  only  a  few  months,  the  calamities  of  war.  The 
question  was  not  whether  peace  with  France,  as  France  now  is,  would  be  a 
benefit.  For  himself,  he  entertained  no  hope  of  peace  :is  Ions;  us  the  hos- 
tile mind  existed  in  the  ruler  of  that  country.  What  advantage  had  been 
derived  from  the  last  peace?  Was  it  not  a  peace  of  distress,  of  suspicion, 
of  expcncc?  Was  there  any  thing  dosira-Me  in  a  peace  o:  llmt  description  J 
No:  we  must  make  up  our  minds  to  a  long  and  arduous  struggle.  In  any 
peace  that  we  should  make  with  France,  constituted  as  she  at  present  is, 
all  her  energy  would  be  directed  in  the  interval  to  prepare  the  means  of 
new  hostility,  to  sap  the  foundation  of  our  commerce,  and  to  diminish  our 
revenues  and  our  maritime  preponderance,  both  of  which  were  the  result 
of  that  commerce.  The  system  of  France  was  regular  and  undcviating. 
The  vast  power  she  has  arquired  within  these  few  years  was  as  much  owing 
to  her  political  dexterity  as  the  victories  she  has  obtained.  The  way  for 
her  triumphs  was  prepared  by  the  total  overthrow  of  the  moral  and  political 
feelings  of  the  countries  whose  subjugation  she  meditated.  See  what  in- 
fluence Buonaparte  has  acquired  over  the  Emperor  of  Russia — how  he  has 
induced  him  to  view  with  complacency  acts  from  which  a  liberal  mind 
would  have  shrunk  back  with  horror — how  he  has  induced  him  to  sign  tl  e 
letter  which  w.is  lately  laid  on  tfje  table  !  The  calamities  of  Europe  are 


NATAL    HISTORY    OF    THE   JPUF.SENT    YEAR,    1809.  159 

ascribed  in  that  letter  to  the  stagnation  of  maritime  commerce.  Is  it  to  the 
stagnation  of  maritime  commerce  that  the  overthrow  or"  the  German  Empire 
the  incorporation  of  Italy,  the  subjugation  of  Switzerland,  the  ovi  rthrow  of 
the  independence  of  Holland,  the  war  between  Sweden  and  Iln«sia,  the 
distracted  state  of  the  Ottoman  Empire,  and  the  atrocious  attack  upou  Spain, 
are  to  be  attributed?  Is  it  to  these,  or  to  the  insatiable  ambition  of  evcrv 
government  which  has  been  in  France  bince  the  commencement  of  the 
revolution." 


It  is  reported,  that  a  traitorous  commerce,  to  a  considerable  extent, 
lias  lately  been  carried  on  by  British  speculators,  in  British  ships,  with 
the  enemy's  settlements  in  the  West  Indies.  Several  vessels  have  been 
sent  to  Antigua,  and  other  of  our  islands,  attempting  to  enter  Giia.- 
daloupe  and  Martinique. 

An  officer  of  rank,  in  a  letter  of  a  late  date,  writes  as  follows  :  — 
"  We  are  all  ardent  in  our  desire  to  distinguish  ourselves  in  the  oppor- 
tunity before  us  of  reducing  Martinique  ;  and  so  excellent  in  all  respects 
are  Ihe  arrangements,  and  the  appointments  for  theattack,  that  we  have 
no  reasonable  ground  to  doabt  success,  save  only  from  the  treasonable 
supplies  afforded  to  the  enemy.  Provisions  of  every  kind,  warlike 
stores,  &.C.  are  thrown  into  the  out  barges,  for  which  such  high  con- 
sideration is  made,  as  to  induce  the  owners  of  such  vessels  even  to  throw 
themselves  into  the  ivay  of  being  taken  by  the  French,  rather  than  fall 
into  the  hands  of  our  cruizers.  This  evil  is  said  to  arise  in  a  great  mea- 
sure from  there  being  no  fund  applicable  to  reward  informers ;  and  after 
the  condemnation  of  a  prize,  the  amount  of  its  sale  goes  directly  to  the 
captors,  whilst  the  party  who  has  led  to  the  discovery  is  left  to  the  risks 
and  odium  attached  to  the  information  he  has  given.  Is  it  not  desirable 
that  ministers  should  consider  this  matter  ?  and  is  it  not  probable  that 
Parliament  would  adopt  some  measure  to  create  a  fund  from  which  a 
proportionable  reward  might  be  afforded  to  persons  giving  such  informa- 
tion ?  la  the  American  war,  much  treasonable  speculation  was  carried 
on,  but  I  understand  was  at  last  suppressed  by  measures  resorted  to; 
what  they  were,  as  I  am  just  arrived,  1  have  not  been  able  to  learn,  fur- 
ther than  that  the  most  liberal  considerations  were  made  to  procure 
information." 

We  are  sorry  to  learn,  that,  since  the  above  was  written,  the  expedi- 
tioa  against  Martinique  has  been  abandoned,  in  consequence  of  the  sup- 
plies and  reinforcements  which  the  French  have  found  the  means  of 
throwing  in. 

The  public  revenue,  notwithstanding  we  are  shut  out  from  almost 
the  whole  of  the  continent  of  Europe,  and  entirely  from  the  United 
States,  has  increased  to  a  degree  never  expected,  even  by  those  per- 
son* who  were  most  sanguine  in  their  hope  of  the  extent  of  our  national 
resources. 


1GO  NAVAr,   HISTORY  OF   THET  PRESENT   YKAR,    18017. 

The  surplus  of  ways  and  means  this  year  (beyond  the  £ 

esti  mate) ,  for  three  quarters,  ending  the  Mb  January, 

•was 2,747,531    16  »<? 

Surplus   on   the   lotteries,    which    was   estimated    at 

300,0001.  for  «0,000  tickets  (40,000  tickets  having 

exceeded  that  estimate)  w  ill  be  about  ..........        1 65,000    ft    0 


£  2,912,551    16   10 

So  that  the  surplus  for  the  whole  year  may  be  taken  at  least  for  four 
millions;  besides  which  one  million  and  a  half  raised  last  year  for  the 
Kast  India  Company  will  not  be  wanted  this  year ;  making  in  the  whole 
a  reduction  of  five  millions  and  a  half  from  the  sum  of  nineteen  millions 
raised  in  various  ways  last  year. 

The  Amiable,  Captain  Hon.  G.  Stewart,  lias  taken  and  sent  into  Yar- 
mouth Roads,  the  French  corvette  Joste,  of  22  guns  and  200  men,  with  z 
cargo  of  about  ^00  barrels  of  flour.  This  vessel  had  also  on  board 
a.  chest  of  dollars  for  paying  the  troops  at  Martinique.  This  the  French 
crew  broke  open  on  being  captured,  and  partly  emptied  of  its  contents.- 
She  sailed  from  Dunkirk  on  the  3d,  in  company  with  a  brig,  which 
went  north-about.  The  Joste  was  captured  the  day  following  her 
departure. 

Provisions,  to  the  amount  of  upwards  of  one  million  five  hundred, 
thousand  pounds,  were  exported  from  YVaterford  in  the  course  of  last 
year. 

So  great  a  want  of  the  necessaries  of  life  is  said  to  prevail  in  the  island 
of  Corfu,  that  it  is  much  to  be  feared  that  the  garrison  and  inhabitants 
will  see  themselves  forced  to  surrender. 

On  the  5th  of  February,  a  coroner's  inquest  was  held  at  the  house  of 
Mr.  Dykes,  the  Five  Bells,  at  New-cross,  Deptford,on  the  body  of  Lieu- 
tenant John  Johnson,  of  the  navy,  who  was  found  about  seven  o'clock 
on  the  morning  of  the  preceding  Saturday  in  a  ditch  near  Mr.  Hard- 
castle's  mansion-house,  most  inhumanly  murdered. 

Mr.  Blanchard,  surgeon,  at  1'cckham,  set  out  the  state  of  the  deceased 
when  he  saw  him.  His  throat  was  cut  from  ear  to  ear,  and  his  head 
nearly  severed  from  his  body.  lie  had  nine  wounds  about  his  face,  and 
in  particular  the  lower  part :  at  the  back  of  his  head  were  several  con- 
tusions and  cuts,  and  his  left  thumb  was  nearly  cut  off.  There 
could  be  no  doubt  that  the  wounds  he  received  were  the  cause  of  his 
death. 

Several  witnesses  were  examined  concerning  persons  who  were  seen 
near  the  spot  on  the  morning  of  the  murder,  but  nothing  material  arose 
from  their  testimony.  II  appears,  that  the  deceased  was  a  lieutenant  in 
the  navy,  about  forty-five  years  old,  and  belonging  to  the  ship  Eydercen, 
Captain  Pengelly,  now  lying  at  the  Nore.  It  is  supposed  that  he  had 
about  live  or  six  pounds  in  his  pocket  j  he  was  a  man  of  great  persona.! 
courage,  and  most  probably  made  great  resistance  when  attacked, 

A  verdict  of  Wilful  Murder  against  persons  unknown,  was  returned, 


KAVAL    HtSTORY   OF  THE   PRESENT    TEAR,    1S09.  161 

In  the  thanks  given  by  the  House  of  Commons  to  the  officers  that  had  so 
much  distinguished  themselves  in  Spain,  the  SPEAKER  thus  addressed  Sir 
Samud  Hood. 

"  Sir  Samuel  Hood — The  various  and  brilliant  services  you  have  ren« 
dered  to  your  country,  in  the  long  and  splendid  career  of  glory  that  has  so 
eminently  distingtiished  your  name,  have  several  times  obtained  for  you  the 
cordial  thanks  of  this  house.  Your  late  eminent  services  at  Corunna,  in  the 
prompt  and  effectual  assistance  rendered  by  you  for  the  complete  embark- 
ation of  his  majesty's  troops,  have  been  considered  by  this  House  fully  to  en- 
title you  to  a  repetition  of  their  thanks,  as  a  just  tribute  of  their  applause. 
I  now,  therefore,  in  the  name  of  the  commons,  &c.  thank  you  for  your  emi- 
nent services  on  that  occasion." 

Sir  S.  Hoot). — "  I  bee;  leave  to  return  my  sincere  thanks  for  the  honour 
how  done  me  by  the  House  of  Commons,  and  it  affords  me  the  highest  satis- 
faction if,  in  doing  that  which  was  only  my  duty  to  my  sovereign  and  my 
country,  I  h^.ve  obtained  the  approbation  of  this  House.  I  hope  the  House 
vvill  give  me  credit  rbr  a  due  sense  of  its  favour,  and  that  you,  sir,  will  ac- 
cept rriy  thanks  fdr  the  handsome  manner  in  wliich  you  have  communicated 
to  me  the  thanks  of  the  House." 

Among  the  emigrants  of  distinction  who  left  Cornnna  on  the  embarkation 
of  the  British  army,  was  the  Duke  de  Vera  Aguas.  This  title  alone  does  not 
Suggest  those  feelings  of  sympathy  and  respect  which  will  be  excited  by  the 
information  that  this  illustrious  nobleman  is  the  lineal  descendant  of,  per- 
haps, the  greatest  man  Spain  ever  produced,  Christopher  Columbus.  The 
duke  met  with  an  asylum  on  board  Admiral  de  Courcy's  ship,  the  Tonnant. 

On  the  10th  of  February,  a  boat,  with  a  crew  of  22  persons,  belonging 
to  the  Barfleur,  Captain  Linzee,  was  upset  in  a  heavy  sea,  when  attempt- 
ing to  cross  the  bridge  of  rocks  between  Mount  Edgecumbe  and  St.  Nicho- 
las's Island,  by  which  17  persons  were  unfortunately  drowned,  among  whom 
was  Mr.  Foot,  a  lieutenant  of  marines,  and  Mr.  le  Mesurier,  a  master's 
mate.  It  appears  that  the  boat  was  proceeding  from  Cawsand-bay  to  the 
Salvador  del  Mundo,  in  Hamoaze,  svith  two  prisoners,  John  Sennet,  sea- 
man, and  William  Jones,  carpenter's  mate  of  the  Barfieur,  who  were  to  take 
their  trial  the  next  morning  on  a  charge  of  having  rttutinously  expressed  their 
desire  to  have  a  new  captain.  Jones  was  among  the  drowned,  as  were  also 
many  of  the  witnesses ;  but  Bennet  was  one  of  the  five  that  were  saved. 
Before  the  court  was  formed,  the  surviving  prisoner  had  the  option  of  post- 
poning his  trial,  but,  though  exhausted  from  lying  in  the  water,  he  request- 
ed to  be  tried  immediately.  A  long  investigation  took  place,  when  the  court 
adjudged  that  the  charge  was  not  proved,  and  the  prisoner  was  acquitted. 
Many  of  the  officers  of  the  ship  came  forward,  and  gave  the  prisoner  an  ex- 
cellent churacter.  It  appeared  in  evidence  that,  in  consequence  of  a  letter 
having  been  sent  to  the  Admiralty  against  the  captain,  he  turned  the  hands 
up,  to  inquire  what  complaint  they  hud  against  him.  The  general  answer 
was—"  A  new  captain."  That  the  prisoner,  having  sailed  with  Captain  Lin, 
zee  for  some  time,  was  particularly  asked  his  complaint,  when  he  said,  in  a 

ol«  XXI,  Y 


162  NAVAL   HISTOTIY   OF  THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1809. 

respectful  way,  he  had  been  wrongfully  punished ;  and  went  the  length  of 
observing  he  did1  not  wish  to  sail  with  the  captain  again.  The  prisoner  read 
a  written  defence,  which  seemed  to  make  a  due  impression  on  the  c«iurt.  It 
is  remarkable  that  the  paper  was  in  his  pocket  during  the  time  he  was  in 
the  water.  We  trust  the  unnecessary  sacrifice  of  so  many  valuable  lives  wiU 
not  be  suffered  to  pass  unnoticed ;  this  passage  is  so  notoriously  dangerous, 
in  bad  weather,  that  we  hope  steps  will  ere  long  be  taken  to  prevent  the 
fatal  accidents  that  so  frequently  occur. 

The  body  of  the  unfortunate  Lieut.  Foot  was  picked  up  on  the  13th,  and 
on  the  16th,  an  inquest  was  held  on  it,  when  the  jury  returned  a  verdict— 
Accidentally  drowned. 

Some  experiments  were  lately  repeated  upon  Mr.  Lamb's  patent 
machine  for  rendering  sea-water  fresh,  in  the  presence  of  a  number  of 
gentlemen,  at  Mr.  Rutherford's  manufactory,  East  Smithfield,  and  gave 
great  satisfaction.  The  machine,  which  is  designed  for  the  island  of 
Antigua,  produced  pure  fresh  writer  from  the  water  of  the  ocean,  at 
the  rate  of  from  fifty  to  sixty  gallons  per  hour.  Great  ingenuity  is  disco- 
vered in  the  manner  of  obtaining  fresh  water ;  and  the  improvements  which 
Mr.  Lamb  has  introduced  in  the  manufactory  of  fire  hearths,  with  condens- 
ing apparatus  attached  to  them,  promise  to  be  of  great  utility  in  his  majes- 
ty's navy,  and  merchantmen  in  general. 


lletfers?  on 

Copied  verbatim  from  the  LONDON  GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE,   JANUARY    28,    1809. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Rorcley,  Commander-in-chief  of  his 
Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  at  Jamaica,  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  at 
Port  Royal,  the  2%d  of  November,  1808. 

SIR, 

T  HAVE  the  honour  to  transmit,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Com- 
missioners  of  the  Admiralty,  a  copy  of  a  letter  which  I  nave  received 
from  Captain  Cumby,  oftiis  majesty's  ship  Polyphemus,  reporting  the  cap- 
ture, by  Lieutenant  Joseph  Daly,  in  that  ship's  barge,  of  the  French 
national  schooner  Colibry,  of  three  guns,  commanded  by  a  lieutenant  de 
vaisseau,  and  having  a  complement  of  sixtv- three  men. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

B.  8.  ROWLEY- 

Polt/phemns,  off  the  City  of  St.  Domingo* 
SIR,  14th  November,  1808. 

Having  detached  the  boats  of  his  majesty's  ship  under  my  command  at 
half-past  eight  o'clock  this  morning,  in  chase  of  a  schooner  that  -.va- 
attempting  to  enter  the  harbour,  I  had  the  satisfaction,  at  twenty  minutes 
bast  nine,  to  see  her  boarded  and  carried  in  the  most  handsome  manner  by 
Lieutenant  Joseph  Daly,  in  the  barge,  under  as  brisk  a  lire  of  grape  and 
musketry  us  the  impetuosity  with  which  our  boatb  advanced  would  allow  the. 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

enemy  to  keep  up.  She  proves  to  be  the  French  national  schooner  Colibry, 
of  three  carriage  guns,  commanded  by  Mons.  Deyrisse,  lieutenant  de 
vaisaeau,  with  a  complement  of  sixty-three  men;  reputed  the  fastest  sailing 
vessel  attached  to  this  colony,  and,  I  trust,  may  be  found  well  calcui  ;ted 
for  his  majesty's  service. 

In  the  execution  of  this  service  I  have  to  regret  the  loss  of  one  marine 
(Samuel  Crompton)  killed  in  the  barge;  and  on  the  part  ef  the  enemy,  one 
killed  and  the  severely  wounded. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

W.  PRYCE  CUMBY,  Captain. 
JB.  S.  Rowley,  Esq.  Vice-admiral  of 
the  White,  #c. 

Copy  of  another  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Rowley  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole, 

dated  at  Port  Royal,  the  3d  December,  1808. 
SIR, 

The  enclosed  copy  of  a  letter  which  I  have  received  from  Captain  Dash- 
wood,  of  his  majesty's  ship  Franchise,  will  acquaint  the  Lords  Commissioners 
of  the  Admiralty  with  the  capture  of  the  French  privateers  Ouerrier  and 
Exchange,  and  some  other  vessels,  in  the  harbour  of  Samana,  by  the  ships 
named  in  the  margin;*  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  their  lordships  will  be 
pleased  with  the  promptitude  and  decision  by  which  the  enemy  have  been 
dispossessed  of  almost  the  la.st  port  of  refuge  for  their  privateers  in  those 
seas.  I  have  tlie  honour  to  be,  Ike. 

B.  S.  ROWLEY. 

His  JUajesty't  Ship  Franchise,  Port  Royal, 
SIR,  December  1,  1»()8. 

His  majesty's  ships  named  in  the  margin*  having  accidentally  met  on  the 
10th  ultimo,  and  conceiving  the  taking  of  the  town  and  port  of  Samana 
would  facilitate  the  operations  of  the  Spanish  patriots  blockading  the  city  of 
St.  Domingo,  I  the  nest  morning  entered  and  took  possession  of  the  har- 
bour without  any  opposition,  together  with  the  vessels,  agreeably  to  the  list 
which  I  have  the  honour  of  enclosing. 

I  have  very  sincere  pleasure  in  reporting,  that,  in  addition  to  the 
assistance  rendered  our  allies,  I  have  every  reason  to  suppose  the  com- 
merce of  his  majesty's  subjects  will  now  pass  unmolested,  as  Samana  was 
the  last  refuge  for  the  host  of  privateers  which  have  so  long  infested  the 
various  passages  to  windward  of  bt.  Domingo ;  particularly  so,  as  the  enemy 
were  in  the  act  of  erecting  batteries  for  their  permanent  establishment, 
which,  had  they  been  completed,  would,  from  -iheir  position,  have  soon 
rendered  the  place  tenable  against  almost  any  force  which  might  attack  it. 

I  have  allowed  the  French  inhabitants  to  remain  on  their  plantations,  and 
assured  them  that  their  persons  and  property  will  be  respected  by  the  Spa- 
niards, for  \\hich  purpose  1  have  entered  into  an  agreement  with  Don  Diego 
de  Lira,  a  Spanish  ofjjcer,  and  authorised  him  to  hoist  Spanish  colours,  and 
to  keep  the  place,  in  trust,  until  your  further  pleasure  is  known. 

I  have  supplied  them  with  euch  arms  and  ammunition  as  were  taken  in 
the  privateers  ;  and  Don  Diego  deems  himself  competent  to  repel  any 
force  which  the  common  enemy  might  be  enabled  to  bring  against  him. 

I  have,  &c. 
Vice-admiral  Ron-ley,  $f.  C.  DASHVv'OOD,  Captain. 


*  Franchise,  Aurora,  Dsedalus,  Rein  Deer,  Pert. 


$64  WAVAL   HISTORY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

List  of  Vessels  captured  by  a  Squadron  of  his  Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  at 
Samana,  between  10th  and  17th  November,  1808. 

French  schooner  privateer  Exchange?  Louis  Teljn,  master,  of  100  tons, 
five  guns,  and  110  men. 

French  schooner  privateer  Guerner,  Dominique,  master,  of  90  tons,  five 
guns,  and  104  men. 

French  schooner  Diane,  of  160  tons,  laden  with  fish,  ptc. 

French  brig,  name  unknown,  of  160  tons,  laden  with  fish,  &rc. 

French  sloop  Brutus,  of  50  tons  and  five  men,  laden  with  coffee,  &c. 

The  following  Vessels  were  recaptured  at  the.  Mouth  of  the  Bay  by  the.  Rein 
Deer  and  Pert,  on  the  Morning  if  the  Ifttk  November,  when  running  for 
the  Harbour. 

English  ship  Jeannet,  R.  Bradshaw,  master,  of  10  guns  and  185  tons^ 
bound  from  London  to  the  Havanna,  with  bale  goods,  &c. 

Spanish  ship  St.  Erasmo,  A.  Gerona,  master,  of  350  tons,  from  Malaga 
to  the  Havanua,  with  wine,  bale  goods,  &c. 

C.  DASHWOOD, 
Captain  and  senior  Officer. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Campbell,  Commander-in-chief  of  his 
Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  in  Hie  Downs,  to  the  Hon.  W-  \V.  1'olt,  dated, 
on  board  the  Princess  of  Orange,  January  27,  1809. 

SIR, 

Enclosed  I  transmit,  for  their  lordships'  information,  a  letter  I  have  re- 
ceived through  Commodore  Owen  from  Captain  Ncwcombe,  of  the  Beagle, 
stating  his  having  captured  le  Vengcur  French  privateer,  of  16  guns  and 
48  men,  being  the  second  this  active  of  lice  r  lias  captured  within  a  very  short 
period. 

On 'examining  her  log,  If;  appears  this  privateer  has  made  no  captures,  and 
that  she  has  been  repeatedly  chased  ;  ftbieh  will  shew  that  our  cruisers  are 
constantly  on  the  alert  when  at  sea. 

I  have  the  honour  to  he,  &c. 

G.  CAMPBELL. 

SIR,  His  Majesty1*  Ship  Beagle,  at  Sea,  January  24,  1R09. 

I  beg  leave  to  state,  that  last  night,  his  majesty's  ship  under  my  com- 
mand chased  two  of  the  enemy's  privateers,  South  Foreland  bearing  about 
N.N.E.  five  leagues,  the  one,  named  le  Vengeur,  of  16  amis,  and  43  men, 
was  captured;  but  such  was  the  temerity  of  her  commander  (Captain 
Bourgnie),  who  was  wounded,  with  another  of  his  crew,  that  he  did  not 
yield  until  the  Beagle  ran  him  on  board  ;  the  other  vessel,  the  Grand 
Napoleon,  I  am  sorry  to  observe,  made  her  escape;  they  were  both  from 
Boulogne,  and  had  not  made  any  captures. 

I  have  the  honour  to  he,  &c. 

To  Commodore  Owen,  4r.  F.  MEWCOMBE. 

Admiral  Lord  Gambicr,  commander- in-chief  of  a  squadron  of  his 
majesty's  .*hips  and  vessels  employed  in  the  Channel,  Soundings,  cvc.  has 
transmitted  to  the  lion.  William  Wcllesley  Pole  a  letter  his  lordship  had 
received  from  Captain  Ilodd,  of  his  majesty's  ship  Indefatigable,  giving  an 
account  of  tlie  capture,  on  the  14th  instant,  of  la  Claris-e  French  lugger 
privateer,  pierced  for  fourteen  guns,  only  three  mounted,  and  forty-eisrht 
men  on  board.  She  sailed  from  St.  Maloes  the  uight  preceding  her  cap- 
ture, and  had  not  made  any  prize. 


KAVAJL   HI5TOB.Y    OF   THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1809.  165 

JANUARY  31. 

fxtract  of  a  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Lord  Collingroood,  Commander-in~ 

chief  of  his  Majesty3 s  Ships  and  Vessels  in  the  Mediterranean,  to  the  Hon. 

W.  W.  Pole,  dated  on  lourd  tke  Ocean,  oft*  Tvulon,  the  1st  of'  I)fce/K~ 

ber,  1808. 

The  Excellent,  having  been  relieved  on  the  service  at  Rosas  by  tl» 
Fame,  joined  me  on  the  2<ith,  and  Captain  West  gave  me  a  relation  of 
icvents  that  have  lately  occurred  there,  in  his  letter  dated  the  21st  ultimo, 
which  I  enclose,  together  with  a  list  of  killed  and  wounded  seamen  and 
marines  of  that  ship  and  the  Meteor  bomb,  employed  on  the  same  service. 

But  for  the  presence  of  his  majesty's  ships  in  that  bay,  and  the  powerful 
assistance  which  Captain  West,  with  the  companies  of  those  ships,  afforded 
the  Spaniards,  both  on  shore  and  by  the  fire  from  them,  there  is  every  reason 
to  believe  the  citadel  of  Ro^as  and  castle  of  the  Trinity  would  both  have 
fallen;  they  were  ill  provided  with  every  thing  necessary  to  a  siege;  the 
•works  of  the  citadel  in  bad  repair,  and  the  garrison  not  sufficiently  numerous 
for  the  duties  of  its  defence. 

Captain  West's  ability,  and  the  valour  and  perseverance  of  his  officers 
and  men,  removed  as  many  of  those  defects  as  it  was  possible,  and  gave  such 
severe  checks  to  the  enemy  as  made  it  necessary  they  should  proceed  by 
rules  of  art  against  a  place  that  with  their  great  force  they  intended  to  take 
by  a  cou}>-dc~T)udn,  which  has  given  ample  time  for  the  Spanish  government 
to  reinforce  the  garrison,  and  replenish  the  stores,  &c.  of  this  important 
post. 

The  French  have  on  this  occasion  practised  those  arts  which  Frenchmen 
are  very  expert  in.  A  person  was  employed,  it  seems,  to  intercept  the 
letters  written  by  Colonel  O'Daly,  the  commandant  of  the  garrison  of  Roj-tts, 
to  the  Supreme  Junta  of  Giroiui ;  and  they  were  two  or  three  weeks  with- 
out having  any  kno%vledge  of  what  was  passing: — at  the  same  time  their 
emissaries  gave  out  that  the  English  had  taken  possession  of  the  fortress, 
and  suspended  the  Spanish  otlicer  from  the  duties  of  his  office.  The  Junta 
wrote  to  Captain  West,  informing  him  of  part  of  those  reports,  and  begging 
he  woujd  inform  them  of  the  circumstances  which  had  caused  this  change. 
It  was  afterwards  discovered  to  be  an  artitice  of  the  enemy  to  prevent  rein- 
forcements coming 

In  another  instance  the  French  have  shewn  much  art,  by  abandoning  their 
-.usual  system  of  terror,  deflation,  and  plunder;  and  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  FtguernsandBosas  have  lately  treated  the  Spanish  inhabitants  with  more 
kindness  to  their  persons,  and  forbearance  of  their  property,  endeavouring 
to  attach  them  by  a  feigned  moderation. 

The  Spaniards  are  very  sensible  and  very  grateful  for  the  support  given 
to  them  by  the  English  ;  the  animating  example  of  Captain  West,  his  skill, 
and  the  gallantry  of  his  officers  and  men,  is  deserving  of  every  praise;  in 
the  sortie  he  made  at  the  head  of  his  seamen  and  marines,  when  they 
attacked  the  enemy's  advanced  post,  and  rescued  the  miquelets,  their  con- 
duct and  their  couraire  were  admirable;  several  men  were  wounded,  and 
Captain  West's  horse  wa*  shot  under  him,  before  they  were  obliged  to  re- 
tire, to  prevent  being  cut  oft'  by  the  cavalry,  which  was  advancing  for  that 
purpose.  Captain  Collins,  of  the  Meteor,  conducted  the  bombardment 
with  great  ability,  and  was  indefatigable  in  the  annoyance  he  gave  the  enemy 
by  it.  Lieutenant  Howe,  of  the  royal  marines,  belonging  to  the  Excellent, 
commanded  a  detachment  of  that  corps,  which  was  thrown  into  the  castle 
of  Trinity  for  its  defence ;  and  in  two  assaults  made  by  the  enemy  with  large 
bodies  of  troops,  this  officer,  and  the  marines  under  his  command,  were 
highly  distinguished  for  the  gallantry  which  they  displayed,  and  the  resources 
they  found,  where  almost  every  thing  was  wanting. 

The  enemy  suffered  a  very  considerable  loss  of  men.  in  tliese  assaults; 


166  NAVAt   HISTORY   OF   THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1809. 

but  unless  measures  have  been  taken  to  raise  the  siege,  I  am  apprehensive 
this  very  important  post  will  be  reduced. 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Excellent,  Rosas  Bay, 
MY  LORD,  November  21,  1808. 

I  have  anxiously  waited  an  opportunity  to  inform  your  lordship  of  the 
investment  of  this  port  by  the  enemy,  with  a  force  computed  at  live  or  six 
thousand  men. 

On  the  evening  of  the  6th  instant,  the  enemy  was  first  observed  in  motion 
between  Figueras  and  Castillern,  and,  on  the  following  morning,  was  in 
complete  possession  of  the  heights  that  encompass  this  bay.  On  the  same 
day  at  noon,  a  small  body  of  the  enemy  entered  the  town  of  Rosas,  which, 
in  an  instant,  was  cleared  of  its  inhabitants,  who  either  fled  to  their  boats  or 
the  citadel  for  protection  ;  but  a  well  directed  fire  from  the  Excellent  and 
Meteor  bomb,  both  within  point-blank  shot  of  the  town,  obliged  the  enemy 
precipitately  to  retire.  On  the  first  appearance  of  the  enemy,  Colonel 
O'Daly,  governor  of  this  fortress,  made  application  to  me  for  assistance, 
when  I  immediately  reinforced  his  garrison  witli  the  marines  of  the 
Excellent  (with  the  exception  of  an  officer  and  twenty-five  men,  who  had 
been  previously  detached  to  Fort  Trinite"),  and  an  officer  and  fifty  seamen. 
On  the  7th,  the  enemy  took  possession  of  several  houses  and  ruins  in  the 
rear  of  the  town  as  an  advanced  post,  from  which  he  1-as  been  repeatedly 
dislodged  by  the  citadel  and  the  guns  and  shells  of  his  majesty's  ships  in  the 
bay.  On  the  8th  at  noon,  observing  a  body  of  miqnelets  hard  pressed  by 
the  enemy  from  their  advanced  posts,  I  was  induced  to  make  a  sortie  from 
the  citadel  with  the  seamen  and  marines,  and  the  officers  commanding 
them,  but  the  very  superior  force  of  the  enemy,  who  endeavoured  to  sur- 
round us,  obliged  us  to  retire,  but  not  till  my  officers  and  men  bad  dis- 
played a  spirit  and  courage  which  gave  me  the  most  lively  satisfaction.  I 
am  sorry  I  am  obliged  by  this  little  affair  to  send  your  lordship  a  return  of 
wounded  men. 

Late  on  the  evening  of  the  9th  I  received  from  the  governor  the  unplea- 
sant advice,  that  a  large  breach  was  made  in  -the  rampart  of  the  citadel  by 
a  part  of  the  bulwark  falling  down,  sufficiently  capacious  to  admit  twenty- 
five  men  ahreait.  I  proffered  to  the  governor  every  assistance  that  the 
urgency  of  the  moment  required,  and  directed  Captain  Collins  to  imme- 
diately weigh  and  place  the  Meteor  as  near  the  shoal  as  possible,  to  ilauk 
the  breach  in  the  event  of  an  attack  I  sent  at  the  same  time  two  boats  to 
enfilade  the  beach  with  the  cannonades ;  fortunately  the  latciics-  of  the  hour 
precluded  the  enemy  gaining  information  of  the  event.  The  following 
morning  1  sent  an  ofiicer  and  a  party  of  seamen  to  assist  in  repairing  the 
breach,  directing  the  senmen  and  marines  in  the  citadel  to  be  employed  on 
the  same  service.  I3y  every  exertion  the  rampart  was  placed  in  a  state  of 
security  for  the  night,  the  defence  of  which  was  entrusted  to  an  officer  and 
forty  seamen,  whom  f  sent  on  shore  for  that  purpose.  On  the  3d  flay  I 
was  happy  to  see  the  repair  completed,  and  the  work  as  defensible  as  it  was 
previous  to  the  disaster. 

On  the  morning  of  the  15th  instant,  at  eight  o'clock,  the  enemy  made  a 
most  resolute  assault  on  tlie  Fort  Trinite  with  about  two  hundred  men,  ami 
a  reserve  of  about  two  thousand  to  support  diem.  The  etiemy  was  bravely 
repulsed;  but  in  a  moment  again  advanced  in  greater  force,  when  two  of 
the  outt.r  gates  were  broke  open  ;  but  by  a  most  galling  and  steady  lire  of 
musketry  and  hand-grenades  from  the  fort,  the  enemy  was  a  second  time 
obliged  to  retire  with  great  loss,  leaving  their  leader,  a  chief  of  brigade,  and 
many  others,  dead  under  its  walls,  and  the  second  in  command  carried  ot? 
desperately  wounded.  Expecting  a  third  assault  would  be  made,  I  threw 
i.u  a  reinforcement  of  thirty  marines,  with  a  captain  and  subaltern,  by  means 


NAVAL   HTSTOIIY  OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,  1809.  167 

•fa  rope  ladder,  which  was  effected  without  loss,  and  with  one  man  but 
slightly  wounded,  during  an  incessant  fire  of  musketry. 

I  cannot  speak  in  terms  of  sufficient  praise  of  the  officers  and  men  in 
their  glorious  defence  of  Fort  Trinite',  on  \Vhich  occasion  five  marines  were 
tvounded,  and  one  Spaniard  ;  but  I  have  the  satisfaction  to  enclose  to  your 
lordship  a  letter  I  have  received  from  the  Spanish  officer  commanding  its' 
garrison,  which  does  him  great  honour. 

No  further  attempt  was  made  on  this  fort  till  the  20th  instant,  when  the 
enemy  opened  a  battery  of  three  heavy  guns  from  a  height  commanding  it  ; 
but  as  yet  has  made  no  impression  on  its  \valls.  The  Lucifer  bomb  had 
been  throwing  her  shells  the  two  preceding  days  to  prevent  the  enemy 
making  a  lodgment  on  this  height;  but  was  compelled  to  retire,  after  being 
struck  three  times  by  the  battery.  During  the  previous  night  the  enemy 
threw  up  an  extensive  intrenchment  three  hundred  yards  from  the  citadel, 
and  at  daybreak  opened  a  fire  upon  the  ships  in  the  bay  from  three  large 
mortars,  which  obliged  us  to  retire  out  of  their  reach:  the  bomb  vessels, 
from  having  a  longer  range  of  shells  than  the  enemy,  were  enabled  to  throw 
them  with  effect. 

Fort  Trinite,  from  its  insulated  situation  and  strength,  I  am  of  opinion, 
may  stand  a  long  siege.  But  I  am  not  so  sanguine  with  respect  to  the 
citadel,  whose  garrison  is  very  inadequate  to  its  defence,  and  having,  as  I 
conceive,  a  vulnerable  point.  I  waited  on  the  governor  on  Sunday  last,  to 
take  my  leave,  when  he  informed  me,  that  he  was  in  expectation  of  a  rein- 
forcement; but  I  am  apprehensive  the  blockade  of  the  enemy  in  Barcelona 
will  prove  an  obstacle  to  his  expected  success. 

I  beg  leave  to  conclude  this  despatch  to  your  lordship,  by  expressing  how 
highly  satisfied  I  have  been  with  the  conduct  of  the  officers  and  company 
of  the  ship  I  have  the  honour  to  command,  as  likewise  of  those  of  the 
Meteor  and  Lucifer  bombs,  commanded  by  Captains  Collins  and  Hall, 
whose  great  exertions,  during  the  arduous  and  most  fatiguing  service  they 
have  imperiously  been  called  upon  to  perform,  reflect  the  greatest  credit 
upon  them.  I  have,  &c. 

JOHN  WEST. 

Right  Hon.  Vice-admiral  Lord  Collingwood,  fyc. 

List  of  Men  belonging  to  his  Majesty's  Ship  the  Excellent,  who  inert 
wounded  in  Action  with  the  Enemy  between  the  8th  and  I6tk  days  of  No- 
vember. 1808,  in  Rosas  Bay. 

Robert  Palmer,  seaman  ;  John  Sands,  ditto ;  Francis  D.  Coke,  ditto,  dan- 
gerously ;  James  Lambe,  marine ;  Deliffe  Closhin,  ditto,  badly ;  John 
Jtl'Xeal,  seaman,  slightly  ;  W.  Brown,  Serjeant  of  marines,  slightly ;  Ed- 
ward Magennis,  seaman  ;  James  Roberts,  marine ;  Peter  Hyson,  ditto  ; 
James  Martin,  seaman,  slightly;  John  Burrows,  ditto,  badly ;  John  Smith, 
marine  ;  John  Brady,  ditto,  dangerously;  William  Wilson,  ditto,  died  16th 
November,  1808 ;  Joseph  Hanwood,  ditto,  slightly  ;  John  Richardson, 
ditto,  slightly ;  John  M'Clarty,  seaman,  slightly ;  Dennis  Garrett,  ditto, 
ladly.— Total,  19. 

List  ofJlfen  wounded  in  his  Majesty's  Ship  Meteor,  while  engaging  the  Enemy 
in  the  Bay  of  Rosas,  between  the  7th  and  20tk  days  of  November,  1808. 

David  Kerr,  gunner  of  the  royal  marine  artillery,  lost  both  arms  ;  George 
Gale,  ditto,  slightly ;  Jos.  Ilaynes,  ditto,  slightly ;  Thomas  Johnson,  seaman, 
a  fracture  ;  Bastian  Rausatto,  ditto,  slightly;  George  Ransden,  quarter- 
jnaster.— Total,  6. 


168          FAVAZ.  HISTORY   OP  THE  ^RESZNT   YEAR,    I8C&* 

Extract    of  another  Letfer  from  Vice-admiral  Lord  Collinzwood,  to  the 
Hon^W*  W.  Pok,  dated  on  board  the  Ocean,  December  14,  1808. 

My  letter  of  the  1st  instant  would  inform  you  of  the  enemy  having  laid 
ttege  to  the  -.astle  of  Rosas,  and  of  the  measures  taken  by  the  British  ships 
in  that  bay  in  ai-1  of  the  Spaniards  fur  its  defence.  The  Scout  joined  the 
squadron  off  Toulon  on  the  7th,  and  by  her  I  received  further  accounts 
from  Captain  Bennett,  of  the  Fame,  of  the  progress  the  enemy  wns  making 
against  that  important  fortress.  Captain  Lord  Cochrane  has  maintained 
himself  in  the  possession  of  Trinity  Castle  with  great  ability  and  heroism; 
altho!":'i  the  fort  is  laid  open  by  the  breach  in  its  works,  he  lias  sustained 
and  repelled  several  assaults,  having  firmed  a  sort  of  rampart  within  the 
breach,  with  Ins  ship's  hammock  cloths,  awnings,  &c.  filled  with  sand  and 
rubbish.  The  2eal  and  energy,  with  which  he  has  maintained  that  fortress, 
excites  the  highest  admiration.  His  resources  for  every  exigency  have  no 
«nd.  The  Spanish  governor  of  this  castle  is  wounded,  and  on  board  the 
Meteor. 

FEBRUARY   4. 

Copy  of  a  letter  from.  Rear-admiral  the  IJon.  Sir  Alexander  Cocfiranc,  K.  R 
Commander-in-chief  of  his  Majesty'*  Ships  and  Vessels  at  the  Leeward 
Islands,  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  on  board  the  Neptunet  at  Barba* 
does,  19th  December,  1808. 

SIR, 

I  enclose,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, the  copy  of  a  letter  which  I  have  received  from  Captain  Collier,  of* 
his  majesty's  ship  Circe,  the  senior  officer  of  the  blockading  squadron  sta- 
tioned from  the  Diamond  to  the  Pearl  Rocks,  Martinique,  giving  an  account 
of  the  destruction  of  the  French  corvette  le  Cygne,  whi;:h  had  sailed  from 
Cherbourg  on  the  12th  November,  with  the  Papillon,  another  corvette,  and 
la  Verrus,  la  Junon,  and  TAmphitrite  frigates. 

In  performing  this  service  1  ara  sorry  to  send  the  enclosed  report  of  the 
loss  which  has  been  sustained  by  the  several  vessels  engaged,  owing  to  the 
corvette  having  been  supported  by  the  batteries,  field  pieces,  and  musketry 
from  the  shore,  in  her  attempt  to  reach  St.  Pierre's ;  but  the  object  is  fully 
accomplished,  as  she  is  bilged  in  such  a  situation  as  to  render  it  impossible 
to  recover  the  vessel,  or  the  flour  with  which  she  was  loaded.  One  of  the 
schooners  in  company  with  her  was  burnti  and  the  other  drove  on  shore  and 
destroyed ;  each  of  them  also  having  been  loaded  with  flour  and  pro- 
visions. 

Captain  Collier  deserves  great  praise  for  his  perseverance  in  overcoming 
the  obstacles  which  the  enemy  presented  by  the  numerous  batteries  which 
lined  the  shore  in  that  part  of  the  coast ;  and  he  speaks  in  the  highest  terms 
of  Captain  Brenton,  of  the  Amaranthe,  as  well  as  of  the  gallantry  and  good 
conduct  of  Lieutenant  Wright,  and  a  party  of  the  Royal  York  Rangers,  whe 
ttere  serving  as  marines. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

ALEX.  COCIIRANE. 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Circe,  off" St.  Pierre's,  Martinique, 
sin,  December  14,  1808. 

On  Monday,  at  eleven  A.M.  his  majesty's  brig  Morne  Fortune^  informed 
me  by  signal  that  an  enemy's  brig  and  two  schooners  were  at  anchor  off 
the  Pearl.  I  immediately  recalled  the  look-out  vessels  named  as  per  mar- 


NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1809.     169 

gin,*  and  made  all  sail  towards  the  enemy.  On  our  ncaring  St.  Pierre's,  I 
perceived  a  Inrge  French  schooner  towing  along  shore,  under  cover  of  a 
number  of  troops.  The  schooner  finding  it  impossible  to  get  between  St. 
Pierre's  and  the  Circe,  the  Stork  closing  fast,  they  run  her  on  shore  under 
u  buttery  of  four  guns,  flanked  by  two  smaller  ones,  and  the  beach  lined 
with  troops.  The  signal  was  then  inude  to  close  with  t;,e  enemy,  and 
engage  in  succession,  the  Circe  leading,  followed  bv  the  Stork  and  Morne 
Fortunee  ;  being  within  pistol-shot  the  small  batteries  were  soon  silenced, 
and  the  troops  driven  from  the  beach.  Seeing  the  brig  and  schooner  un- 
loading, I  directed  the  M<  rne  I  ortunee  to  watch  the  schooner  in  shore,  and 
to  >;ive  ?i'nilar  orders  to.  the  Epervier  on  her  coming  up.  We  then  made 
•svd  towards  the  brig  and  the  other  schooner,  which  were  lying  well  to  wind- 
ward close  to  the  beach,  under  cover  of  four  batteries,  and  an  immense 
number  of  troops  and  field  p;ece~,  which  they  had  brought  down  on  the 
beach  to  protect  her.  Having  placed  the  barge  and  two  cutters  under  the 
command  of  Lieutenant  Crook,  Mr.  Collman,  purser,  Mr.  Smith,  master, 
and  Mr.  Thomas,  carpenter,  who  handsomely  rolunteered  with  sixty-eight 
men  to  bring  the  brig  out,  I  then  made  sail  with  the  Stork  and  Express  to- 
wards her,  and  directed  the  bi^ats  to  lie  off  until  the  brig's  tire  slackened. 
It  getting  late,  the  vessels  lying  close  in  with  the  rocks,  and  having  no  pilot 
on  board,  T  stood  in,  and  was  handsomely  seconded  by  Captain  le  Geyc  of" 
the  Stork.  The  ships  did  not  commence  action  until  our  men  were  wounded 
from  the  beach  with  musketry.  We  then  bore  up  under  a  heavy  fire  of  great 
guns  and  small  arms.  Having  passed  the  batteries  and  the  brig,  the  Circe's 
boats,  not  waiting  for  the  Stork's  to  come  up,  boarded  in  the  most  gallant 
manner;  and  it  is  with  extreme  concern  I  have  to  add,  that  their  gallantry 
(fid  not  meet  with  its  reward  ;  they  wrre  beat  back  with  dreadful  slaughter; 
one  boat  taken  and  one  sunk,  the  other  entirely  disabled.  Our  loss  in  the 
boats  are  killed,  wounded,  and  missing,  fifty-six.  By  tins  time  it  was  dark; 
I  stood  off  until  day-light,  determining  to  persevere  and  destroy  the  brig, 
if  possible.  In  the  evening  I  was  joined  by  the  Amarauthe,  who  watched  the 
brig  during  the  night. 

At  eight  A.M.  we  perceived  she  had  weighed;  Captain  Brenton,  in  the 
most  handsome  manner,  volunteering  to  bring  heir  out,  she  was  then  towing 
and  sweeping  close  in  shore  towards  St.  Pierre's ;  the  boats  of  the  Circe  and 
Stork,  and  men  trotn  the  Express  were  sent  to  tow  the  Amaranthe  up,  who 
xvas  at  this  time  sweeping  and  using  every  exertion  to  close  with  the  enemy. 
At  ten,  the  French  brig  grounded  near  several  batteries,  to  the  northward 
of  St.  Pierre's;  the  Amara'.uhe  tacked  and  worked  in  under  a  heavy  fire 
from  the  batteries  and  brig,  from  which  she  suffered  considerably,  having 
one  killed  and  five  wounded,  followed  by  the  Circe,  the  rest  of  the  squadron 
engaging  the  batteries  to  leeward.  From  the  Amaranthe's  well  directed  fire, 
she  soon  obliged  them  to  quit  tiie  brig.  Lieutenant  Hay,  of  the  Amaranthe, 
on  tiiis  service  distinguished  himself  very  much,  and  speaks  of  the  gallantry 
of  Messrs.  Biooke  and  Rigmaidcn  of  the  same  sloop,  in  vfry  handsome 
terms,  who,  with  the  boats  of  the  Circe,  Amaranthe,  and  Stork,  bourderl 
her  under  a  heavy  fire  from  the  batteries  and  troops  on  shore.  Lieutenant 
Hay,  finding  her  bilged,  and  impossible  to  get  her  off,  effectually  destroyed 
her  in  the  evening.  Captain  Brenton  again  volunteered  to  destroy  the 
schooner  then  on  shore;  I  ordered  Lieutenant  George  Robinson,  second  of 
the  Amaranthe,  but  acting  first  of  the  Circe,  with  inv  order,  on  this  occa- 
sion, to  follow  the  directions  of  Captain  Brenton.  At  nine  o'clock  I  bad 
the  pleasure  to  see  her  on  fire,  and  burnt  to  the  water's  edge.  1  am  sorry  to 
sdd  that,  on  this  service,  Jilr.  Jones,  master  of  the  Amnranihc,  was  \vouin!. 
ed.;  and  one  seiimau  killed,  and  three  wounded,  belonging  to  the  F-Npres*. 

*  Stork,  Epcrvier,  and  Express 

,  <S"Uon.  vjlcl,  XXI.  z 


170  HAYAL    HISTORY   OF  THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1809. 

The  captains,  officers,  and  crews  of  the  squadron  you  did  me  the  honouf 
to  place  under  my  command  behaved  with  that  coolness  and  intrepidity 
inherent  in  British  seamen,  particularly  the  Amaranthe,  whose  gallant  con- 
duct was  noticed  by  the  whole  squadron.  From  the  troops  of  the  Royal 
York  Rangers,  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant  Wright,  doing  duty  as 
marines,  I  received  every  assistance.  Lieutenant  Crook,  who  commanded 
the  boats,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  is  severely  wounded  in  four  places;  the  loss  of 
this  gallant  young  man's  services  are  severely  felt  on  board  the  Circe.  I  am 
likewise  sorry  to  add,  that  Mr.  Colemau,  purser,  is  among  the  number  that 
is  dangerously  wounded;  his  conduct  on  this,  and  other  occasions,  deserves 
my  warmest  approbation. 

On  boarding,  we  discovered  the  brig  destroyed  was  la  Cygnc,  of  eighteen 
guns,  and  one  hundred  and  forty  men,  with  flour,  guns,  and  cartridge  paper, 
for  the  relief  of  Martinique.  The  two  schooners  had  likewise  flour,  and  were 
armed;  I  have  not  yet  learnt  their  force  or  names;  I  am  happy  to  say  that 
the  one  left  off  the  Pearl  is  on  shore  bilged. 

In  the  performance  of  this  service,  our  loss  in  killed  and  wounded,  I  am 
sorry  to  say,  has  been  very  great ;  but  I  have  the  consolation  to  think  that 
it  was  in  the  execution  of  an  indispensable  duty;  and  the  grand  object  of 
cutting  off  the  supplies  of  the  enemy,  will,  I  trust,  justify  the  means  which 
I  have  adopted,  if  not  afford  a  small  consolation  to  the  relatives  of  those 
who  fell.  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

F.  A.  COLLIER. 
Rear-admiral  Sir  A.  Cochrane,  $c. 

A  List  of  killed  and  wounded  on  board  the  Squadron  under  the  command  of 
Francis  A.  Collier,  Esq.   in  Action  with  the  Enemy  off"  Martinique,  the 
12th  and  I3ih  Days  of  December,  1808. 
Circe — 9  killed,  2 1  wounded,  26  missing. — 56. 
Amaranthe — 1  killed,  6  wounded.— 7. 
Stork — 1  killed,  1  wounded. — 2. 
Express — 1  killed,'  3  wounded. — 4. 
Eficniier— None  killed  or  wounded. 
Morne  Fortunte — None  killed  or  wounded. 
Total — 12  killed,  31  wounded,  26  missing. — 69. 

F.  A.  COLLIER,  Captain. 

Copy  of  another  Letter  from  Rear-admiral  the.  Hon.  Sir  Alex.  Cochrane, 
K.  B.  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  on  board  the  Neptune,  at  Earbadoes, 
the  Zlst  of  December,  1808. 

S1K, 

I  enclose,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, the  copy  of  a  letter  from  Captain  Sanders,  of  his  majesty's  sloop 
Bellette,  acquainting  me  with  the  capture  of  a  French  letter  of  marque, 
laden  with  provisions,  from  Bourdeaux. 

I  also  enclose  Captain  Spear's  letter,  of  the  Goree,  which  I  had  not  before 
received,  giving  an  account  of  the  capture  of  a  French  letter  of  marque 
bound  to  Bourdeaux  from  Martinique. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

ALEX.  COCHRANE. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Bellette,  at  Sea, 

8IR>  'December,  5,   1808. 

I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you,  that  his  majesty's  sloop  Bellette,  under 
fhy  command,  has  captured  the  French  brig  letter  of  marque  Revanche,  of 
six  tuns,  12-pounders,  pierced  for  eighteen,  with  a  complement  of  forty- 


NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE    PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  171 

four  men,  laden  with  provisions,  from  Bourdeaux,  bound  to  Guadaloupe, 
She  has  been  a  very  successful  privateer  all  this  war,  and  was  intended  for 
a  cruiser  in  those  seas.  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

GEO.  SANDERS. 

To  the  Hon.  Sir  Alexander  Cochrane,  K.  B. 
I&ar-admiral  of  the  Red,  i$-c. 

fits  Majesty^s  Sloop  Goree,  Barbadoes, 

SIR,  30th  November,  1808. 

I  have  the  honour  to  acquaint  yon,  on  the  24th  instant,  thirty  leagues 
west  of  Guadaloupe,  I  captured,  in  his  majesty's  sloop  under  my  command, 
the  Admiral  Villaret,  a  French  ship  letter  of  marque,  mounting  eight  guns 
(four  of  which  she  threw  overboard  in  the  chase),  and  a  complement  of 
thirty-two  men ,  from  Martinique  bound  to  Bourdeaux,  laden  with  sugar, 
coffee,  and  cotton.  I  am,  &c. 

JOSEPH  SPEAR. 
Rear-admirat  Sir  Alex.  Cochrane,  K.  B,  fyc. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Admiral  Lord  Gambler,  Commander-iri'chief  of  his 
Majesty s  Ships  and  Vessels  in  the  Channel,  Soundings,  fyc.  to  the  Hon. 
W. ,W.  Pole.,  dated  on  board  the  Caledonia,  in  Torbay,  the  30th  of  last 

Month. 

SIR, 

I  enclose  herewith,  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of 
the  Admiralty,  a  letter  I  have  this  day  received  from  Captain  Broke,  dated 
llifi  27th  instant,  acquainting  me  with  the  capture  of  the  French  cutter  pri- 
vateer Poramereuil.  of  fourteen  guns,  and  sixty  men,  by  his  majesty's  ship 
Shannon,  under  his  command. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

GAMBIER. 
i 

H is  Majesty's  Ship  Shannon,  off" Isle  Bas, 
MY  LORD,  17th  January,  1809. 

I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you,  the  Shannon  captured  this  day,  after  a 
long  chase  to  leeward,  the  French  cutter  Pommereuil,  of  fourteen  guns, 
and  sixty  men,  commanded  by  Felix  1  Allemande;  fourteen  days  out  from 
Havre  de  Grace,  and  had  only  captured  a  transport  with  troops,  which  she 
released. 

I  have  sent  the  prize  to  Plymouth.  She  is  a  fine  new  vessel,  coppered, 
and  well  found.  J  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

P.  B.  V.  BROKE. 
To  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Gambier, 
Cowmanderrin-chiej',  $c. 

FEBRUARY   11. 

Copy  <?/*«  Letter  addressed  by  Lord  George  Stuart,  Captain  of  his  Majesty's 
Ship  l'Aimable,to  the  senior  Officer  oj'.his  Majesty's  Ships  ami  Vessels  off 
the  Texel,  dated  the  7th  inst.  and  transmitted  to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  by 
Rear-admiral  Sir  Edmund  Naglc. 

SIR, 

i  beg  leave  to  acquaint  you,  on  the  2d  inst.  while  standing  to  the  south- 
ward  to  regain  my  station,  his  majesty's  ship  under  my  command  being 
driven  by  the  late  tempestuous  weather  from  off  the  Texelon  the  Welbank, 
I  perceived,  at  eleven  A.M.  a  strange  sail  on  the  weather  quarter,  standing 
w»  the  northward  and  eastward ;  concluding  from  this  that  she  was  an  enemy, 


172  NAVAL   HISTORY    OP   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

I  immediately  wore  round  and  made' all  sail,  and  after  a  chase  of  twenty- 
eight  hours,  at  four  P.  M.  on  the  3d  instant,  (Aberdeen  bearing  north  'I'i 
deg.  W.  distance  30  leagues.)  came  alongside  of  her,  and  having  exchanged 
broadsides,  continued  a  running  fig'it,  and  in  a  few  minutes  she  struck. 
She  proved  to  be  1'Iris,  French  national  24-2un  ship,  commanded  by  Mon- 
sieur Minuet,  capitainc  de  frigate,  but  capable  of  carrying  32  trun*,  had 
only  24  when  taken,  twenty-two  24-pounder  cannonades,  and  two  long 
twelves,  a  complement  of  140  men.  She  is  only  ten  months  old,  copper 
fastened,  and  I  think  in  every  respect  qualified  for  his  majesty's  service. 
She  sailed  from  Dunkirk  on  the  29th.  ultimo,  bound  to  Martinique,  with  640 
casks  of  Hour  on  board,  besides  being  victualled  and  stored  with  every 
specie-  for  four  months.  I  am  happy  to  say,  only  two  men  were  slightly 
wounded  ;  the  enemy  lost  two  killed  and  eight  wounded.  I  am  concerned 
to  add,  we  suffered  materially  in  our  masts  and  rigging  ;  the  mainmast  shot 
in  the  head,  main-yard  shot  away  in  the  slings,  the  m  zen-mast  head  and 
xnizen-topmast  shot  away,  also  the  try-sail-mast  and  the  rigging  aud  sails 
greatly  cut  up. 

I  have,  £c.  G.  STUART. 

•  List  of  wounded. 

Anthony  Nelson,  seaman ;  Jacques  Magra,  marine. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  from  Cup  fain  Schomberg,  of  Ins  Majesty  Ship  Loire,  to 
the  Hon.  William  FV dies  ley  Pole,  dated  at  Sea,  the  6th  instant. 

I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you,  that  yesterday  at  noon,  in  latitude  39 
deg.  24  rain,  and  lontritude  11  cleg.  41  min.  W.  his  majesty's  ship  under  my 
command  hud  the  good  fortune  to  fall  in  with  a  French  national  ship  of 
war,  in  the  act  of  taking  a  ship  and  a  brig.  On  the  Loire's  approach  she 
bore  up  and  made  all  sail,  deserting  her  prizes,  and  Uaving  the  brig  des- 
titute of  men.  Every  exertion  was  made  in  this  ship  to  come  up  with  the 
enemy ;  and  much  was  necessary,  I  assure  you,  from  the  weather  being 
thick  and  squally. 

At  eight  at  night  we  got  alongside  of  her,  and  brought  her  to  close 
action.  She  was  defended  for  about  twenty  minutes,  when  she  struck  to 
his  majesty's  ship.  She  proved  to  be  le  Hebe  French  national  ship  of  war, 
frigate-built,  mounting  eighteen  24- pounders,  carronades,  and  two  long 
twelves,  with  a  complement  of  lo'O  men  ;  commanded  by  Monsieur  le 
Bretonneuiore,  lieutenant  de  vaisseau.  She  had  been  out  thirty-eight  days 
from  Bourdeau.x,  with  600  barrels  of  flour,  bound  to  St.  Domingo.  She 
has  taken  the  English  vessels  as  per  mar-rin.  * 

Le  Hebe  is  a  very  fine  vessel,  about  450  tons,  quite  new,  and  appears  to 
me  a  ship  that  may  be  serviceable  to  his  majesty.  I  am  most  happy  to 
say  not  a  man  was  hurt  in  the  Loire. 

FEBRUARY    14. 

Copy  of a  Letter  from  Thomas  James  Ma/ing,  Esq.  Captain  of  his  fifajestyts 
Ship  Undaunted,  to  the  Honourable  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  on  board  that  Ship 
at  Spithead,  the  13th  instant. 

sin, 
You  will  please  to  inform  their  lordships,  that  the  Undaunted  captured 

the  San  Josephe yesterday  forenoon,  after  a  hard  run  of  fotir  hours.    She 

*  Brig  Enterprise,  from  Liverpool;  brig  Lord  Mulgrave,  bound  to  Vi«o; 
irig  Bacchus,  bound  to  Gibraltar. 


KAVAL  HISTORY    OP   THE   PRESENT   YEAH,    1809.  173 

Is  a  fine  copper  bottomed  privateer,  out  four  days  from  St.  Maloes,  stored 
for  two  mouths,  •  icrccd  for  18  guns,  (but  mounting  only  14,)  and  a  com- 
plement oi  iiiiu  iy-bix  men.  The  San  Josephe  is  nearly  new,  is  reckoned 
the  fastest  sailer  out  of  St.  Muloes,  and  is  a  desirable  vessel  for  his  majesty's 
service.  We  met  with  her  at  dawn  of  day  too  near  us  to  e^ape. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

T.  J.  MALING. 

FEBRUARY  21. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  front  Captain  Netccombe,  of  his  Majesty's  Sloop  JBeugfe, 
addressed  to  Commodore  Orcen.  and  transmitted  by  Vice- admiral,  Camiibcll, 
Coutmaitdcr-in-fhief  of  his  Majesty's  Ships  and  Vessels  in  the  Dozens,  to 
the  Honourable  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  the  IQth  instant. 

SIR, 

I  beg  leave  to  acquaint  you,  that  early  this  morninp,  (Boulogne  bearing 
about  S.S.E.  six  leagues,)  his  majesty's  sloop  under  my  command  captured 
a  French  privateer,  named  la  Fortune,  of  14  guns  and  68  men,  and  com- 
manded by  Captain  Tucker.  She  was  from  Calais,  two  days  on  her  cruise, 
and  had  not  made  any  capture. 

From  their  -usual  intrepidity,  they  did  not  surrender  until  the  Beagle  ran 
her  alongside,  notwithstanding  it  blew  strong  with  a  heavy  sea.  One  of 
their  crew  was  mortally  wounded.  • 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

•To  Commodore  Owen,  4  c.  FRAS.  NEWCOMBE, 


Promstton0  anU  appointments* 

Admiral  Sir  Roger  Curtis  is  appointed  commander-in-chief  at  Portsmouth, 
vice  Admiral  Montague . 

Captain  the  Honourable  Henry  Dawson  is  appointed  by  Rear-admiral  Sir 
Edward  Pel  lew,  commander-in-chief  on  the  India  station,  to  act  as  governor 
of  the  naval  hospital  at  Madras. 

Captain  William  Browcll,  of  the  royal  hospital  at  Greenwich,  is  appoint- 
ed to  be  lieutenant-governor  of  that  institution,  and  a  director  of  the  hospi 
tal  and  cliest  of  Greenwich,  rice  Captain  Boachier  deceased. 

Captain  William  Edge  is  appointed  to  the  royal  hospital  at  Greenwich, 
vi<~e  Captain  Browcll  appointed  lieutenant-governor  of  that  institution. 

His  majesty  the  King  of  Sweden  has  been  pleased,  for  the  gallant  conduct 
displayed  by  Captain  \V.  H.  Wibley,  of  the  Centaur,  in  the  late  action  with 
the  Russian  fleet,  off'  Rogerwjck,  in  the  Baltic,  to  confer  on  him  the  honour 
of  one  of  the  knights  companions  of  the  most  honourable  military  order  of 
the  S«  ord. 

His  majesty  the  King  of  Sweden  has  also  been  pleased  to  confer  on  Cap- 
tain T.  B.  Martin,  the  honour  of  the  Swedish  order  of  the  Sword. 

Captain  Joseph  Hanwcil  is  appointed  to  be  commissioner  of  the  navy  for 
the  payment  of  seamen's  wages,  at  the  port  of  Sheerness,  vice  Mansfield. 
Captain  Garrett,  of  [he  royal  navy,  brother-in-law  of  Sir  T.  B.  Thompson, 
Bart,  comptroller  of  the  r?ayy,  is  appointed  to  preside  over  the  victualling 
department  at  Deptfprd,  rice  Mr.  Cooper. 

Captain  Frederick  CottereJl  is  appointed  to  the  Nyaden,  late  Danish  fri- 
gate of  38  guns;  Captain  John  Gourly  to  the  San  Juan  prison  ship ;  Cap- 
fain  Francis  Augustus  Collier  to  the  Circe;  Captain  Lucius  Curtis,  eldest 


174      NATAL  HISTORY  Of  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1809. 

son  of  Admiral  Sir  Roger  Curtis,  to  the  Magicienne;  Captain  Dilkes,  of 
the  Hazard  sloop,  to  the  Neptune,  Admiral  Cochrane's  flag  ship;  Captain 
Fahie,  of. the  Ethalion  frigate,  to  the  Belleisle;  Captain  Thomas  Cochrane, 
of  the  Jason,  to  the  Etlialion;  Captain  William  Maude,  of  the  Ulysses,  to 
the  Jason ;  Captain  Edward  Woolcombe,  of  the  Belleisle,  to  the  Ulysses; 
Captain  Wood,  of  the  Latona,  to  the  Captain ;  Captain  Pigot,  of  the  Circe, 
to  the  Latona;  Captain  Patterson,  of  the  Hawke,  to  the  Star;  Captain 
Bouchier,  of  the  Demerary,  to  the  Hawke;  Captain  Pinto,  of  the  Dart,  to 
the  Achates  sloop;  Captain  Cameron,  of  the  Achates,  to  the  Hazard;  Cap- 
tain Selby,  to  the  Owen  Gletidower,  a  new  frigate  of  36  guns;  Captain 
Davis  to  (he  Tyrian ;  Captain  Boyce  to  the  Bienfaisant  prison-ship;  Cap- 
tain George  Moubray,  to  the  Rhodian;  Captain  Cunningham  to  the  Ber- 
muda sloop;  Captain  John  Parish  to  the  Onyx,  vice  Gill  promoted;  Captain 
John  M.  Hauchett  to  the  Raven. 

Lieutenant  Dowers,  son  of  the  governor  of  Deal  hospital,  is  appointed 
to  command  the  Demerary;  Captain  Steuart,  of  the  Port  d'Espagne,  to 
the  Snap  ;  and  Lieutenant  Kennedy  of  the  Pompee,  to  command  the  Port 
d'Espagne. 

Captain  Charles  Gill,  for  his  gallant  action  in  the  Onyx  with  the  Manly 
Dutch  national  brig  of  war,  is  posted. 

Captain  the  Hon.  Warwick  Lake  is  appointed,  by  Admiral  Rowley,  td 
act  in  the  Intrepid. 

Captain  Wells,  of  his  majesty's  ship  Captain,  is  appointed  commissioner 
of  the  navy,  at  Jamaica. 

Mr.  Cooper,  late  agent  victualler  at  Deptford,  is  appointed  by  the  Ad- 
miralty to  be  storekeeper  of  the  dock-yard  at  Chatham. 

Lieutenants  appointed. 

Lieutenant  John  Longchamp  is  appointed  to  the  Cordelia;  Henry  Rowe 
to  the  Primrose:  Henry  Pryce  to  the  Nymphen;  Hon.  Wm.  Sommerville  to 
ditto;  W.  T.  Chamberline  to  the  Defence;  Edward  Stevenson  to  the  Clio; 
George  Tnpman  to  the  Magicienne;  James  Meara  to  ditto;  Robert  Wau- 
chope  to  ditto;  George  Spence  to  the  Blake;  Archibald  Hamilton  to  the 
Repulse;  John  James  Maxwell  to  the  Rose;  John  Smith  (9)  to  the  Dread- 
nought ;  George  Franklyn  to  the  Victorious;  James  Walker  to  the  Gibral- 
tar; Richard  Williams  (2)  to  ditto;  Robert  Thomas  to  the  Childers; 
Charles  Phillips  to  the  Princess  of  Orange  ;  Robert  Smith  (?)  to  the  Mon- 
mouth;  William  Harris  Smith  to  the  Merope  ;  Edward  Collier  to  the 
Thames:  Robert  Foster  to  the  Owen  Glendower;  Thomas  L.  Peake  to  do. 
Frederick  William  Botirgoyne,  son  of  the  late  celebrated  general,  to  com. 
mand  the  Defende  gun^brig ;  John  Worth  to  the  Roebuck  ;  Thomas  Mit- 
chell (2)  to  the  Zebra  ;  Charles  Day  to  the  Norge  ;  John  M'Kirdy  to  the 
Alcmene  ;  Gilbert  Broomhead  to  the  Dolphin  ;  Samuel  Hoare  to  the  Cajsar ; 
Robert  Forder  to  the  Dannemark ;  Evan  M'Kenzie  to  the  St.  Albans;  John 
Rude  to  the  Standard ;  Edward  Medley  to  ditto ;  Lewis  Davis  to  the  Op- 
possum;  James  Stone  (3)  to  the  Vanguard;  George  Johnstone  to  the  Ey- 
deren;  Joseph  Eastwood  to  the  Pluto;  Alexander  Ingram  to  the  Mon- 
tnouth;  Charles  Delancey  to  the  Zealous;  Alexander  Young  to  the  Dic- 
tator ;  James  Meara  to  the  Alexandria,  commission  for  the  Magicienne 
cancelled;  George  Read  to  the  Sybille;  Thomas  Lcvell  to  the  Little  Belt; 
James  Wilcox  to  the  Hero;  Hon.  A.  de  Courcy  to  the  Raven;  Richard 
Phillips  to  the  Vanguard ;  Peter  Crawford  to  the  Fury  bomb ;  Wm.  James 
Scott  to  the  Triumph  ;  George  Heacock  to  the  Chanticleer  ;  Philip  Duma- 
resque  to  the  Eclipse;  William  Carter  to  command  the  Mackarcl  schooner; 


HISTORY  OP  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1800.       175 

Robert  Folliot  to  the  Barfleur ;  Mr.  M'Milian,  midshipman  of  his  majesty's 
ship  Neptune,  is  appointed  to  be  a  lieutenant  of  the  Pompee ;  Messrs. 
Odger  and  Speck,  midshipmen  of  the  Neptune,  to  be  lieutenants  of  the 
Belleisle. 

List  of  midshipmen  passed  for  lieutenants  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  the 
month : — William  Robins,  Augustus  Cannon,  Joseph  Treglohan,  John 
Willison,  Henry  Shiffher,  David  Price,  P.  H.  Trant,  B.  11.  Borough,  John 
Dade,  Samuel  Hodgson. 

Surgeons  appointed. 

Dr.  Bell,  late  surgeon  of  his  majesty's  ship  Edgar,  is  appointed  to  be  sur- 
geon of  the  royal  marines,  at  Woolwich,  vice  Gladstone  appointed  to  the 
royal  asylum  at  Greenwich  park. 

Mr.  Bryan  M'Laughlin,  surgeon,  is  appointed  by  the  Lords  of  the  Admi- 
ralty to  be  an  assistant  surgeon  of  the  royal  hospital  at  Greenwich,  vice 
Gladstone  appointed  to  the  marines  at  Woolwich. 

Mr.  Thomas  Hooper  is  appeinted  to  be  surgeon  of  his  majesty's  sloop 
Zenobia;  Mr.  John  Neill  to  the  Victorious ;  John  Julius  Inger  to  the  Cyg- 
net; Themas  Cochrane  to  the  Forrester;  Charles  Linton  to  the  Glomen ; 
Gregory  Odell  to  the  Caesar;  Joseph  White  to  the  Drake;  Richard  Thomp- 
son to  the  Ville  de  Paris;  George  Proctor  to  the  Orestes;  Edward  Hopley 
to- the  Nymphen;  Henry  Ewing  to  the  Resistance;  Robert  Marks  to  thtf 
Lark;  John  Stckoe  to  the  Magicienne;  John  Morgan  to  the  Hibernia; 
George  Proctor  to  the  Bustard;  Robert  Mulberry  to  the  Ville  de  Paris  ;  vice 
Thompson;  Henry  Parkin  to  the  Caledonia;  Duncan  Campbell  to  the  Ir.i- 
petueux;  George  Wardiaw  to  the  Weasel;  William  Norman  to  the  Owen 
Glendower;  Thomas  Dickson  to  the  Nyaden ;  George  Pearson  to  the  Sar- 
pen,  Henry  William  Bull  to  the  Tyrian. 

Assistants  appointed. 

Mr.  Thomas  Stewart  is  appointed  assistant  surgeon  of  the  Amethyst;  Mr. 
John  Dunthorn  to  be  an  hospital  mate  at  the  royal  hospital  at  Plymouth; 
S.  R.  Armstrong  to  be  hospital  mate  of  the  naval  hospital  at  Jamaica;  J.  E. 
Gray  to  be  assistant  of  the  Acute  gun-brig;  John  Johns  to  the  Fervent  <iun- 
brig;  J.  Godard  to  the  Blazer;  P.  Ramsay  to  the  Dannemark ;  William 
Porteous  to  the  Alphea  cutter  ;  William  Hector  to  the  Castor ;  Montgomery 
Camth  to  the  Victorious;  John  Baiston  to  the  Iphigenia;  Charles  Miller  to 
the  Eagle;  William  Duncan  to  the  St.  Albans;  Robert  Bateman  to  the  Star- 
dard;  William  M'Masters  to  the  Argonaut  hospital  ship;  Robert  Brown  to 
the  Defence;  C.  W.  Vandenburg  to  the  Majestic;  Thomas  Soden  to  the. 
Safeguard  gun-brig ;  C.  "Woolley  to  the  Dannemark;  Robert  Muir  to  the 
East  Indies  on  promotion ;  William  Leslie  to  the  Amazon  :  George  M'Clure 
to  the  Hibernia;  George  Roe  fromtthe  Redbreast  to  the  Salvador  del  Mun- 
do;  Alexander  Rae  to  the  Bombay;  Daniel  Godbchere  to  the  Royal  Wil- 
liam; William  Miller  to  the  Earnest  gun-brig, 


BIRTHS. 

Of  a  daughter,  at  the  apartments  of  her  father,  Lieutenant  Spearing  of 
the  royal  hospital  at  Greenwich,  Mrs.  Ann  Tooley,  widow  of  the  late  Lieut. 
Richard  Tooley,  of  the  royal  navy. 

On  the  4th  of  February,  in  Upper  Bedford-place,  the  wife  of  Captai^ 
Jonathan  Birch,  of  the  Hon.  East  India  Company's  service,  of  a  son. 


176  NAVAL   HISTORY    OF   THE   PlltSBNT    YEAR,    1809* 

On  the  9th  instant,  at  her  apartments  in  the  royal  hospital  at  Greenwich, 
Mrs.  Frederick  Bedford,  wife  of  Lieut.  Bedford,  of  that  institution,  of  a 
son. 


MARRIAGES. 

lately,  Mr.  Alexander  M'Coy,  purser  of  his  majesty's  ship  Brazen,  to 
Miss  Elizabeth  Catherine  Aylward,  of  Portsmouth. 

On  the  26th  of  January,  at  Kingstoo.,  near  Portsmouth,  Lieutenant  Tho- 
jnas  Button,  of  the  royal  navy,  to  M:ss  Priscilla  Edgcumbe,  of  Tavistock- 
jjlace,  Russel-square. 


DEATHS. 

Lately,  in  Pulteney-strcct,  Ball),  Mrs.  Peyton,  wife  of  Rear-admiral 
Peyton. 

At  Mount  Tamar,  the  lady  of  Captain  White,  of  the  royal  navy,  and  4th 
daughter  of  Commissioner  Fanshaw,  of  his  majesty's  dock  yard,  Plymouth. 

Lately,  in  the  West  Indies,  of  the  yellow  fever,  Mr.  S.  W.  Salmon,  pur- 
ser in  the  royal  navy,  aged  19  years,  onh7  son  of  Mr.  8.  Salmon,  of  Portsea, 
Hants. — He  was  made  a  purser,  and  appointed  to  a  ship  on  the  9th  of  No- 
vember, 1808,  and  died  the  Hth  of  the  same  month,  much  lamented  by  his 
friends  and  acquaintance. 

Lately,  at  Mil  ford  Haven,  Lieutenant  Walter  Jewell,  of  the  royal  navy. 

On  the  5th  of  February,  at  Edinburgh,  much  rcgrerted,  James  Ross  Far- 
quarhson,  Esq.  of  TnvercauM.  captain  in  the  royal  nuw,  and  second  son  of 
tiie  late  Vice-admiral  Sir  John  Lockhart  Ross,  of  Balnagoun,  Bart. 

On  the  23d  of  January,  at  Huntingdon,  Captain  Thomas  Stephenson,  of 
the  royal  navy,  aged  34. 

Lately  was  drowned,  in  coming  from  Spain,  on  the  Manacle  Rocks,  the 
Hon.  Lieutenant  Watdcgravc,  son  of  Admiral  Lord  lladstock. 

At  nearly  the  same  time,  Captain  James  Mein,  of  !>is  majesty's  late  sloop 
die  Primrose,  was  lost  on  the  said  rocks,  together  with  the  greater  part  of 
the  crew  of  the  said  sloop. 

Lately,  in  the  West  Indies,  Mr.  J.  Stodart,  surgeon  of  his  majesty's  ship 
Resistance. 

Lately  was  killed,  in  a  most  gallant  attack  on  some  cf  the  enemy's  vessels 
at  Martinique,  Captaia  Co'jmbe,  of  bis  majesty's  ship  lleureux,  and  nephew 
of  C.  Coombe,  Esq.  of  tl.c  Admiralty-office. 

On  the  7th  of  February,  was  barbarously  murdered,  after  a  desperate 
resistance,  on  the  Greenwich  road,  near  the  Five  Ik-.iis  public-house,  Lieut,  f 
John  Johnstone,  of  his  majesty's  sloop  Eyderen,  Captain  Charles  Pengelly. 

At  his  house,  in  Troy  Town,  Rochester,  the  lady  of  Captain  A.  Anderson, 
of  the  royal  marines. 

In  the  royal  hospital  at  Haslar,  Mr.  Gill,  surgeon  of  the  Royals. 

On  the  16th  November,  on  his  passage  from  Jamaica,  Mr.  John  Hall, 
surgeon  in  the  royal  navy. 

In  November  List,  at  the  naval  hospital  at  Baibadoes,  Mr.  Samuel  Price, 
surgeon  of  his  majesty's  sloop  Achates. 


THE    LATE   Sill    HUGH    CLOBERUY    CHRISTIAN,    K.B.  185 

the  columns  reached  with  success  their  directed  stations,  but  the  centre 
columns,  having  met  with  some  unexpected  difficulty,  did  not  elioct  their 
junction. 

"  The  Madras,  Bcaulieu,  Pelican,  and  Victorieuse  were  to  support  this 
attack ;  the  Beaulieu  had  three  seamen  slightly  wounded,  and  the  head  of 
her  foremast  injured.  The  attack  on  shore  not  having  been  successful,  the 
Madras  and  Beaulieu  have  returned  to  Marigot  des  Rousseaux,  to  co- 
operate with  Major-general  Morshead." 

Sir  Hugh  Christian  closes  his  letter  with  the  following  compli- 
mentary tribute  to  the  officers  serving  under  him  :* — 

"  It  would  be  unjust  to  the  merit  of  Captain  M'Doual,  of  the  Ganges, 
nnd  the  officers  acting  under  him  at  Bay  Longueville,  were  I  to  omit  report- 
ing their  just  claim-  to  my  commendation  ;  Captain  Rvves,  of  the  Bull  Do?, 
and  Captain  Meares,  of  the  transport  department,  commanded  the  division 
of  boats  at  Longueville  bay.  Captains  Evans,  of  the  Fury,  Dobree,  of  the 
Woolwich,  and  Captain  Hill  and  Lieutenant  Skipsey,  of  the  transport 
service,  commanded  the  several  divisions  of  flat  boats  at  the  Choc  and 
Ance  la  Rare  landing,  and  I  had  good  reason  to  be  satisfied  with  their 
assiduity  and  proper  exertions. 

"  The  natural  strength  of  this  country  is  such,  that  time  and  great 
exertion  will  be  necessary  for  its  reduction.  There  exists  the  most  perfect 
desire  on  the  part  of  the  officers  and  seamen  of  the  squadron  to  share  (he 
fatigue  and  hazard  with  the  army  ;  and  I  trust  that  this  desire  may  be  kept 
awake  to  essential  advantage." 

Notwithstanding  the  difficulties  which  the  assailants  had  to  en- 
counter, the  blockade  and  siege  of  Morne  Fortune  was  carried  on 
with  such  vigour  and  success,  that,  on  the  24th  of  May,  the  enemy 
desired  a  suspension  of  arms.  On  the  following  morning,  a  capi- 
tulation for  the  whole  island  ensued  ;  and  on  the  26th,  his  majes- 
ty's troops  took  possession  of.  Morne  Fortune  :  the  garrison  of 
which,  at  that  time,  amounted  to  2,000  men.  Captain  Lane,  of 
the  Astrea,  was  sent  to  England  with  the  following  despatches 
from  Sir  II.  C.  Christian,  announcing  the  event : — 

"  Thunderer,  Choc  Bay,  St.  Lucia, 
"  SIR,  June  1,  1796. 

tf  I  ana  to  communicate  to  you,  for  the  information  of  my  Lords  Com- 
missioners of  the  Admiralty,  that  the  island  of  St.  Lucia  and  its  dependen- 

*  Another  letter  from  Sir  Hugh  C.  Christian,  of.  the  same  date  (May  4), 
encloses  Captain  Parr's  account  of  the  surrender  of  the  Dutch  settlement 
of  Dcmerara,  and  its  dependencies,  to  his  majesty's  farces,  under  Majur- 
general  Whyte,  and  Captain  Parr,  en  the  '_'2d  of  April.— The  colony  of 
Berbice  surrendered  to  the  same  officers  on  the  2d  of  May. 

tfJ.nto,  CJjrom  dol.  XXI.  B  B 


186  MfeMOIU    OF   THE   PUBLIC    SERVICES    OF 

cics  surrendered  by  capitulation  on  the  25th  of  May,  and  that  the  Morn* 
•was  taken  possession  of  by  his  majesty's  troops  on  the  26th,  at  noon. 

"  In  the  progress  of  the  siege  great  difficulties  were  to  be  surmounted, 
and  much  service  of  fatigue  undertaken.  The  more  effectually  to  assist  the 
operations  of  the  army,  I  directed  eight  hundred  seamen  to  land,  under  the 
command  of  Captain  Lane,  of  the  Astrea,  and  Captain  Ryves,  of  the  Bull 
Dog:  the  merit  of  their  services  will  be  better  reported  by  the  commander-- 
in-chief  of  his  majesty's  troops ;  but  I  feel  it  an  indispensable  duty  to 
acquaint  their  lordships,  that  the  conduct  of  the  officers  and  seamen 
equalled  my  most  sanguine  expectations,  and  that  it  has  been  in  every 
instance  highly  meritorious. 

"  Captain  Lane,  of  the  Astrea,  is  charged  with  my  despatches ;  that 
officer,  having  served  at  St.  Lucia  from  the  moment  of  my  arrival,  will  be 
enabled  to  afford  their  lordships  correct  information  of  the  naval  occur- 
rences connected  with  the  siege. 

"  The  state  of  the  Astrea,  by  Captain  Lane's  report  to  me,  is  such,  that 
her  proceeding  to  England  became  a  necessary  measure. 

"  Captain  Ryves,  of  the  Bull  Dog,  will  proceed  immediately  to  join  his 
ship;  but  I  should  be  unjust  to  the  merits  of  his  exertion,  were  I  to  omit 
recommending  him  to  their  lordships'  notice  and  protection. 

"  I  stated  to  their  lordships,  in  my  letter  of  the  4th  instant,  the  services 
of  Captain  Searle,  of  the  Pelican,  on  the  first  landing ;  since  that  period  he 
has  with  unremitting  diligence  and  ability  effectually  blocked  the  ports  of 
the  Carenage. 

"  The  Madras,  under  the  command  of  Captain  Dilkes,  had  been,  in  the 
first  arrangements,  detached  to  land,  and  co-operate  with  a  division  of 
troops  on  the  left  wing  of  the  army,  anchored  for  that  purpose  at  Marrigot 
des  Rosseaux,  where  his  exertion  and  assiduity  have  been  highly  com- 
mendable :  he  look  possession  of  a  point  at  the  southern  entrance  of  the 
grand  Cul  de  Sac,  with  great  labour  and  perseverance,  placed  upon  the  pin- 
nacle of  the  hill  two  eighteen-pounders  and  two  carronades,  from  which  he 
considerably  annoyed  the  batteries  of  Sisseron  and  Agille.  The  general 
wishing  to  establish  batteries  on  the  southern  side  of  the  grand  Cul  de  Sac, 
Captain  Wolley,  of  the  Arethusa,  was  detached  to  join  Captain  Dilkes,  and 
directed  to  land  a  proportion  of  seamen  to  assist  this  service,  which  was 
very  speedily  and  cheerfully  executed.  More  exertion  1ms  not  been 
evinced,  and  1  believe  there  never  lias  occurred  an  instance  of  more  cordial 
co-operation,  than  has  subsisted  between  the  army  and  navy  during  this 
siege.  Great  have  been  the  services  of  fatigue,  considering  the  nature  of 
the  country  and  the  situation  of  tiie  Morne,  and  very  rapidly  have  thej 
Jjeen  brought  to  effect  the  reduction  of  the  island. 

"  On  the  morning  of  the  enemy's  attack  on  the  24th  instant,  with  a  view- 
to  re-possess  themselves  of  the  advanced  post  from  the  Morne,  it  became 
necessary  to  detach  the  14th  regiment  to  the  support  of  the  troops  employed 
at  that  post,  in  consequence  of  which  320  marines  were  landed  to  take  thfc 
iud  occupied  by  the  14th.  The  conduct  of  the  marines  upon  this,  a« 
.upon  all  other  occasion,*,  was  most  perfectly  correct. 


THE    LATE    SIR    HUGH    CLOBERRY    CHRISTIAN,    K.B.  187 

"  The  general's  opinion  of  the  conduct  of  the  seamen  and  marines  will 
he  best  understood  }>y  the  sentiments  expressed  in  his  public  orders,  an  ex- 
tract of  which  is  herewith  transmitted. 

"  I  transmit  a  list  of  the  small  vessels  found  at  this  anchorage  ; 
"  And  have  the  honour  to  be,  sir, 

"  Your  most  obedient  bumbie  servant, 
"  Evan  Ncpean,  Esq.  "  HUGH  C.  CHRISTIAN." 

"  Ilcud  Quarters,  St.  Lu.ia,  May  27,  1796, 
"  EXTRACT  OF  GENEKAL  ORDERS. 

"  During  the  services  which  '.are  been  carried  on  in  the  island  of  St. 
Lucia,  all  the  courage  anrl  every  exertion  of  the  army  would  have  proved 
ineffectual,  if  Rear- ad  mi  nil  Sir  H.  C.  Christian,  and  the  royal  navy,  had 
not  stepped  forward  witli  the  alacrity  "-h.ch  ^uj  been  so  couspicuous  in  for- 
warding the  most  arduous  part  of  the  public  service  :  to  the  r  skill  and  un- 
remitting labour  is  in  a  great  measure  owing  t.ie  success  which  has  attended 
his  majesty's  arms.  It  will  atfor.l  the  commander-iu-chief  the  greatest 
satisfaction  to  be  able  to  lay  before  his  majesty  the  eminent  services  waich 
have,  on  this  occasion,  been  performed  by  the  royal  navy,  and  Admiral  Sir 
Hugh  Cloberry  Christian  will  confer  a  particular  obligation  on  Lieutenant- 
general  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby,  and  the  army  at  large,  if  he  will  be  so 
obliging  as  to  communicate  to  the  royal  navy,  and  in  particular  to  Captains 
Lane,  Ryves,  and  Stephenson,  and  the  other  «fficers  who  acted  on  shore, 
and  to  the  corps  of  marines,  the  great  obligation  which  they  consider  them* 
selves  under  to  them. 

"  T.  BUSBY,  Assistant-Adj.  Gen." 

Sir  Ralph  Abercromby,  in  his  despatch  of  the  31st  of  May, 
announcing  the  surrender  of  St.  Lucia,  also  says  :— *• 

"  Rear-admiral  Sir  Hugh  Christian,  and  the  royal  navy,  have  never  ceased 
to  shew  the  utmost  alacrity  in  forwarding  the  public  service.  To  their  skill 
and  unremitting  labour  the  success  which  has  attended  his  majesty's  arms 
i?  in  a  great  measure  due.  By  their  efforts  alone  the  artillery  was  advauced 
to  the  batteries,  and  every  co-operation,  which  could  possibly  be  expected 
or  desired,  has  been  afforded  in  the  fullest  mauqer." 

The  shipping  alluded  to  by  Admiral  Christian,  in  his  official 
letter,  consisted  of  a  ship,  three  brigs,  five  schooners,  and  a 
shallop,  which  were  taken  in  the  Carenage.  A  great  quantity  of 
ordnance,  ammunition,  and  military  stores,  was  found  in  the 
several  batteries. 

After  the  reduction  of  the  island  of  St.  Lucia,  Sir  Hugh 
Christian  detached  the  following  little  squadron  of  frigates,  under 
tae  command  of  Captain  Wollcy,  to  co-operate  with  Sir  Ralph 


183  MEM01H    OF    THE    PUBLIC    SERVICES    OF 

Abercromby,  in  quelling  the  insurrections,  which  raged  with  gvcat 
virulence  in  the  islands  of  St.  Vincent  and  Grenada  : — 

Ships.  Guns.  Commanders. 

Aretlmsn  ........   38     Captain  Thomas  Wolley. 

Hebe   ^8     M.  H.  Scott. 

Mermaid 32     < 11.  W.  Otway. 

pelican  (brig)   ....    16     • •  T.  C.  Searle. 

Beaver 16     • S.  G.  Warucr. 

The  insurgents  were  chiefly  Charibs,  and  people  of  colour; 
and  after  an  obstinate  resistance,  they  laid  down  their  arms,  and 
surrendered  by  capitulation.  On  this  service,  two  seamen  be- 
longing to  the  Arethusa,  who  were  acting  with  the  troops  on 
shore,  were  killed  ;  and  at  Grenada,  seven  seamen  r/ere  killed, 
and  five  wounded,  on  board  the  Mermaid,  by  the  bursting  of  one 
of  her  main-deck  guns. 

Towards  the  latter  end  of  June,  Rear-admiral  Hervey  arrived  at 
Martinique,  in  the  Prince  of  Wales ;  and  in  the  month  of  October 
following,  having  resigned  the  command  of  the  fleet  to  that 
officer,  Sir  Hugh  returned  to  England  in  the  Beaulieu  frigate. 

On  the  20th  of  February,  17S7,  he  was  made  rear-admiral  of 
the  white  ;  and  in  the  course  of  the  year,  he  sailed  to  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  as  second  in  command  on  that  station,  in  the  Vir- 
ginie,  of  44  guns.  In  the  following  year,  he  succeeded  Admiral 
Pringle,  as  Commander-in-chief  at  tho  Cape  ;  but  he  enjoyed  that 
post  only  a  very  short  time,  as  he  died,  rather  suddenly  we 
believe,  in  November,  1798.  His  services,  though  not  generally 
of  the  most  brilliant  description,  had  been  arduous  and  useful; 
and  by  his  death,  the  country  lost  an  attentive,  able,  and  excellent 
officer.  His  remains  were  interred  at  the  Cape. 

Sir  Hugh  Christian's  lady,  whose  bealth  was  in  so  critical  a,state 
when  the  admiral  left  England,  that  she  despaired  of  ever  seeing 
him  again,  survived  him  about  two  months;  but  died,  at  the  Isle 
of  Wight,  before  the  intelligence  had  arrived  of  the  death  of  her 
husband. 


HERA-LD1C     PARTICULARS. 

Hugh  Christian,  the  admiral's  grandfather,  was  born  in  1679, 
and  dLd  about  the  year  1740,  having  married  Letitia  Awsitcr,  the 


THE    LATE   SIR   HUGH    CLOBERUY    CHRISTIAN,    K.B.  189 

only  child  of  Anthony  Brucer,  of  Hock  Norton,  in  the  county  of 
Oxford,  Esq.  by  Mary  his  wife,  daughter  of  Thomas  Awsiter,  of 
Southall,  in  the  county  of  Middlesex,  Esq.  and  by  her  (who  after 
his  decease  married  Thomas  Mascall,  but  had  no  issue  by  him)  had 
issue  Hugh  and  Anne,  who  both  died  young,  and  Thomas,  the 
father  of  the  admiral.  This  Thomas  was  born  at  Liverpool,  about 
the  year  1716,  and  died  in  1751,  having  raarriftl  Anne,  the  daugh- 
ter ot  O\voii  Hughes,  of  Bangor,  Esq.  by  whom  (who  after  his 
death  married,  secondly,  Mr.  Penny,  of  Oxfordshire,  and  died 
•without  issue  by  him.  in  February,  1785)  he  had  issue  an  only 
child,  viz.  the  late  Sir  Hugh  Cloberry  Christian,  K.B.  the  subject 
of  the  preceding  memoir,  who  married  Anne,  the  only  daughter  of 
Barnabas  Leigh,  of  Thorley,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  Esq,  on  the 
6th  of  March,  1775.  She  died  at  West  Hill,  in  that  island,  on  the 
22d  of  January,  1799,  and  was  buried  at  Northwood,  in  the  same 
island,  leaving  issue  as  follows: — 1st,  Anne,  born  on  the  C21st  of 
November,  1775,  married  in  1799  to  Major-general  Frederick 
Baron  Hompesch,  and  died  in  December,  1807,  leaving  issue  ; 
2d,  Mary,  born  on  the  21st  of  August,  1781,  married,  in  1803, 
Count  William  Byland,  a  colonel  in  the  army,  and  was  living  in 
1807,  with  issue  ;  3d,  Hood  Hanway  Christian,  eldest  son,  born 
on  the  23d  of  July,  1784,  now  a  captain  in  the  royal  navy,  iu 
•which  he  obtained  post  rank  on  the  30th  of  January,  1806; 
4th,  Hugh  George,  second  son,  born  on  the  23d  of  November, 
1787,  now  in  the  East  India  Company's  civil  service,  on  the  Bengal 
establishment ;  5th,  Johanna,  born  in  1794,  and  living  in  1807. 

ARMS.— Azure  a  cheveron,  humetty  between  three  covered  cups 
or,  on  a  canton  argent,  an  anchor  erect,  with  part  of  the  cable 
round  the  stock  proper. 

CREST. — Out  of  a  naval  coronet,  or,  an  unicorn's  head,  argent, 
collared  gules. 

The  above  arms  and  crest,  granted  by  patent  under  the  hands 
of  Garter  and  Clarenceux  Kings  of  Arms,  dated  5th  March,  1796. 

SUPPORTERS.— On  each  side  an  unicorn,  argent,  collared  gules, 
pendent,  therefrom  a  shield,  azure,  charged  with  a  covered 
cup,  or. 

Granted  by  patent  under  the  hand  and  seal  of  Garter  principal 
King  of  Arms,  7th  March,  1796. 

MOTTO. — foluisscj  sat,  est. 


150 

NAVAL  ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL  HINTS,  RECOLLECTIONS, 


NANTES    IW    GURSITE    VASTO. 


CAPTAIN    THOMAS    PUINGLE.*' 

T  has  been  frequently  remarked,  that  the  dispositions  of  our 
fellow-snbjects  born  in  the  tropical  countries,  are  in  a  greak 
degree  similar  to  the  genial  warmth  of  those  climates.  This  remark 
is  very  strongly  exemplified  in  the  character  of  Captain  Pringle, 
who  is  a  native  of  the  Antilles,  and  possesses  all  the  fire  and  bene- 
volence of  heart  so  peculiar  to  the  West  Indies. 

The  events  of  this  worthy  officer's  life  have  been  always  marked 
•with  most  consummate  zeal,  bravery,  and  propriety.  To  a  sound 
judgment,  he  joins  a  well  informed  mind,  and  a  disposition  alive  to 
every  friendly  virtue.  Having  received  the  principal  parts  of  his 
nautical  instructions  from  his  distinguished  patron,  Admiral  Bar- 
rington,  it  cannot  be  supposed  that  he  is  in  any  respect  unfinished 
as  a  naval  character. 

Captain  Pringle,  during  a  part  of  the  late  war,  commanded  the 
armed  vessels  employed  against  the  rebels  on  the  vast  lake  of 
Champlain,  Ontario,  &c.  in  North  America;  upon  which  service 
his  exertions  were  uncommonly  great ;  nor  were  his  zeal  and  bra- 
very less  conspicuous,  when  captain  of  the  Ariadne  frigate,  on  the 
Leeward  Island  station. 

This  gallant  officer  returned  to  England  after  his  various  ser- 
vices on  the  other  side  the  Atlantic,  and  was  appointed  to  the  com- 
mand of  his  majesty's  ship  Daedalus,  and  was  again  ordered  to  the 
coasts  of  America,  being  stationed  for  some  time  to  cruise  off 
Quebec,  Newfoundland,  and  the  adjacent  seas. 

Captain  Pringle's  conduct  throughout  the  whole  of  the  war 
illustrated  his  character  in  the  highest  degree,  and  will  prove  a 
lasting  testimony  of  his  exalted  Afrorth. 

CAI-TAIX    ROBEKT    FANSHAW,    M.P. 

Is  one  of  the  ablest  officers  the  British  fleet  can  boast ;  cool, 
collected,  brave,  and  active  ;  ever  ready  for  service  when  called 
upon,  and  rigidly  attentive  to  the  most  trivial,  as  well  as  the  more 
important  duties  of  his  station.  It  may  with  truth  be  observed  of 
him,  that  his  ship  is  like  his  mansion— the  ship's  company  his 

*  This  and  the  following  articles  are  from  The  NAVAL  ATALAXTIS,  pub-» 
lished  in  1789, 


NAVAL    ANECDOTES,    &C.  191 

family  :  the  former  in  a  constant  state  of  regularity  and  neatness, 
the  latter  governed  by  a  rigid,  but  a  just  hand.  A  scrupulous  ob- 
server of  the  relative  duties  he  owes  his  country,  as  a  citizen  and 
a  soldier,  Captain  Fanshaw  exacts  a  like  conduct  on  the  part  of  all 
with  whom  he  may  have  any  concern,  whether  civil  or  military. 

The  conduct  of  this  gallant  officer  throughout  the  whole  of  the 
late  war  is  spoken  of  in  terms  of  infinite  praise.  On  the  coast  of 
America  he  was  ever  most  active  and  diligent.  In  the  West  In- 
dies,  his  conduct  as  commander  of  his  majesty's  ship  Monmouth, 
in  the  engagement  between  the  fleets  of  Admiral  Byron  and  Comte 
d'Estaing  was  truly  gallant,  nor  was  it  less  so  in  the  Egmont, 
which  he  afterwards  commanded." 

When  Sir  George  (now  Lord)  Rodney  was  about  to  sail  from 
Plymouth,  with  a  squadron  for  the  West  Indies  ;  the  commander 
of  the  Namur,  of  90  guns,  having  desired  to  be  superseded,  Cap. 
tain  Fanshaw,  v,  no  then  lived  at  that  port  with  his  family,  and 
was  out  of  employ,  being  sent  to  at  the  dead  of  night  to  fill  up  the 
Tacancy,  he  immediately  arose,  and  having  arranged  his  family 
affairs,  embarked  on  board  the  Namur  without  delay,  and  proved 
one  of  Admiral  Rodney's  most  distinguished  supporters  on  tbe 
glorious  12th  of  April. 

At  the  late  election  for  Plymouth,  the  freemen  of  that  borough 
(of  which  Captain  Fanshaw  is  one),  unanimously  made  choice  of 
this  brave  veteran  to  serve  as  one  of  their  representatives  in  Par- 
liament. 

CAPTAIN    SAMUEL    MARSHALL 

Is  the  officer  who  struck  the  first  blow  last  war  as  commander 
of  tlve  Arethusa  frigate,  which  engaged  the  Most  Christian  King's 
ship  la  Belle  Poule,  and  thereby  brought  on  a  commencement  of 
general  hostilities  between  Great  Britain  and  France. 

Captain  Marshall  is  deservedly  esteemed  a  very  excellent  officer, 
and  an  experienced  seaman.  He  served  throughout  the  war  with 
great  credit  and  reputation  ;  first  in  the  Aretbusa,  which  was  sta- 
tioned as  a  Channel  cruiser,  and  afterwards  in  another  frigate  on 
the  West  India  station. 

On  his  return  from  the  West  Indies,  he  retired  from  service,  it 
is  said  on  account  of  his  health  being  impaired,  and  was  not 
employed  again  till  some  time  after  the  establishment  of  peace  had 
taken  place.  He  was  then  appointed  to  the  command  of  hi* 
majesty's  ship  le  Pegase,  a  guard-ship  at  Portsmouth. 

A  vacancy  for  a  commissioner  of  the  Victualling  Office  having 
j  and  it  b«iog  a  rule  that  one  of  them  should  be  aa  expe» 


NATAL    ANECDOTES, 

rienced  captain  in  the  navy,  this  officer  gave  up  the  command  of 
the  Pegasc,  and  succeeded  to  the  vacancy  at  the  Victualling  Board, 
•where  his  abilities  and  integrity  must  render  him  every  May 
qualified  to  fill  the  office  with  credit  to  himself  and  to  the  advantage 
of  his  country. 

THE    CONSTANT    WARWICK. 

MR.  PEPYS  says,  that  "  the  Constant  Warwick  was  the  first 
frigate  built  in  England.  She  was  built  in  1649,  by  Mr.  Peter 
Pett,  for  a  privateer  for  the  Earl  of  Warwick,  and  was  sold  by 
to  the  States.  Mr.  Pett  took  his  model  of  a  frigate  from  a  French 
frigate  which  he  had  seen  in  the  Thames,  as  his  son,  Sir  Phineas 
Pett,  acknowledged  to  me."  His  being  styled  the  inventor  of 
frigates,  in  the  inscription  on  his  monument,  in  St.  Nicholas 
Church,  Dept ford,  is  therefore  not  strictly  true.  Fuller,  in  his 
Worthies  of  England,  gives  a  similar  account  of  the  origin  of 
frigates  in  our  navy.  Surely  then,  the  name  of  the  Constant 
Warwick  should,  on  this  account,  be  preserved  in  our  navy.  To 
fhe  above  anecdote  it  may  be  added,  that  the  old  Hermione 
frigate  was  taken  from  the  French  in  1757,  by  Captain  Moore,  of 
the  Unicorn.  The  Modeste  and  Terneraire  were  taken  by  Admiral 
Uoscawen's  fleet  in  1759.  (See  the  description  of  them,  Gent. 
Mag.  vol.  29,  page  4 3 9.) 

DESCRIPTION    OF    SIR     WILLIAM     CLARSES'    IMPROVED    LIFE-BOAT. 

SIR  W.  CLARGES,  Bart,  has  constructed  a  life-boat  on  an 
improved  principle,  the  leading  features  of  which  are,  that  she  will 
not  upset,  sink,  or  be  water-logged;  that  she  affords  cabin  room, 
and  is  like  a  man-of-war's  launch,  well  built  for  rowing,  the  oars 
not  on  a  curve,  but  nearly  in  a  right  line,  and  low  to  the  water, 
of  which  she  draws  little.  The  description  of  this  boat  is  as 
follows  : — her  length  is  thirty  feet,  her  breadth  ten,  her  depth  three 
feet,  six  inches.  The  space  between  her  timbers  is  fitted  up  with 
pine  wood  :  this  is  done  with  a  view  to  prevent  the  water  lodging 
there ;  the  pine  wood  is  well  caulked  and  paid ;  she  is  buoyed  up 
by  eight  metal  cases,  four  on  each  side:  these  are  water  tight,  and 
independent  of  each  other.  They  will  serve  to  buoy  up  six  tons, 
but  all  the  buoyant  parts  of  the  boat,  taken  collectively,  will  buoy 
up  ten  tons.  The  cases  are  securely  decked  over,  and  boarded  at 
the  sides  with  pine ;  there  is  a  scuttle  to  cacli  case,  to  put  goods 
in  ;  the  edges  are  lined  with  baize ;  and  over  each  scuttle  in  the 
case,  is  one  of  wood  of  a  larger  size,  the  margin  of  which  is  lined 


X 

COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  193 

m  the  same  manner  to  exclude  the  water  :  between  the  cases  are 
Norwegian  balks,  bolted  to  the  bottom,  fastened  to  each  other  by 
iron  clamps,  and  decked  over.  The  depth  of  her  keel  is  nine 
inches  below  the  garboard  streak,  the  dead  rising  is  four  inches; 
her  heel  is  narrow  at  the  under  part,  and  wide  above,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  giving  the  timber  a  good  bed,  which  will  support  the 
boats,  in  case  a  necessity  should  arise  to  encounter  sand-banks. 
In  sailing  oVer  a. bar,  or  in  places  where  the  water  is  shallow, 
the  rndder  will,  with  ease,  draw  up  even  with  the  keel,  and  when, 
in  deep  water,  it  will  let  down  easily,  and  with  equal  facility,  a  foot 
below  it;  in  consequence  of  which  advantage  the  boat  is  found  to 
steiT  remarkably  well.  The  forecastle  of  the  boat  forms  a  cabin  ten 
feet  wide,  six  feet  long,  and  four  feet  deep,  into  which  women, 
children,  and  disabled  persons  may  be  put ;  it  is  amply  supplied 
with  air,  by  means  of  two  copper  ventilators  :  it  is  furnished  be- 
sides with  two  grapnels,  very  proper  to  be  thrown  out  on  board  a 
wreck,  to  ride  by ;  the  grapnel  ropes  will  assist  the  sufferers  to 
remove  and  escape  from  the  wreck  to  the  boat.  She  is  likewise 
equipped  with  masts  and  sails,  and  is  as  manageable  with  them  as 
any  boat  of  her  dimensions  can  possibly  be  :  in  a  tempest,  how- 
ever, she  must  be  dismasted,  and  rowed  by  fourteen  men,  with  oars 
sixteen  feet  long,  double  banked ;  the  men  are  all  fastened  to  the 
thwarts  by  ropes,  and  cannot  be  washed  fiom  their  seats,  [a  his 
observations  on  this  boat,  Sir  William  says,  "  Having  stated  the 
leading  features  of  my  boat,  I  need  not  dwell  on  a  few  secondary 
points,  which,  however,  it  would  be  improper  not  to  mention  : 
these  are  her  being  provided  with  small  ropes,  or  lines,  fastened  to 
hooks  on  the  gunwale,  and  each  having  a  piece  of  cork  painted  red 
at  the  extremity ;  intended  not  only  for  persons  who  fall  over- 
board, or  swim  from  a  wreck,  to  see  and  catch  hold  of,  but  to 
tow  those  for  whom  there  may  not  be  room  in  the  boat;  and  her 
having  a  very  powerful  rudder.  The  copper  cases,  though  afford- 
ing  additional  Security  to  those  who  choose  to  be  at  the  expense, 
arc  no  more  a  necessary  point  of  my  plan,  than  coppering  her 
bottom.  The  wood-work  alone,  if  well  executed  and  properly 
attended  to,  may  be  kept  quite  air-tight.  If  the  assistance  of 
cork  were  to  be  called  in,  it  appears  to  me  that  it  might  be  better 
applied  than  in  other  boats,  by  filling  the  cases  with  cork  jackets, 
to  take  to  a  crowded  wreck  ;  in  going  off  to  which  the  cases  would 
not  be  wanted  for  any  other  purpose,  and  the  jackets  would  not 
be  an  incumbrance.  Every  one  must  be  aware  of  the  iniportau.ee 

.  fflol.  XXI.  c  c 


164  NATAL    ANECDOTES, 

of  flie  side  cabins  or  cases,  for  stowing  valuable  goods,  from  a 
richly  laden  vessel.  A  boat  of  this  kind,  but  somewhat  smaller 
dimensions,  would  be  exceedingly  useful  to  ships  on  voyages  of 
discovery  ;  and  indeed  to  any  large  vessels,  as  it  would  not  only 
answer  for  wooding  and  watering,  but  is  peculiarly  adapted  for 
excursions  up  rivers  or  small  inlets  of  the  sea,  or  exploring  clusters 
of  islands.  As  a  pleasure  boat  she  answers  extremely  well;  and 
•with  respect  to  her  safety,  I  can  say  that  I  have  sailed  in  her  from 
Brighton,  round  the  Cornish  coast  to  Conway  in  North  Wales, 
without  any  accident,  though  we  experienced  some  very  dreadful 
•\veather  on  the  voyage." 

ANECDOTE   OF   THE    tATE    ADMIRAL    CALMADY. 

IN  the  war  raging  at  the  accession  of  his  present  majesty,  two 
gallant  sea-bred  sons  of  a  Captain  Everett,  in  the  royal  navy,  got 
commands.  One  of  them,  Michael,  was  killed  onboard  the  Ruby, 
in  the  American  war,  many  years  after  ;  the  other,  Charles,  in  his 
early  years  of  post  captain,  had  the  Solebay,  a  small  frigate  ;  and, 
cruising  near  Weymouth,  fell  in  with  two  very  heavy  French  pri- 
vateers ;  he  engaged  both,  winged  one,  and  immediately  closing 
with  the  second,  took  her,  and  then  at  his  leisure  picked  up  the 
first.  This  was  much  admired  at  the  time. 

Charles,  from  a  lad,  had  a  fiery  red  nose,  but  was  always  ready 
to  cry  out  "  scaldings"  with  his  messmates,  whether  the  kettle  of 
boiling  water  was  in  sight,  or  his  own  fierce  phiz.  He  married  an 
heiress  in  mid-life,  and  took,  her  name  of  Calmady. 

After  acquiring  the  rank  of  admiral,  he  was  one  day  at  a  public 
dinner  of  the  Hampshire  Hunt;  and  whilst  the  bottle  was  circu- 
lating, up  came  a  waiter  to  say  "  a  poor  sailor  below  wished  to 
speak  with  Admiral  Calmady."  The  admiral  was  not  allowed  to 
leave  the  room,  and  the  chairman  requested  of  him  that  the  man. 
should  come  up.  Acccordingly,  old  Jack,  very  much  in  dishabille, 
made  his  appearance  ;  and  the  chairman  ordered  him  to  find  out 
the  admiral,  if  they  had  ever  sailed  together  :  now  all  the  gen- 
tlemen were  in  the  same  uniform  of  the  hunt.  Jack  moved  round 
to  Calmady's  ehair :  "Sailed  together — he  knows  all  that,  but 
Charles  Everett  was  his  name  then,  God  bless  him."  The  admiral 
looked  at  him,  without  recollection  of  his  face  :  "  No  tricks  upon 
travellers;  I  remember  nothing  about  you." — "  But,  admiral,  you 
han't  forgot  poor  Johnson,  the  marine  :  J  was  in  the  after-guard, 
close  to  him,  on  board  the  Solebay." — "  Well,  what  of  Johnson, 
the  marine?" — "  Why,  admiral,  don't  you  recollect  when  the 
Frenchmen  were  peppering  at  us,  that  Johnson,  the  marine,  burst 


COMMERCIAL  HINTS,    RECoiLECtioxs,  &c.  195 

out  a  laughing,  and  rapt  out  an  oath,  hov  narrowly  they  had 
missed  a  certain  person's  d — d  red  note!'' 

Here  the  whole  company  enjoyed  (he  story ;  and  Calmady 
laughed  with  the  rest.  "  Well,  what  then,  old  boy  ?  " — "  Why, 
you  turned  about  as  sharp  as  fire,  and  promised  poor  Johnson  a 
d — d  good  do/en  as  soon  as  the  action  was  over." 

The  admiral  asked  no  more  questions,  gave  his  old  shipmate 
half-a-crown,  and  all  the  gentlemen  did  the  same.  Jack  went 
down  to  get  a  skinful  of  good  liquor,  and  to  laugh  again  amongst 
the  party-coloured  lads  in  livery  about  Admiral  Calrnady's  red 
nose. 

LORD    COCHRAXE. 

THE  Spanish  Gerona  Gazette,  when  inserting  a  letter  from  Lord 
Cochraue,  January  1,  1809,  subjoins  the  following  liberal  testi- 
mony to  his  noble  conduct : — 

"  This  gallant  Englishman  has  been  entitled  to  the  admiration, 
and  gratitude  of  this  country,  from  the  first  moment  of  its  political 
resurrection.  His  generosity  in  co-operating  with  our  earliest 
efforts,  the  encouragement  we  received  from  the  interest  he  took 
•with  the  commanders  of  the  Balearic  islands,  to  induce  them  to 
succour  us  with  troops  and  ammunition,  can  never  be  erased  from, 
our  recollection.  The  extraordinary  services  which  we  owe  to  his 
indefatigable  activity,  particularly  this  city  and  the  adjacent  coast, 
in  protecting  us  from  the  attempts  of  the  enemy,  are  too  well 
known  to  be  repeated  here.  It  is  a  sufficient  eulogium  upon  his 
character  to  mention,  that  in  the  defence  of  the  castle  of  Trinidad, 
when  the  Spanish  flag,  hoisted  on  the  wall,  fell  into  the  ditch, 
under  a  most  dreadful  fire  from  the  enemy,  his  lordship  was  the 
only  person,  who,  regardless  of  the  shower  of  balls  flying  about 
him,  descended  into  the  ditch,  returned  Avith  the  flag,  and  happily 
succeeded  in  placing  it  where  it  was." 

NEW   DOCKS    AT    PURFLEET. 

Ox  the  28th  of  February,  a  member  moved  for  leave  in  the 
House  of  Commons  to  bring  in  bills  to  confirm  an  agreement 
between  government  and  Samuel  Whitbread,  Esq.  for  certain  lands 
purchased  of  him  at  Purfleet,  and  also  to  make  compensation  for 
certain  other  lands  and  hereditaments,  purchased  in  the  same  place 
for  the  purpose  of  having  docks  there,  which  leave  was  given. 
We  believe  that  this  important  establishment  of  a  new  naval  depot, 
Originated  with  Mr.  Whidbcy,  the  master  attendant  at  Sheerness, 
during  the  administration  of  Earl  St.  Vincent.  We  hope  soon  to 
give  a  farther  account. 


196 


NAVAL   ANECDOTES, 


SHIPS  EXPECTED  TO  BE  LAUNCHED  IN  THE  COURSE 
OF  THE  YEAR  1809. 


-s 

DIMENSIONS. 

N        ES. 

G,.n». 

Where  building. 

When  expected 
to  be 

Length 

Length 
of  keel 

| 

§ 

launched. 

gun- 

for  ton- 

s 

Depth. 

§ 

deck. 

nage. 

K 

h 

Ft.    In. 

Ft.   In. 

Ft.  In! 

Ft.  In. 

Q  •  .*n  Charlotte 

100 

Peptford  Yard. 

October. 

yo    o 

156     5 

52    4 

22   10 

OO-T) 

Hoyne 

93 

Portsmouth  Yard. 

s'ov#mber. 

186     0 

U«3     1 

51     3 

22    0 

213S 

\;.1X  - 

74 

BlaekvpU. 

April. 

17ti     0 

145     1 

47     6 

21     0 

1741 

Vnnada 

7* 
7t 

Turncbapel,  Devon. 
Blaetaradl. 

December. 
December. 

176     0 
176    0 

US      1 
145     1 

47    6 
47     C 

21     0 
21     0 

1741 
1741 

Cressey     - 

74 

C  t'rinihurv,  (near  Chat-l 
!,am.)               i 

December. 

176     0 

145     1 

47     6 

21     0 

mi 

GUI;,'  urgh 

74 

fKotherhiilu,    (Mr.      \ 
«•        Brent's  Yard.)        j 

December. 

170    0 

145     1 

47    6 

21     0 

1741 

Hannibal  - 

74 

f  Bucklershard,     (near  •) 
1       Southampton.)        J 

December. 

175    0 

144     1J 

47     6 

29     6 

1730 

Poictiers    - 

74 

Kiver  Medway. 

December. 

176    0 

145     1 

47    6 

21     0 

1741 

Royal  Oak 

74 

fDeptftjrd,    (Mr.  Dedo 
man's.)              J 

Laun.  4  March. 

175     2 

144     1 

47  11 

20     6 

175! 

Rodney     - 

74 

(  Deptford,    fBarnard    •> 

I           and  Co.)             j 

November. 

176     0 

145     1 

47     6 

21     0 

1741 

St.  Domingo     - 

74 

WoolwicbYard. 

Laim.  3d  March 

180     0 

147     8 

48     1 

20  10 

1819 

S'engeur    - 

74 

Harwich. 

December 

176    0 

145     1 

47     6 

21     0 

1741 

Curacoa     - 

36 

(  Noitham,  (near  South-" 
t            ampton.) 

September 

145    0 

121     9i 

38    2 

13     3 

944 

Hotspur     - 

36 

i  Warsash,  (near  South-  • 
I            anipton.)             J 

December. 

145     0 

121     9i 

38     2 

13     3 

944 

Orpheus     - 

36 

Deptfont  Yard. 

Mav. 

145     0 

121     9i 

3S     4 

13     3 

944 

Pyramus    - 

.'36 

Portsmouth  Yard. 

October. 

145     0 

115  11] 

38     2 

11    11 

89!) 

Saldanha  - 

36 

Soutli  Shields. 

June. 

145     0 

121     9J 

38     2 

13     3 

944 

Theban 

30 

i  Warsash,  (near  South-  •> 
<•            anipton.) 

July. 

145     0 

121     94 

38     S 

13     3 

944 

Nereus  -    - 

32 

South  Shields. 

March. 

144     1 

121     8 

37     8 

12     5 

918 

Perseus 

22 

Kingmore,  Devon. 

July. 

118     0 

98     7 

31     6 

10     3 

520 

(SLOOPS.) 

Partridge  - 

22 

Dartmouth. 

April. 

108     4 

31  10 

29    7 

9    0 

423 

Jalouse 

2« 

Plymouth  Yard. 

May. 

108     4 

yo  10 

29    7 

9    0 

423 

(BRIGS.) 

Beaver 

22 

Ipswich. 

Laun.  1  6th  Feb 

89    7 

73     1 

27     7 

11     1 

236 

Crane 

22 

t  Frinsbury,  (near  Chat-  ^ 
<.              ham.)                 j 

August. 

100    0 

77    Si 

30    6 

1?    9 

3S2 

Arachne     - 

82 

Sandwich. 

March. 

100    21 

77    9 

30    7 

13     !) 

386 

Charybdis 

22 

fHythe,    (near   South--) 
I            ampton.) 

July. 

100    0 

7  /          •     i 

30     6 

12     9 

382 

Castilian  - 

22 

Sandwich. 

May. 

100    0 

77     3} 

30    6 

12     9 

382 

Echo 
Hecate 

22 
22 

Krinsbury. 
Diver  Medway. 

September. 
Aueust. 

100    0 
100    0 

77     3} 

77     3! 

30     6 
30     fi 

19     9 
12     9 

382 

IVraian 

22 

Cowes,  Isle  o'i'  Wight. 

May. 

100    0 

77     3i 

30     6 

12     9 

SS2 

KiPeman   - 

C2 

Medwav. 

August. 

100     0 

77     .15 

SO     6 

12     9 

382 

Soilllit; 

22 

Frinsbury. 

September. 

100    0 

77     3i 

30     6 

12     9 

S82 

ScvlU. 
Tliracian    - 

22 

aa 

Topsham. 
l-'rinsbury. 

June. 
July. 

100    0 
100     0 

77    3} 
77     Si 

30     (i 

r.o    (i 

12     9 

12    9 

3S2 

Xrplivr      -        • 

24 

Portsmouth  Yard. 

June. 

f)2    0 

7*     Si 

25     6 

K'     ft 

°  >  1 

Trinculo    - 

22 

Burslcdon. 

June. 

100    0 

77     31 

30    6 

12    9 

S*2 

COMMERCIAL   HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  IQ7 

THE  FOLLOWING  IS  TIIF.  ANSWER  THAT  WAS  RETURNED  BY  THE 
BOARD  TO  THE  REJECTED  PETITION  OF  THE  CAPTAINS  IN  TIJE 
BOYAL  NAVY. 

SIR,  Admiralty  Office,  January  6,  1809. 

I  AM  commanded  by  my  Lords  Commis?ioncrs  of  the  Admiralty 
to  signify  their  direction  to  you,  to  acquaint  the  captains  and  com- 
manders who  signed  the  memorials  which  you  transmitted  to  me 
on  the  22d  of  last  month,  that  their  lordships,  upon  a  full  exami- 
nation of  the  contents  of  the  said  memorials,  consider  the  prayer 
therein  contained  to  be  wholly  inadmissible.  The  pay  of  the  cap. 
tains  and  commanders  of  his  majesty's  fleet,  in  common  with  the 
pay  of  all  ranks  of  officers  in  his  majesty's  navy,  and  of  the  petty- 
officers  and  seamen,  was  increased,  by  the  king-^s  order  in  council 
of  the  23d  of  April,  1806,  in  such  proportions  as  were  considered 
to  be  just,  after  the  most  mature  deliberation ;  and  nothing  has 
occurred  within  the  very  short  period  that  has  since  elapsed,  to 
induce  their  lordships  to  think  it  expedient  to  recommend  a  farther 
increase  of  pay  to  the  captains  and  commanders  of  his  majesty's 
ships.  I  have  their  lordships'  further  commands  to  acquaint  you, 
that  they  regret  that  an  application  of  this  nature  should  have 
been  preferred  so  recently,  after  his  majesty  had  extended  his 
gracious  bounty  to  all  ranks  in  the  navy,  and  that  you  should 
have  been  the  channel  through  which  a  memorial,  so  ill-timed  and 
inadmissible,  has  been  transmitted.  I  am,  £c. 

W.  W.  POLE. 

THE    FOLLOWING    IS    THE    REPLY    OF    THE    CAPTAINS    TO    THE 
SECRETARY. 

SIR,  January  10,  1809. 

THE  undersigned  captains  and  commanders  of  his  majesty's 
navy,  who  signed  a  memorial  for  the  increase  of  their  pay  and 
emoluments,  on  the  22d  ult.  having  laid  before  them  the  senti- 
ments of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  thereon,  con- 
veyed through  you,  beg  leave,  with  proper  respect  to  their  lord- 
ships, both  personally  and  from  their  office,  to  express  their  grief 
and  surprize,  that  their  memorial,  couched  as  it  ivas  in  respoct- 
ful  language,  as  well  as  the  matter  of  it  undeniable,  should  be 
considered  wholly  inadmissible ;  and  farther,  that  it  should  be 
stated  to  have  been  preferred  so  recently  after  the  extension  of  his 
majesty's  gracious  bounty  to  all  ranks  of  his  navy,  insinuating 
thereby  that  it  was  indecorous.  They  think  it  right  respectfully 


198  NAVAL    ANECDOTES, 

to  observe,  that  the  "  inadraissibility  "  of  the  memorial  is,  and 
can  only  be,  in  the  breast  of  their  lordships  ;  and  that  the  gra- 
cious bounty  of  his  majesty  was  in  fact  putting  into  one  hand  what 
was^taken  out  of  the  other  by  the  Income  Tax,  and  that  a  charge 
of  five  per  cent,  was  made  on  their  prize-money  paid  into  Green- 
wich, and  ultimately  a  third  of  it  taken  away  altogether,  without 
their  rank  being  consulted,  except  in  a  very  slight  degree,  s'.nce 
such  bounty  Avas  extended  to  them. 

The  extraordinary  rise  in  every  article,  from  that  of  the  first 
necessity  to  those  that  may  be  dispensed  with,  it  is  scarcely 
necessary  to  advert  to  ;  their  lordships  and  yourself  feeling  such 
pressure  on  their  incomes,  in  common  with  the  rest  of  his  majesty's 
subjects. 

The  undersigned,  however,  wish  to  impress  upon  their  lordships, 
and  request  with  your  usual  ability  you  will  do  it,  that  they  have 
been  operated  upon  by  no  other  motive  than  a  wish  to  make  known, 
in  a  proper  and  respectful  manner,  the  extent  of  their  pecuniary 
situation.  We  are,  &c. 

In  Volume  XV  of  our  CHRONICLE,  page  195,  is  a  letter  from 
c  A  Poor  Post  Captain,'  relating  to  the  pay  of  officers  of  that 
rank. 

BUAZILS. 

THE  following  letter  affordi  us  the  hope  that  the  sovereign  of 
the  Brazils,  should  he  be  driven  to  assume  this  as  his  only  efficient 
title,  will,  in  that  character,  shew  himself  a  vigorous  and  formidable 
adversary  to  his  persecutor  in  Europe  : — 

"  Extract  of  a  leticr,  dated  Slatzrock,  December  31,  1808. 

cc  By  the  Dolphin  schooner,  from  Surinam,  we  have  the  impor- 
tant and  pleasing  intelligence  of  a  Portuguese  expedition  from  the 
Brazils  against  Cayenne  having  actually  arrived  in  that  latitude. 
A  Portuguese  gun-boat  wbich  had  dropped  to  leeward  has  put 
into  Surinam,  and  communicated  the  information.  It  was  first 
supposed  that  this  expedition  might  be  partly  British,  under  Sir 
Sidney  Smith  ;  but  it  is  stated  to  be  wholly  Portuguese,  and  to 
consist  of  seven  thousand  men.  The  above  boat  has  seventy 
Indians  on  board,  and  three  or  four  cannon,  one  of  which  is  a 
24-pounder.  Several  attempts  were  made  to  beat  her  up,  that  she 
might  join  in  the  glory  of  her  companions,  but  in  vain.  The  plan 
is  said  to  be,  to  land  a  chosen  body  of  Indians  (good  marksmen) 
to  windward  of  Cayennej  to  penetrate  through  the  bushes,  while 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


the  grand  attack  is  made  by  the  gun-boats,  &c.  on  the  batteries. 
Victor  Hughes  is  said  to  hare  a  garrison  of  five  hundred  men  ;  but 
his  ordnance  is  in  a  bad  state,  many  of  the  cannon  being  dis- 
mounted. The  Portuguese  were  very  confident  of  success,  and 
we  hope  to  have  the  pleasure  of  stating  it  in  our  next." 

I 

SAN    DOMINGO.* 

A  74,  of  great  beauty,  was  launched  at  Deptford,  on  the  3d 
of  March  ;  she  was  first  laid  down  in  1806.  The  wood  is  said  to 
have  been  obtained  from  Germany.  We  are  unable  to  discover 
why  such  a  name  was  given  her,  which  sounds  more  like  that  of  a 
West  Indiaman.  Sir  Home  Popham  is  appointed  to  command  her. 
Nothing  is  so  little  attended  to,  as  giving  appropriate  names,  and 
such  as  have  long  been  distinguished  in  naval  history,  to  our  ships. 
The  name  of  an  individual  should  never  be  adopted,  unless  when 
his  heroism  and  naval  service  had  been  unprecedented. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

PRESENT  MANAGEMENT  AND  DISCIPLINE  OF  THE  NAVY. 

LETTER  XII. 
SIR, 

I  fear  that  the  patience  both  of  yourself  and  your  readers  will 
begin  to  fail  at  my  lengthened  correspondence,  and  that  you 
wish  me  above  all  other  qualifications,  the  power  of  compressing  my 
thoughts  and  opinions  within  more  limited  bounds.  I  rely,  how- 
ever, on  the  importance  of  the  matters  I  have  been  discussing,  as 
the  only  excuse  for  my  intrusion,  being  fully  aware  how  inadequate 
my  manner  of  performing  the  task  I  have  volunteered,  is  to  the 
consequence  of  its  being  well  performed.  In  my  last  letter  T  con. 
sidcred  the  difference  of  opinion  which  exists  respecting  popularity^ 
and  I  intend  at  present  to  offer  a  few  observations  with  regard  to 
follorzerS)  a  subject  which  has  also  found  many  warm  advocates  as 
well  as  opponents,  and  which  I  must  allow  from  experience  admits 
almost  beyond  all  others,  "  much  to  be  said  on  both  sides."  Yet 
that  there  should  be  any  drawback  upon  a  system  so  attractive  as 
that  of  being  surrounded  by  old  and  faithful  adherents,  is  much  to 

•*  For  her  dimension5,  &<:.  see  page  l?c>. 


200  CORRESPONDENCE 

be  lamented,  and  it  appears  so  unreasonable  that  any  such  should 
exist,  that  I  cannot  help  thinking  some  better  management  might 
be  adopted,  by  means  of  which  the  evils  of  the  system  might  be 
obviated,  and  its  benefits  enlarged. 

One  rule  should  be  invariable,  that  in  cases  of  petty  officers  and 
seamen  being  permitted  to  remove  from  one  ship  to  another  with 
their  captain,  both  parties  should  have  their  option  ;  and  when  the 
captain  has  selected  his  allowed  number,  the  question  should  be 
openly  put,  whether  the  men  he  has  chosen  are  perfectly  willing 
or  desirous  of  the  proposed  change.  A  captain  should  be  always 
indulged  in  his  choice  of  a  first  lieutenant  and  master,  whenever  it 
is  possible,  as  it  is  of  great  importance  that  full  confidence  should 
be  placed  in  these  officers.  Young  gentlemen  under  the  care  of  a 
captain  can  hardly  ever  be  refused  to  be  removed  with  him. 

I  conclude,  that  there  are  few  captains  so  unconnected,  as  not 
to  be  able,  in  the  event  of  a  war  breaking  out,  to  raise  many  men 
on  the  terms  of  their  being  allowed  to  sail  under  his  command  as 
long  as  the  service  could  possibly  admit  of  it,  and  of  course  of 
being  removed  with  him  from  one  ship  to  another.  I  should  think 
that  this  measure  would  save  a  considerable  expense  in  rendezvous 
and  the  impress  service,  and  certainly  be  more  congenial  to  British 
feelings,  than  the  present  mode,  by  which  men  are  considered  to 
enter  for  the  service  at  large,  and  not  for  the  ship  or  captain  of 
their  choice,  and  in  consequence  very  many  volunteers  are  kept 
back  from  the  navy.  It  damps  that  ardour  of  attachment,  which, 
stimulates  to  a  proper  pride  of  action,  and  deadens  the  genuine 
fire  of  emulation,  which  is  of  such  essential  moment.  In  the  pre- 
sent mode  we  are  reduced  to  the  disgrace  of  having  our  between- 
decks  too  often  filled  up  by  the  off-scourings  of  jails,  and  the  re- 
fuse of  the  parishes.  1  am  aware,  that  after  the  gallant,  the  heroic 
exploits  which  have  been  performed,  and  are  performing,  by  our 
gallant  tars  under  the  present  system,  it  may  seem  a  presumption, 
if  not  a  folly,  to  attempt  even  a  proposal  of  innovation  ;  and  that 
•we  should  rest  satisfied  with  whatever  mode  it  may  be  which  pro- 
duces men,  who,  under  the  guidance  of  their  officers,  perform  such 
noble  acts  of  valour  and  bold  daring.  But  Britons,'  raised  in  any 
other  way,  would  undoubtedly  be  fully  equal  to  whatever  is  now 
done,  and  if  to  an  equal  degree  of  bodily  exertion  and  energy  of  cou- 
rage, we  could  add  to  the  moral  worth  of  our  crews,  and  in  a  great 
measure  put  an  end  to  the  prevalence  of  desertion,  a  crime  so  mor- 
tifying to  the  officer,  and  so  expensive  to  the  country,  very  essen- 
tial benefit  would  ensue.  A  small  number  of  chosen  men  wouM 


CORRESPONDENCE.  201 

answer  the  purpose  of  a  larger,  in  which  many  weak  and  worthless 
are  included,  and  the  great  article  of  health  would  be  considerably 
improved.  After  a  considerable  degree  of  attention  with  which  I 
have  considered  this  important  subject,  I  should  be  desirous,  in 
addition  to  the  mode  of  volunteers  before  mentioned,  to  try  to  man. 
our  fleets  as  much  as  possible  according  to  the  admirable  plan  of 
limited  service  proposed  by  Mr.  Windham  for  the  army.  In- 
creased pay,  and  other  advantages,  at  the  expiration  of  every  seven 
years  of  actual  service,  with  the  cheering  certainty  of  a  competence 
in  old  age  for  all  those  "  who  weather  the  storm,"  would,  I  should 
conceive,  very  soon  make  that  ever  hateful,  however  now  unfor- 
tunately necessary  tyranny  of  the  impress,  only  like  a  tale  that  is 
told,  and  the  next  generation  would  hardly  credit  its  having  beea 
really  in  existence. 

A  plan  qf  this  immense  importance,  however,  requires  very 
mature  deliberation,  and  at  present  I  only  offer  the  above  sugges- 
tion, in  the  hopes  that  some  one  of  your  readers,  of  more  ability 
than  myself,  would  endeavour  to  improve  it  into  a  practicable  shape. 
Should  I  be  disappointed  in  my  expectations,  I  shall  probv.bly  ven- 
ture at  an  attempt  to  reduce  my  present  crude  ideas  into  some  pro- 
posal  for  a  pla,n  of  such  very  high  importance  to  this  country. 

The  article  followers,  Mr.  Editor,  stands  the  last  in  the  memo- 
randum of  the  subjects  I  had  allotted  myself,  when  I  first  deter- 
mined to  offer  any  thing  like  a  series  of  observations  on  the  state 
and  discipline  of  the  navy,  and  your  indulgence  has  encouraged  me 
till  I  perceive  my  communications  amount  to  a  a  round  dozen  ;" 
and  if  the  infliction  of  the  punishment  of  reading  twelve  pretty 
long  letters,  proves  of  any  benefit  to  yourself  and  your  subscribers, 
I  shall  feel  great  and_ lively  satisfaction.  They  have  been  written 
with  the  most  sincere  good  intentions,  and  not  without  some  hope 
that  they  might  draw  serious  and  attentive  consideration  to  many 
points  of  service,  which  are  too  often  passed  over  as  matters  of 
course;  and  as  affairs  of  daily  recurrence,  are  not  thought  worthy 
of  daily  examination.  But  this  shouM  not  be  the  case,  for  the 
very  important  duties  both  of  command  and  obedience,  require  no 
small  portion  of  accurate  consideration  and  constant  care,  that  they 
may  be  performed  upon  a  proper  principle,  in  order  that  they  may 
lead  to  the  most  useful  result. 

Should  my  expectations  and  hopes  be  well  founded,  that  my 
remarks  have  in  any  degree  served  to  elucidate  the  true  and 
rational  nature  of  discipline  in  the  various  gradations  of  rank  in 

\ 

/9a&,  ££1811.  (Hoi.  XXL  D  » 


202  CORRESPONDENCE. 

our  service  ;  that  they  may  benefit  my  readers  by  my  recommen- 
dation of  a  general  feeling  of  benevolence  to  all  our  fellow  crea- 
tures, how  low  soever  some  of  their  stations  may  be ;  and  that  my 
expressed  trust  that  the  crews  of  the  ships  of  the  British  navy  are 
improving  in  moral  worth,  and  above  all,  in  Christian  excellence, 
may  be  confirmed,  then  will  the  most  heartfelt  gratifications  result 
to  your  Correspondent, 

A.  F.  Y. 

ERRATA. — Present  Vol.  page  29,  line  14,  for  island  read  islands;  line 
three  from  bottom,  for  store  read  stove ;  page  30,  line  nine  from  bottom, 
for  vile  read  rife  ;  page  31,  line  eight  from  bottom,  for  me  read  one  ;  page 
S4,  bottom  line,  leave  out,  of  it;  page  35,  line  ten  from  the  bottom,  for 
prop  re&dfrap ;  line  eight  from  bottom,  for  by  read  beg;  same  page,  line 
seven  from  bottom,  for  board  read  boards. 


THE   BREST    FLEET. 
MR.    EDITOR, 

Brest  fleet  has  left  its  port,  and  although  now  blockaded 
by  ours  of  the  Channel,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rochefort, 
may,  before  the  expiration  of  another  month,  be  again  at  liberty 
on  the  ocean.  Towards  which  point  then  is  it  destined  to  steer  ? 
To  Ferrol,  to  Cadiz,  to  Ceuta,  to  the  Balearic  isles,  to  Marti- 
nique, or  to  Spanish  America  ?  All  these  have  been  conjectured 
and  named,  and  despatches,  it  is  said,  indicating  their  approach  to 
the  Antilles.,  have  lately  been  intercepted. 

To  such  despatches,  whether  fabricated  for  the  purpose  or  not, 
the  critical  situation  of  several  islands  appear  to  give  weight ;  but 
if  we  properly  keep  in  mincl  the  uniform  conduct  of  Buonaparte, 
at  momentous  periods  like  this,  if  we  recollect  his  utter  contempt 
for  distant  possessions,  whenever  their  wants  have  clashed  with  the 
interest  of  his  battles  for  empire ;  if  we  reckon  up  the  months 
that  have  been  lost,  while  his  fleets  have  continued  in  inactivity, 
and  now  compare  the  aspect  of  Europe,  with  the  actual  appear- 
ance of  a  fleet  on  the  seas,  we  shall,  in  spite  of  these  despatches, 
and  of  various  movements  by  his  squadron,  be  unavoidably  led  to 
conclude,  that  the  object  kept  in  view  by  the  Brest  fleet,  is  no 
way,  unless  for  the  purposes  of  deception,  connected  with  any 
remote  expedition.  Among  the  conjectures  that  lean  to  the  Con- 
tinent, Ferrol,  from  its  proximity,  from  the  naval  force  it  con- 
tains, and  from  the  interest  created  by  recent  events,  is  precisely 
the  conjecture,  of  all  others,  that  possesses  a  claim  to  priority  of 


CORRESPONDENCE.  203 

attention.  At  Ferrol,  it  is  understood,  there  is  now  lying  a  naval 
force,  which  to  every  maritime  power  trn-vl  appear  a  desirable  ac- 
quisition. But  is  it,  I  would  ask,  before  MO  proceed,  is  :t  at  the 
same  ti-ne  understood,  that  those  ship*  are  at  present  in  a  condition 
for  sai':n,i  r  is  it  even  believed,  that  a  single  Spanish  sailor  can  be 
brought  forward  for  the  purpci •?.  of  equipping  them?  Or  if  sailors 
could  \",-i  procured,  is  it  not  probable  that  several  weeks  mu-  n- 
tervt-ne,  befou;  f!ie  enemy  could  possibly  be  benefited  by  AT 
actual  co-operation  ?  And  in  that  case,  considering  the  activity  of 
ou;  Hcvts,  and  that  favourable  weather  is  rapidly  advancing,  would 
they  not,  in  all  human  probability,  be  successfully  blockaded? 

Tin-  troops  of  r  ranee  we  are  told,  are  in  tranquil  possession  of 
the  port  where  the  shipping  are  lying.  Where  then  is  the  necessity 
of  risking  a  fleet  to  secure  them  ?  Or  if  their  co-operation  be 
wanted,  where  are  the  seamen  to  navigate  them ;  for,  if  even  the 
Spaniards  are  to  be  bribed  into  traitors,  is  the  "  ra/y  Cor&ican" 
so  shallow  a  dupe  as  to  trust  them?  Now,  taking  the  opposite 
side  to  that  which  has  been  premised,  let  us  suppose,  with  many 
politicians,  that  Buonaparte  is  on  the  eve  of  withdrawing  his  troops 
into  Germany,  how  then  will  the  entrance  of  his  fleet  into  Ferrol 
at  such  a  time  be  consistent  with  policy  ?  Can  Cadiz  be  forgotten, 
can  he  hope,  on  the  retreat  of  his  troops,  for  any  better  result 
than  capture  by  the  English,  or  unconditional  surrender  to  the 
Spaniards.  The  improbability  of  Cadiz,  Ceuta,  the  Balearic  isles, 
or  any  port  in  the  Spanish  peninsula,  being  its  principal  destina- 
tion, may  be  argued  in  nearly  a  similar  manner ;  for,  unless  trea- 
chery has  bet n  most  triumphantly  at  work,  there  does  not  appear 
any  adequate  object  on  this  side  of  Toulon.  But  with  whatever 
justice  this  reasoning  may  apply  to  the  islands  and  ports  in  the 
lower  Mediterranean,  the  jut  bl  the  arguments  becomes  essentially 
different,  as  we  advance  towards  the  kingdom  of  Naples  ;  for  it  is 
in  such  countries  as  the  kingdom  of  IN' a  pies,  that  usurpers  may 
calculate.  There,  calculations  may  safely  be  relied  on  ;  for 
there,  man  is  truly  degenerate.  It  may  safely  be  said,  that, 
except,  in  the  mountains  of  Calabria,  nothing  remains  of  the 
masters  of  the  world  but  the  vices  which  subdued  them.  The  whole 
of  the  territory  of  Naples,  it  is  sufficiently  known,  has  long  since 
been  bowed  down  to  the  sway  of  the  Buonapartes,  while  the 
beautiful  island  of  Sicily,  so  nearly  united,  and  so  closely  con- 
nected by  individual  and  political  relations,  has  hitherto  bidden 
successful  defiance  to  the  decrees  and  machinations  of  the  enemy. 
This  island^  so  endeared  by  classic  and  scientific  recollections,  has 


204  COURESPONDENCE, 

in  all  ages  been  an  object  of  contention  among  the  powers  of  the 
Mediterranean,  «m<l  in  France,  so  long  ago  as  immediately  after 
the  assault  of  Alexandria,  it  became  a  subject  of  notorious  regret, 
thai  the  invasion ,  of  Egypt,  and  Malta,  should  have  been  pre- 
ferred by  the  directory,  to  those  of  Sicily  and  Greece.  And 
indeed,  if*we  consider  the  prodigious  advantage  of  its  geographical 
position,  the  extent  of  its  surface  (9,400  square  miles),  the  num- 
ber and  excellence  of  its  ports,  created  as  it  were  to  control  at 
once  the  seas  of  the  Adriatic  and  Levant ;  that  astonishing  fertility 
of  soil,  that  constituted  it  so  long  the  granary  of  Rome;  the  value 
of  its  additional  exports,  its  sugar,  silk,  cotton,  oil,  salt,  sulphur, 
amber,  and  precious  stones,  with  all  the  rich  variety  of  its  wines  ; 
if  we  properly  estimate  these,  together  with  the  articles  consumed 
by  the  natives,  and  take  also  into  just  consideration,  the  osten- 
tatious pledge  of  that  decree,  which  was  said  to  hurl  Ferdinand 
from  his  throne,  the  late  insurrection  in  Calabria,  the  battle  of 
Maida,  with  the  numerous  troops  which  the  residence  of  the 
sovereign  at  Palermo,  and  the  presence  of  a  British  army,  make 
absolutely  necessary  for  the  security  of  Naples,  we  shall, 
I  think,  hardly  be  able  to  express  our  surprise,  that  some 
great  and  extraordinary  efforts  have  not  long  before  this  been 
made  at  invasion.  But  if  to  those  reflections,  we  add  the  incon- 
trovertible fact,  that  vast  preparations  for  such  a  purpose,  at 
different  parts  of  the  coast,  have  been  daily  accumulating;  that  a 
nezzi  and  martial  king,  or,  as  the  French  call  him,  the  brilliant 
Murat,  at  this  moment  professes  to  head  an  army  assembled  for 
the  enterprise;  that  the  capture  of  Capri  is  held  out  as  a  specimen  ; 
and  to  crown  all,  that  nothing  but  the  fear  of  our  naval  superiority 
has  hitherto  deterred  the  fleet  at  Toulon  from  covering  the  opera- 
tion ;  we  shall,  most  assuredly,  I  say,  in  spite  of  our  Ferrol  and 
western  predilection,  be  forcibly  led  to  decide,  that  the  sailing  of 
the  Brest  fleet  is  principally  or  solely  directed  to  the  subjugation 
of  Sicily.  Now  let  us  see  in  what  respect,  and  in  what  degree,^- 
the  prosecution  of  this  invasion  interferes  with  the  great  and  imme- 
diate energies  of  the  enemy.  In  every  former  continental  war  it 
has  been  his  uniform  policy,  disregarding  all  remote  considera- 
tions, to  bring  together  from  every  part  an  overwhelming  supe- 
riority, wherever  the  decisive  battle  was  likely  to  be  fought  with 
the  enemy.  In  pursuit  of  this  object,  Naples  has  been  twice 
altogether,  or  nearly  abandoned,  and  the  sea  coast  of  France  and 
Holland  left  almost  defenceless.  But  let  it  be  recollected,  that  on 
the  latter  coast3  unless  some  great  preparation  were  exposed  to  4 


CORRESPONDENCE.  205 

CQ8p-de-main  from  the  English,  there  was  in  reality  little  or 
nothing  to  be  apprehended,  and  such  places  as  Boulogne,  it  may 
be  presumed,  were  adequately  defended  ;  for  what  but  insanity 
could  carry  an  army  for  the  mere  purpose  of  devastation,  and 
what  would  be  the  immediate  effect  of  such  depredations  ?  What, 
but  furious  irritation  against  the  burners  of  their  dwellings,  and  an 
enthusiastic  resort  to  those  very  measures  of  local  defence,  which 
even  the  power  of  Buonaparte  is  cautious  of  commanding  ?  With 
respect  to  the  former  abandonment  of  Naples,  the  ground  on 
•which  it  was  ordered,  was  essentially  different  from  that  which  the 
question  rests  on  at  present.  At  first,  that  country  was  amused 
with  the  name  of  an  independant  republic,  and  republics,  it  was 
presumed,  should  readily  arm  themselves  for  their  defence;  since 
then,  the  crown  has  been  placed  on  the  head  of  a  Frenchman,  and 
on  this  consideration,  a  small  proportion  of  troops,  even  in  the 
greatest  emergency,  were  left  by  the  enemy  for  its  defence.  But 
the  insurrection  of  the  Calabrians,  and  the  battle  of  Maida,  have 
shown  their  insufficiency.  A  large  army  has  been  subsequently 
cantoned  there,  and  as  long  as  there  is  the  slightest  pretence  for 
calling  Ferdinand  their  King,  a  considerable  military  force  will  be 
required  to  overawe  them.  The  events  in  Spain,  among  a  people 
similarly  situated,  must  have  added  considerably  to  the  distrust ; 
and  unless  the  Emperor  of  France,  who  aims  at  the  force  and  the 
character  of  a  destiny  among  nations,  is  willing  to  see  his  predic- 
tions and  decrees  stripped  of  all  their  illusions,  he  must  not,  at  this 
critical  conjuncture,  venture  upon  withdrawing  the  army  from 
Italy,  or  not  till  he  has  successfully  availed  himself  of  the  means  he 
possesses  for  invasion. 

It  is  now  of  importance  to  consider  what  will  be  the  consequence 
of  his  attempt  at  invasion.  Let  us  take  for  granted  that  his  means 
are  already  prepared,  and  that  he  only  waits  the  protection  of  a 
naval  force  to  insure  him  a  landing.  Let  us  suppose,  that  the  fleet 
at  Rochefort  has  escaped  during  the  approaching  gales — that  ours 
has  pursued  them  towards  Cadiz,  or  the  West  Indies ;  while  they, 
choosing  their  course,  have  entered  the  Straits,  and  steered  either 
direct  for  Naples,  or  to  form  a  junction  with  the  fleet  that  is  ex- 
pecting them  at  Toulon.  If  our  ships  are  blockading  Toulon,  the 
Frenchmen,  aware  of  the  fact,  will  proceed  without  opposition  to 
cover  the  invasion  ;  if,  on  the  contrary,  they  arc  assembled  for  the 
protection  of  the  island,  the  French  fleet  will  proceed  to  the 
junction,  and  afterwards  have  nothing  to  fear,  from  their  num. 
bers.  Now  supposing  them  lauded  superior  in  numbers  to  the 


206  COURESPONDENCK. 

English  they  will  have  to  encounter,  if  they  obtain  possession  of 
Messina,  and  the  land  that  is  nearest  to  Calabria,  a  port  of  safety 
will  be  found  for  (heir  ships,  while  an  uninterrupted  intercourse 
•with  Naples  from  the  possession  of  both  shores,  will  be  constantly 
maintained ;  here  then,  even  during  the  struggle,  they  will  bo 
gainers  ;  for  it  is  evident,  that  the  same  army  that  may  be  equal  to 
coping  with  an  enemy  in  Sicily,  might  be  glaringly  insufficient  to 
protect,  an  extensive  range  of  coast  from  their  desultory  warfare: 
and  if,  as  they  confidently  expect,  they  should  succeed  in  the  con- 
flict, less  troops  may  be  found  necessary  to  garrison  it,  and  a  great 
army,  comparatively,' set  at  liberty,  by  cutting  up  at  the  roots,  iu 
Palermo,  the  source  of  insurrection  ir.  Calabria.  It  is  extremely, 
natural,  for  persons  unacquainted  with  the  government,  and  the 
flagitious  oppressions  of  the  feudal  Barons  in  Sicily,  to  suppose, 
that  some  assis.'ance  might  be  expected  by  our  armies  from  the 
population  which  surrounds  them.  It  is  very  natural  to  conclude, 
-that  the  inhabitants  o!  an  island,  thrice  chosen  as  an  asylum  by 
fugitive  royalty,  must  be  eminently  conspicuous,  if  riot  for  the 
milder  virtues,  at  least  for  their  bravery,  or  if  not  for  their  bra- 
very, for  a  virtue  s'.ill  dearer  to  kings,  unquenchable  loyalty  ; 
but  alas!  how  miserably  erroneous  are  ail  such  conclusions  !  This 
fugitive,  but  happy  monarch — happy,  because  his  gratifications  are 
inciependant  of  royalty  ;  *  this  persecuted  Ferdinand,  who,  one 
•would  imagine,  was  adored  by  the  subjects  he  flew  to,  has  twice 
been  received  by  them,  as  a  man  whose  necessities  had  forced  him 
to  their  dwellings,  as  one,  who  when  his  circumstances  will  no 
longer  admit  of  extortion  by  viceroys,  returns  to  his  domains 
escorted  by  foreigners,  to  play  the  part  of  a  viceroy,  and  plunder 
them  himself.  Such  is  the  tone  of  feeling  which  prevails  among  this 
suffering  population  :  such  are  the  feelings  which  have  prepared 
1,300.000  souls  to  look  on  Avith  indifference,  or  to  hail  with  joy, 
the  army  of  invaders  ;  while  an  army  of  foreigners,  rioting  in  lux- 
uries in  the  midst  of  their  privations ;  boasting  of  their  freedom 
while  sanctioning  oppression,  shame  by  comparison,  and  insult  by 

*  Ferdinand,  King  of  ilie  Two  Sicilies,  is  extraordinarily  fond  of  fishing 
and  shooting,  and  it  is  said,  that  on  the  approach  of  the  French  army  to 
Naples,  when,  while  all  was  tumult  in  the  city,  he  and  his  court  sought  re- 
fuge in  the  ship  of' Lord  Nelson  ;  the  gallant  admiral,  who  felt  deeply  for 
his  misfortunes,  had  prepared  to  escort  him  with  an  air  indicative  of  his 
feelings  ;  but  what  must  have  been  the  astonishment  of  our  immortal  hero, 
when  the  fugitive  monarch,  hurrying  into  the  cabin,  eagerly  demanded,  »f 
any  of  the  fish' he  was  so  fond  of  had  been  provided jor  his  suppsr! 


CORRESPONDENCE.  207 

comment,  their  silent  apathy,  and  speaking  miseries.  Let  the  men 
who  expect  energy  from  such  a  people,  in  the  defence  of  royalty, 
look  to  the  gilded  swarm  of  Iocu»ts,  which  in  the  name  of  nobility, 
eat  up  every  green  herb  reared  by  their  industry ;  Irt  them  look 
to  the  chit-Is  of  the  Baronies,  who  tax  at  their  own  pleasure,  the 
very  necessaries  of  life  produced  by  the  toil  of  the  peasant  and  his 
family  ;  a  race  of  tyrants,  who  are  even  tenacious  of  the  rights^ 
by  which  they  can  condemn  hundreds  of  families  to  starvation, 
while  every  other  district  in  the  island  is  rebelling  in  abundance. 
Let  them  go  higher,  to  the  general  government;  let  them  see  the 
accused  who  never  knows  the  accus.  r ;  let  them  follow  that 
accused  into  the  dreary  dungeon,  where  his  protestations  of  inno- 
cence, and  his  prayers  for  a  trial,  are  never  heard  but  by  his 
Maker  ;  or  let  them,  relieved  from  these  horrible  doings, 
follow  with  gladdened  heart  the  joyous  steps  of  the  emaciated 
wretch,  whose  friends  have  bribed  for  his  trial;  let  them  see  the 
horrid  conversion  of  smiling  hope  to  dreadful  agony,  as  .they 
behold  this  climax  of  infamy — Sicilian  justice^  founded  on  Sicilian 
TORTUKE;  then,  let  them  say — Will  Sicily  be  defended  ?  Equally 
erroneous  is  the  expectation  that  some  defence  will  be  made  by  the 
army,  and  those  nobility  who  fatten  by  the  oppressions. *  The  prin- 
cipal nobility  have  estates  in  the  territory  of  Naples,  but  they  are 
an  effeminate  generation  ;  their  fears  and  their  property  alike  impel 
them  to  wish  evil  to  the  men  whose  presence  perpetuates  the 
disunion.  As  to  the  army,  it  is  notorious,  that  wheu  the  King  of 
Naples  made  the  greatest  exertions  for  his  safety,  the  greater  part 
of  the  commissions  for  officers  were~bought  by  the  French  minister, 
and  given  to  men  avowedly  attached  to  their  cause.  Of  the  pri, 
vateSj  I  shall  conclude  Avith  an  anecdote,  worth  a  thousand  argu- 
ments, to  prove  howr  little  the  pride  or  honour  of  a  soldier  is  che- 
rished among  them.  During  the  time  a  British  ship  of  war  was 
lying  at  I\lessina,  nothing  was  more  common  than  for  half  disguised 
soldiers  to  come  and  ofl'er  themselves  for  sailors;  so  much  so,  that 
guards  were  placed  for  the  purpose  of  preventing  desertion,  and  it 
actually  happened,  that  one,  fully  accoutred,  having  entered  a 
boat,  refused  to  go  back  to  his  post,  though  a  corporal's  guard 
came  in  much  form  to  claim  him ;  in  the  course  of  the  exclama- 
tions and  interrogatories  put  ny  the  corporal,  it  appeared  that  the 
poor  wreio.i  had  bsen  enticed  by  the  promise  of  eight  dollars, 
which  he  had  heard  some  of  the  seamen  say  would  be  given  fee 
volunteers.  iVo  sooner  was  this  sum  mentioned,  than  the  coun- 
tenance of.  the  corporal  and  the  \vhole  guard  underwent  an  install- 


208  CORRESPONDENCE. 

taneous  change.  Eight  dollars,  he  exclaimed,  and  prize  money  (o 
boot !  Holy  virgin  !  comrades,  what  can  we  better  do  ?  And  it 
is  an  absolute  fact,  that  the  partly  instantly  piled  their  arms,  and 
it  was  only  by  shoving  the  boat  away  from  the  wharf,  that  the 
-officer  was  able  to  reach  his  ship  without  this  extraordinary 
cargo. 

F.  F.  F. 
^».^.^ 

MR.    EDITOR, 

IT  is  now  three  years  since  Parliament  voted  that  90,0001.  should 
be  placed  in  the  hands  of  certain  commissioners,  for  the  pur. 
pose  of  purchasing  a  mansion  and  estate  to  be  annexed  to  the  title 
of  Earl  Nelson.  In  common  with  the  rest  of  my  countryman,  I 
have  long  felt  anxious  to  hear  that  the  sum  thus  voted  has  been 
applied  to  the  end  proposed.  But  as  nothing  has  transpired  upon 
the  subject,  I  can  no  longer  resist  the  temptation  which  1  feel  to 
inquire,  through  the  medium  of  your  work,  what  steps  have  been 
taken  by  the  commissioners,  and  whjBther  they  are,  or  have  been, 
in.  treaty  for  any  property  in  consequence  of  the  powers  which 
they  received  from  Parliament  in  1806  ?  You,  Mr.  Editor,  may 
perhaps  possess  some  information  upon  this  point.  If  such  be  the 
case,  I  must  beg  you  to  communicate  it  to  the  public.  Every 
Englishman,  I  firmly  believe,  most  heartily  rejoiced  at  the  grant 
made  by  Parliament,  and  many  would  have  been  still  better  pleased, 
had  even  a  larger  sum  been  voted ;  but  all  are  surprised  at  the 
delay  which  has  taken  place,  and  are  anxious  to  see  the  heir  of 
their  beloved  hero  the  possessor  of  a  mansion,  presented  to  him  by 
the  British  nation,  instead  of  being  the  secluded  inhabitant  of  a 
Prebcndal  dwelling  at  Canterbury. 

I  am,  <tc. 

TRAFALGARIENSIS. 

*•**  We  have  not  the  means  of  giving  a  perfectly  satisfactory 
answer  to  our  Correspondent,  "  TUAFALGARIENSIS."  Itis  known, 
however,  that  numerous  advertisements  have,  from  time  to  ti>ne, 
appeared,  calling  upon  the  possessors  of  such  estates  as  might  be 
thought  fit  for  the  purpose  (if  disposed  to  part  with  them)  to  send 
in  their  terms  to  the  commissioners  ;  but  not  one  is  supposed  to 
have  been  yet  offered,  corresponding  with  the  munificent  intention 
of  Parliament.  In  the  mean  time,  Earl  Nelson  is  understood 
regularly  to  receive  the  interest  of  the  money  voted  by  Parliament, 
which,  if  our  memory  deceive  us  not,  was  100,0001.  instead  of 
80,000.— Ez>. 


CORRESPONDENCE.  209 


XI. 
MR.    EDITOR,  March  3,  1809. 

HAVING  in  a  former  letter  stated  to  you  the  opinions  I  had 
seen  and  heard  respecting  the  conduct  of  our  late  naval  com. 
rnander-in-chief  in  Portugal,  I  should  be  wanting  in  justice  if  I  did 
not  acknowledge,  that  in  the  course  of  the  late  debate  in  Par- 
liament, there  appeared  some  exculpations  which  were  not  before 
in  the  possession  of  the  public.  It  appears  that  he  was  not  the 
original  inventor  of  the  abominable  naval  convention,  but  only 
retains  the  demerit  of  having  applied  it  to  practice,  when  the  vic- 
tory of  VimeirU)  and  other  circumstances,  had  totally  changed  the 
relative  situations  of  the  parties.  This  appears  to  me  a  very  great 
and  important  error  in  judgment.  Now  it  is  not  long  since,  Air. 
Editor,  that  Sir  Robert  Calder  beat  an  enemy  superior  in  force  to 
the  fleet  under  his  command,  and  captured  two  sail  of  the  line. 
The  hopes  and  expectations  of  the  nation,  however,  raised  as  they 
had  been  to  a  high  pitch  from  the  recollection  of  former  splendid 
naval  victories,  were  disappointed  ;  a  LEGAL  trial  quickly  ens  iu-d, 
and  the  victorious  admiral  was  severely  reprimanded  for  an  error 
in  judgment^  in  not  having  made  a  proper  use  of  his  victory  :  and 
although  I  am  of  opinion  that  a  different  conduct  was  due  to 
an  old,  faithful,  and  meritorious  officer,  he  has  not  since  had  an 
opportunity  afforded  him  of  correcting  the  error  that  he  was  cen- 
sured for  committing.  Now  the  admiral  in  his  defence  jiavo  some 
very  cogent  reasons,  which  might  well  have  influenced  hi'.i  in  the 
conduct  he  pursued;*  but  what  could  have  influenced  Sir  H. 
Burrard  to  refuse  to  follow  up  the  victory  gained  by  Sir  A.  Wei. 
lesley,  even  when  urged  to  do  so  by  the  victorious  general,  whose 
valour  and  abilities  he  had  witnessed  ?  In  a  late  debate  in  the 
lower  house  of  Parliament,  it  was  said  (according  to  the  newspa- 
pers) by  one  of  his  majesty's  present  ministers,  that  there  was  no 
specific  charge  against  either  of  the  generals,  and  that  the  opinion 
that  had  been  asked  of  certain  officers  ought  to  satisfy  the  nation. 
These  said  ministers  may  have  some  reasons  not  to  bring  forward 
a  charge,  but  after  a  diligent  perusal  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
board  of  inquiry,  I  feel,  and  the  country  sorely  feels,  that  there 
lies  a  very  heavy  and  serious  charge  against  Sir  Harry,  in  not 
following  up  the  victory,  and  in  consequence  being  the  great,  if 

*  The  more  frequently  I  peruse  die  trial  of  this  meritorious  officer,  the 
less  am  I  enabled  to  discover  how  the  sentence  given  could  have  been  pro- 
duced from  the  evidence  which  appears  in  the  minutes.  Surely  Sir  R.  C.  has 
had  hard  measure  dealt  to  him.  —  Vide  NA.V.  CHRON.  Vol.  XVII,  p.  99,  et  seg, 

.  (Hoi.  XXI.  E  E 


210  CORRESPONDENCE. 

not  sole  cause,  of  the  subsequent  conventions,  of  our  ships  bearing 
their  disgraceful  burdens  to  the  ports  of  France,  and  of  Junot 
being  so  soon  at  the  head  of  a  division  of  the  French  troops  in 
Spain.  Where  does  a  shadow  of  blame  attach  to  Sir  R.  Calder, 
without  the  heaviest  clouds  of  error  hanging  over  Sir  H.  Burrard  ? 
The  latter  had  no  long  coast  to  guard,  no  enemy  in  his  rear,  no 
dread  of  his  movements  allowing  the  enemy  to  land  in  Ireland ! 
He  had  no  orders  but  what  propelled  him  onwards  ;  the  plain  road 
to  glory  and  national  advantage  was  clearly  before  him,  and  he  did 
not  pursue  it.  Sir  R.  Calder  demanded  a  trial ;  Sir  II.  Burrard 
appears  content  with  the  opinion  of  certain  officers,  that  he  was 
right  not  to  follow  up  a  victory,  contrary  to  the  remonstrance  of 
the  general  who  had  gained  it !  ! !  Surely  here  is  at  least  an  error 
in  judgment.  The  convention  of  Cintra,  even  in  the  speech  from 
the  throne,  is  admitted  at  least  to  bear  the  same  stamp,  bat  we 
have  no  trials  on  these  important  military  cases !  The  opinion  of 
some  generals,  some  of  whose  names  were  now  for  the  first  time 
known  to  the  public,  was  indeed  requested,  and  a  long  and  very 
odd  opinion  they  have  given,  in  my  comprehension.  Whence  this' 
difference  ?  Why  is  a  naval  officer  only  to  be  brought  to  legal 
trial,  and  the  ten  million  times  more  important  errors  of  the 
military,  made  a  mere  matter  of  opinion  ?  Are  we  to  argue  from 
hence  that  the  navy  is  indeed  our  true  constitutional  defence,  and 
the  navy  of  the  nation,  while  the  army  belongs  to  the  executive 
alone  ?  Do  not  the  premises  warrant  the  conclusion,  that  such  aa 
erroneous  opinion  must  somewhere  exist  ? 

I  felt  very  sincere  satisfaction  in  the  thanks  of  the  two  houses 
of  Parliament  to  our  brave  armies ;  they  merit  all  the  eulogium, 
and  all  the  more  substantial  reward,  which  an  admiring  and  grateful 
country  can  bestow  ;  for  did  they  not  by  their  own  innate  valour, 
their  genuine  British  spirit,  gallantly  enlighten  us  by  two  brilliant 
rays  of  exultation,  emanating  from  amidst  the  darkest  gloom  of 
misfortune  and  mismanagement  that  ever  lowered  over  our  national 
concerns  ?  They  have  presented  us  with  two  short  but  gratifying 
pauses  of  intermission  to  our  harrassed  feelings,,  which  would 
otherwise  have  been  too  shame  and  sorrow  struck  to  have  been 
endured.  Give  then  to  our  gallant  soldiers  all  their  merited  praise 
(they  need  no  more)  ;  but  let  not  the  glare  of  their  victories  so  daz- 
ele  and  bewilderthe  minds  of  our  legislators,  as  to  induce  them  to  give 
the  credit  of  them  to  ministers,  whose  want  of  judgment  would 
have  doomed  any  other  armies  to  certain  and  entire  destruction. 

In  the  late  memorable  debate  respecting  the  convention,  where? 
AS  far  as  my  understanding  could  penetrate,  the  argument  lay  all 


CORRESPONDENCE.  211 

on  one  side,  and  the  majority  of  votes  on  the  other,  the  question 
appears  to  be  set  at  rest.  But  that  appearance  is  delusive.  The 
effect  of  the  disgust  at  that  measure,  which  filled  the  public  mind, 
has  not  been  the  less  for  not  having  been  vented  in  addresses  or 
remonstrances ;  as  it  was  sufficiently  evident  that  addresses  from, 
every  county  and  corporate  body  would  instantly  have  been  laid 
before  the  throne,  had  they  not  been  suppressed  by  the  strong 
power  of  ministerial  influence,  and  checked  by  the  two  prevalent 
courtiership  of  the  times.  The  difference  of  the  manner  in  which 
the  address  of  thanks  or  praise  had  been  a  short  time  before 
sanctioned  and  urged,  is  sufficiently  remarkable.  I  therefore  con- 
clude, that  the  practice  of  addressing  the  throne  is  at  an  end,  as 
when  people  are  not  permitted  the  use  of  the  language  of  reasonable 
disapprobation,  they  will  surely  be  very  chary  of  their  praise, 
even  if  a  tolerable  occasion  should,  "  by  some  kind  stroke  of 
smiling  chance,"  occur.  But  pray,  Mr.  Editor,  although  the 
people  in  general  were  not  permitted  openly  to  complain  of  the 
convention,  or  to  remonstrate  on  the  reply  read  by  Lord  Liver- 
pool  to  the  city  of  London,*  yet  while  the  sentiment  that  there 
was  cause  to  complain  was  so  prevalent,  by  what  policy  did  the 
ministry  refrain  from  consoling  us  with  the  information,  that  his 
majesty  by  no  means  approved  of  that  convention  ?  The  news 
M-ould  have  had  a  soothing  effect,  and  softened  down  a  good  deal 
of  that  asperity  of  feeling,  which  the  prevalence  of  a  contrary  opi- 
nion had  produced. 

It  has  been  curious  to  observe  how  many  men,  who  were  loud 
in  their  censure  of  the  measures  above  stated,  out  of  doors •,  have 
within  the  walls  of  St.  Stephen's  "  kept  silence  even  from  good 
words  while  the  ministers  were  in  sight."  When  we  consider  the 
bad  policy  just  before  mentioned,  and  the  mischief  they  have  done 
to  the  cause  of  their  client  in  the  unhappy  matter  now  in  suspence, 
I  cannot  help  exclaiming,  from  such  ministers  or  advocates  good 
fortune  deliver  your  correspondent,  E.  G.  f , 

^•v^f.^ 

MR.   EDITOR,  Folk&tone,  -February  15,  1809. 

CURING  the  time  that  I  commanded  a  brig  in  the  late  war, 
<J  we  so  often,  while  weighing  the  anchor  in  boisterous  weather, 
experienced  a  want  of  power  from  the  precarious  hold  which  the 
feet  of  the  seamen  had  on  the  deck,  that  I  cannot  help  thinking 

*  It  has  been  remarked,  that  this  reply  is  remarkably  like  one  given 
to  the  Parliament  of  Paris  in  1787. 


COnRESPONDENCE. 


a  considerable  advantage  would  be  obtained  in  small  vessels,  hy 
adopting  the  expedient  which  I  am  now  about  to  propose.  At  the 
heads  of  piers,  and  at  the  capstans  in  many  places  on  shore,  may 
be  seen  strong  battens  nailed  to  the  platforms  on  which  they  s.tand, 
against  which  battens  the  people  employed  at  the  bars  place  the 
soles  of  their  feet,  and  thereby  acquire  a  certain  addition  of  power. 
Now,  if  these  battens  are  of  great  use  on  rough  boards,  and  on 
immoveable  horizontal  planes,  how  much  more  valuable  must  they 
prove  on  the  surface  of  polished  and  ascending  planks,  such  as 
from  the  motion  of  a  ship,  in  spito  of  sand,  the  deck  sq  often  be- 
comes ?  This  advantage,  I  am  told  by  an  officer  of  much  experi- 
ence (Lieutenant  Platt)  has,  on  board  some  merchantmen,  been 
realised,  as  far  as  it  relates  to  the  hoisting  in  of  cargoes  ;  but  as  in 
such  instances  the  battens  arc  permanent,  and  consequently  intrude 
on  the  walk  of  the  deck,  they  cannot  be  brought  here  as  examples 
to  prove  the  advantages  of  them  afloat.  What  I  would  now 
suggest  is,  that  battens,  of  a  similar  description,  might  be  made  to 
ship  and  unship  at  pleasure,  like  the  capstan. bars  ;  and  it  appears 
to  me  that  this  might  very  easily  be  done  ;  for,  either  b,y  cutting 
mortices  in  the  rise  on  which  the  capstan  stands,  and  in  the  planks 
at  the  sides,  or  by  nailing  pieces  of  wood  to  form  artificial  ones 
(so  that  they  might  be  made  to  slip  up  and  down),  a  certain  num- 
ber would  be  readily  provided,  and  the  ingenuity  of  (he  carpenter 
would  supply  the  rest.  I  am  so  well  convinced  of  the  easy  prac- 
ticability, and  great  utility,  of  this  simple  expedient,  that  i  hope 
some  of  the  officers  of  our  gun. brigs  will  undertake  to  give  it  a 
trial ;  and  should  they  be  able  to  anchor  off  Folkstone,  I  should 
feel  particularly  happy  in  hearing  their  report. 


B 


Plan  of  the  capstan,  and  part 
of  the  shifting  battens  fitted  in 
mortices : — 

A.  Rise  on  which  the  capstan 

stands. 

B.  Gunwa'e  with  mortices.1 

C.  Ditts  abaft  the  mast. 

D.  Battens  on  the  deck. 
e.    Mortices. 


A 


CORKi;srONTpENCE.  213 

MR.    EDITOR, 

S  your  biographical  memoirs  arc  professedly  intended  to 
rescue  modest  merit  from  oblivion,  I  make  no  apology  for 
observing,  that,  in  the  opinion  of  naval  men,  acquainted  with  the 
circumstances  attending  Captain  Downman's  action  off  Oporto, 
the  public  prints  have  never  yet  done  sufficient,  or  even  bare  jus- 
tice to  its  deserts.  I  remember  it  was  said  at  the  time,  that  after 
all  the  shot  of  the  Speedy  had  been  fired  awav,  Captain  D.  had 
recourse  to  the  water-casks,  the  hoops  of  which  were  converted 
into  shot  for  the  occasion.  J  do  not  mean  to  vouch  for  the  authen- 
ticity of  this  report ;  but  at  all  events  it  deserves  to  be  known  as  a 
curious  resource  in  distress;  and,  whether  true  or  false,  serves  to 
mark  the  distinguished  perseverance  with  which  that  action  was 
fought.  It  is  something  extraordinary,  that  the  same  little  Speedy 
should,  In  the  course  of  the  same  war,  have  been  engaged  in  three 
most  unequal  and  brilliant  contests  ;  for  that  off  Oporto  is 
indubitably  one  ;  the  second  was  fought  by  Captain  Jahleel  Bren- 
ton,  when  he  defeated  the  gun-boats  from  Algesiras,  and  elicited 
the  admiration  of  all  Gibraltar ;  the  third  and  last — a  most  excellent 
climax — had  Lord  Cochrane  for  ifs  hero,  when  he  combated  and 
overcame  his  gigantic  antagonist,  El  Gamo.  I  am  led  to  this  latter 
recital,  not  more  perhaps  from  the  pleasure  which  we  feel  in  re- 
counting gallant  actions,  than  from  that  sort  of  indefinable  interest, 
which  a  sailor  always  takes  in  the  services  of  the  vessel  vyhich 
first  bore  him  upon  the  ocean. — The  Speedy  mounted  14  four- 
pounders. 

\V.  R. 

MIX.    r.DJTOR, 

IT  is  said  that  Captain  Bolton,  who  commands  the  Fisgard, 
has  invented  some  valuable  substitute  for  a  lower  mast,  which 
may  be  resorted  to  under  every  disadvantage  of  weather.  As  the 
great  utility  of  such  an  invention  depends  on  its  publicity,  I  hope 
some  officer  will  favour  us  with  a  description  of  it  in  the  NAVAL 
CHRONICLE. 

Ax  OFFICER  IN  TIIE  ROYAL  NAVY. 


PLATE  CCLXX1X. 

THE  town  of  Valetta,  or  Cltta  Nuora,   the   capital  of  the 
island  of  Malta,   derives  its  name  from  the  Grand  Master, 
Frederick  John  de   Valetta,   by  whom  it  was  built  in  the  year 


514  PLATE    CCLXXIX. 

1566.  It  stands  upon  a  hill,  in  the  form  of  a  neck  of  land,  ex. 
tending  itself  into  the  sea.  Its  wall,  on  which  several  batteries  are 
planted,  is  of  large  square  stones,  dug  out  of  the  rock. 

On  the  point,  towards  the  sea,  stands  the  Castle  of  St.  Elmo,  a 
fortress  which  commands  the  two  harbours  of  Valetta.  One  of 
these,  called  Marsa  Mascictto^  lies  at  the  entrance  from  the  sea  to 
the  right  of  the  town,  and  incloses  a  small  island,  on  which  stand 
a  fort  and  a  lazaretto. 

The  other  harbour,  on  the  left  side,  is  simply  called  Marsa, 
or  the  Great  Harbour;  as  it  is  the  largest,  safest,  and  most  com* 
modious,  in  the  island.  Its  entrance,  of  which  the  annexed  plate 
presents  a  view,  besides  the  Castle  of  St.  Elmo,  is  guarded  by  Fort 
Ricasole,  standing  on  the  Punta  del  Orsa,  to  the  left.  The  town 
of  VaJetta  lies  on  its  right ;  and  on  its  left,  the  towns,  il  Borgo,, 
or  Vittoriosa,  and  Senglea. 

The  town  of  Valetta  contains  a  handsome  palace,  the  residence 
of  the  Grand  Master,  before  which  is  a  spacious  area  for  exer. 
cises.  The  principal  church  is  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist. 
Formerly  the  Jesuits  had  a  college  at  Valetta  ;  and  there  are  still 
several  convents,  a  large  hospital,  aud  a  building  in  which  Turkish 
slaves  are  kept. 

A  gentleman,  who  has  lately  returned  to  England,  after  a 
three  years  residence  at  Malta?  has  furnished  the  following  re- 
marks : — 

"  It  is  no  less  curious  th,an  amusing,  to  view  the  diversities  of 
dress  and  appearance  among  the  motley  crowd  which  business  daily 
assembles  on  the  Marina,  or  shore  of  the  harbour  of  Valetta. 
Besides  the  English  soldiers,  sailors,  and  merchants  (many  of 
whom  have  their  warehouses  placed  there),  one  sees  Barbaresque 
traders  wrapped  in  their  long  shawls,  and  adorned  with  waistcoats 
of  most  splendid  embroidery,  with  vehite  or  green  turbans,  black 
bushy  beards,  yellow  gipsy-like  countenances,  and  dark  sparkling 
eyes.  They  generally  sit  down  with  pipes,  a  yard  long,  in  their 
mouths,  or  walk  up  and  down  very  leisurely,  while  they  negotiate 
matters  of  business.  Their  settled  gravity  is  contrasted  with  the 
noise  of  the  Maltese  boatmen  and  porters,  who  are  a  lively  set  of 
people,  having  much  more  of  the  Italian  than  of  the  African  cha- 
racter, although  some  of  them  evidently  appear  to  be  of  the  latter 
origin.  These  men  wear  the  peculiar  dress  of  the  lower  classes  of 
Maltese,  a  bcrrctta^  or  cap,  red  or  black,  a  checked  shirt,  com- 
monly tucked  up  to  the  elbows,  a  coarse  cotton  waistcoat  and 


H.ATE   CCLTXIX.  215 

trowscrs,  generally  ornamented  with  a  set  of  globular  silver  but- 
tons,  a  girdle  of  various  colours  bound  round  the  loins  ;  their  feet 
are  either  bare  or  protected  by  a  rude  kind  of  sandals;  and  to 
protect  them  from  rough  weather,  they  wear  in  the  colder  season. 
a  grego,  or  thick  shaggy  great  coat,  with  a  hood,  which  gives 
them  a  very  wild  and  barbarous  appearance.  There  are  also 
about  the  harbour  some  few  Maltese,  of  a  superior  class,  such  as 
the  port  captains,  the  officers  of  the  Sancta,  and  others,  who  imi- 
tate the  English  ;  but  it  is  easy  to  distinguish  them,  not  only  by 
their  dingy  countenances,  but  by  their  broad  cocked  hats,  large 
silver  buckles,  and  other  articles  of  dress,  by  no  means  of  the 
newest  London  mode.  Before  the  present  war  with  Turkey,  the 
Greeks,  whose  ships  frequented  this  port,  added  greatly  to  the 
diversity  of  the  scene.  They  were  a  race  of  men  exceedingly 
distinguishable  from  the  others;  tall,  and  commanding  in  mien, 
•with  long  mustachios  and  bushy  hair  :  on  the  crown  of  the  head 
they  wore  a  small  skull-cap,  with  a  black  silk  tassel ;  often  a 
flower  stuck  behind  the  ear  ;  and  always  a  rosary  depending  from 
the  neck ;  with  loose  jackets  and  broad  trowsers,  the  leg  being 
bare  from  the  knee  downwards.  At  a  still  earlier  period,  one 
might  have  seen  here  the  natives  of  every  nation  trading  in  the 
Mediterranean  ;  Russians,  Swedes,  Danes,  Americans,  Spaniards, 
Italians,  Dalmatians,  Ragusans.  These  indeed  bore  in  their  dress 
and  personal  appearance  no  very  striking  characteristics  ;  but  the 
various  forms  of  their  shipping,  and  colours  of  their  pendants, 
gave  an  additional  liveliness  and  picturesque  effect  to  the  harbour. 
The  events  of  the  war  have  unfortunately  banished  most  of  the 
foreign  flags ;  but  have  by  no  means  limitted,  in  an  equal  degree, 
the  trade  which  they  used  to  carry  on  at  Malta.  Circuitous  modes 
of  conveyance  are  now  found  out ;  and  though  no  doubt  the 
tyrannical  edicts  of  the  oppressor  of  Europe  have  loaded  commerce 
with  numberless  difficulties  and  impediments,  yet  unless  he  should 
attain  an  absolutely  unlimitted  controul  over  every  part  of  the 
Continent,  and  should  continually  direct  the  most  severe  and  vigi- 
lant attention  to  this  single  object,  means  would  undoubtedly  be 
discovered  to  carry  on  a  contraband  trade,  for  which  the  situation 
of  Malta  is  so  peculiarly  favourable." 


216 

BLACK  SEA. 

DY  A  MEMBER  OF  THE  LEVANT  COMPANY. 


"  NaateSj  dales,  and  facts."'' 

Cobbett's  worts. — Passim. 

EDICATED  as  the  NAVAL  CHRONICLE  is  to  the  propagation 
of  maritime  knowledge  in  all  its  branches,  little  apology  cart 
be  requisite  to  bespeak  a  place  on  its  pages  for  the  state  papers  to 
which  this  article  serves  for  preface ;  inasmuch  as  they  relate  to 
the  increase  of  British  navigation,  and  contain  a  body  of  informa- 
tion by  no  means  immaterial,  particularly  at  the  present  con- 
juncture. 

At  length  an  end  has  been  put  to  the  reluctant  hostilities  pro- 
duced partly  by  hostile  influence,  and  partly  by  mismanagement, 
between  England  and  Turkey.  Having  now  to  begin  over  again 
in  that  empire,  after  the  interruption  of  an  amicable  intercourse  of 
two  centuries,  it  is  to  be  hop.'d  we  shall  retrieve  past  errors. 
Political  misfortune  is  but  another  name  for  misconduct.  With 
the  terms  of  the  treaty  of  peace  concluded  on  the  5th  of  January, 
we  are  not  likely  to  be  made  acquainted  until  after  the  ratification. 
But  there  is  one  point  which  we  may  take  for  granted  cannot  have 
been  neglected  in  framing  the  instructions  for  the  negotiation,  and 
to  which  the  attention  of  our  merchants,  ship-owners,  and  mariners, 
cannot  be  too  early  directed,  namely,  the  freedom  of  the  Black 
Sea,  as  established  in  favour  of  this  country  in  1799.  Those 
waters  have  been  strangely  overlooked  by  statesmen  in  our  days, 
as  a  sort  of  blank  upon  the  map.  In  fact,  the  Genoese  and  the 
Venetian  republics  seem  to  have  been  the  only  powers  of  modern 
Europe  thoroughly  aware  of  the  importance  of  access  to  the  very 
heart  of  the  continent,  afforded  by  that  inlet ;  although  the  policy 
of  the  Romans,  on  that  head,  is  discoverable,  in  the  war  against 
Mithridatcs.  The  principal  treaty  extant  between  the  Crown  of 
England  and  the  Ottoman  Sultans,  does  indeed  shew  some  vestiges 
of  our  having  had  footing  there  in  the  days  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
or  James  I.  but  when  we  ceased  to  frequent  the  Black  Sea  is  not 
ascertained.  All  the  information  upon  record  seems  to  be  made 


BLACK   SEA.  217 

use  of  in  the  first  of  the  three  documents  annexed  ;  which  is  the 
memorial  whereby  Mr.  Smith,  his  majesty's  minister  plenipoten- 
tiary at  the  Porte,  solicited  a  fresh  recognition,  tantamount  to  a 
new  creation,  of  the  right  of  access,  in  favour  of  the  British  flag, 
already  alluded  to.  This  was  speedily  obtained,  as  appears  by  the 
second  document,  which  declares  the  assent  of  the  late  Sultan 
Selim  thereto.  By  one  of  those  eccentric  movements,  which  cha- 
racterise English  diplomacy,  that  minister  was  superseded  a  few 
weeks  afterwards  by  the  Earl  of  Elgin,  who  was  invested  with  the 
rank  of  ambassador  extraordinary.  But  it  was  not  until  after  the 
noble  Earl  had  been  replaced  by  Mr.  Straton,  in  the  character  of 
ckarge-d* affaires,  that  the  third  and  last  document  of  the  series 
was  published  in  the  London  Gazette  of  14th  September,  1802. 
Concerning  which  dilatory  notice  of  a  grant,  so  replete  with 
interest  to  the  commercial  Avorld  at  large,  and  to  the  Levant  Com- 
pany in  particular,  that  acute  and  spirited  writer,  Mr.  Cobbctt, 
makes  the  following  comment  in  his  Political  Register  for  that 
year,  Vol.  II.  page  348. 

"  To  the  treaty  (of  peace)  between  France  and  the  PertCj  we  now  add 
a  note  from  the  Reis-Effeudi,  addressed  to  our  minister  at  that  court,  dated 
29th  July  last,  by  which  we  also  are  permitted  to  navigate  and  trade  in  the 
Black  Sea,  a  privilege  obtained  by  France  in  the  treaty  above  mentioned. 
That  we,  who  have  been  the  saviours  of  Turkey,  should  obtain  from  her 
favours,  equal  to  those  obtained  by  a  power  which,  in  the  mi. 1st  of  profuuud 
peace,  invaded  her  territory,  and  endeavoured  to  subvert  ner  government, 
is  certainly  no  very  great  proof  of  the  vigilance,  the  skill,  or  the  conse- 
quence, of  our  diplomatic  persons  in  that  country:  but  what  shall  be  said 
of  Lord  Elgin,  when  it  is  known  that,  had  it  not  been  for  his  reflect,  what 
has  nozo  been  granted  to  put  us  upon  a  level  with  the  French,  we  should 
have  been  in  full  enjoyment  of  more  than  two  years  ago  ?  Jt  was  the  sub- 
ject of  an  application  from  our  ambassador  in  1799,  and  the  grant  was 
communicated,  in  nearly  the  same  manner  that  it  is  now,  on  the  30th  of 
October  of  that  year.  All  that  was  wanted  was  to  settle  the  mode  of 
execution,  the  Custom-house  rates,  £c.  &c.  This  Lord  E.  never  did> 
the  right  remained  unenjoyed  ;  and  we  have  now  had  to  beg  it  as  a  new 
favour,  which,  by  hazard,  we  have  obtained. ' 

To  what  extent  the  enjoyment  of  our  privilege,  thus  renovated, 
was  carried  during  the  subsequent  embassy  of  Air.  Drummond,  is 
not  precisely  known  :  at  last,  however,  a  total  interruption  of 
this  beneficial  pursuit,  in  its  still  infant  state,  was  one  of  the  la- 

/9atJ,  «T$ron»  ffiol*  XXI.  r  i?  • 


218  6LACK    SEA. 

niontablc  consequences,  amongst  others,  of  Mr.  Arbutlinofsi 
unaccountable  Hegira  from  Constantinople  in  1807,  (on  board 
the  Endymion  frigate). 

Although  it  may  not  be  habitually  within  the  province  of  the 
NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  to  trace  political  effects  to  their  causes,  yet 
this  slight  retrospect  has  already  introduced  such  a  catalogue  of 
names,  as  it  is  impossible  to  take  leave  of  without  a  word  of 
regret  that  the  pernicious  influence  of  what  is  by  common  consent, 
called  interest  (although  a  more  appropriate  epithet  might  be 
employed),  should  be  found  to  extend  its  discouraging  effects  to 
the  filling  important  foreign  missions  with  novices  ;  while  ministers, 
regularly  brought  up  in  the  diplomatic  school,  are  laid  upon  the 
shelf  like  yellow  admirals.  With  the  two  exceptions  of  the  gen- 
tlemen first  named,  Mr.  Smith,  and  of  Mr.  Stratou,  both  of  whom 
compleated  their  servitude  in  the  subaltern  ranks  of  the  foreign 
line  (the  former  as  secretary,  under  Mr.  Liston,  when  ambassador 
at  Constantinople  in  1793,  and  the  latter  under  Sir  R.  M.  Keith, 
at  Vienna,  in  1788,)  the  other  representatives  of  his  majesty  at 
•ihe  Porte,  during  the  interval  under  review,  cannot  be  considered 
as  qualified  either  by  professional  education,  by  official  experience, 
or  by  local  residence,  to  manage  our  concerns  in  the  Levant. 
Even  down  to  the  very  last  appointment,  to  a  special  mission  thi- 
ther, destined  to  treat  with  a  country  convulsed  by  internal  coin- 
motions,  can  it  be  said  that  personal  knowledge  of  the  Orientals 
was  in  the  slightest  degree  attended  to  ?  It  is  not  the  aim  of  this 
allusion  ad  hontincm,  to  detract  from  the  possible  merit  of  the 
candidate,  nor  to  withhold  approbation  from  the  useful  employ- 
ment of  his  abilities:  although  something  might  be  said  upon  the 
palpable  combination  of  the  Turkish  negotiation  with  the  change 
of  system,  in  one,  at  least,  of  the  imperial  courts  :  otherwise  the 
preservation  of  amity,  with  a  power  so  critically  situated  in  its 
interior,  as  well  as  iu  i!s  exterior  relations,  as  the  Ottoman 
Porte,  would  be  precarious  indeed.  But  the  general  respecta- 
bility of  the  choice,  any  more  than  the  success  attending  the 
experiment,  cannot  militate  against  the  fact  that,  with  the  third 
report  of  the  finance- committee  laying  on  the  table  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  in  the  appendix  to  which  (No.  63,  dated  15th  March, 
are  registered  the  names  of  five  ex-diplomatists,  who  had 


BLACK    SEA.  219 

served  in  that  quarter,  and  arc  pensioned  off  to  the  amount  of 
8,9501.  annually  :  with  the  contingent  pension  list  thus  charged, 
Mr.  Adair  was  sent  to  set  foot  in  Turkey  for  the  first  time  in  his 
life. 

To  conclude.  After  re-organising  our  old  establishments  on  this 
side  of  the  Bosphorus,  we  shall,  iu  all  probability,  have  to  form 
new  ones  in  the  Euxine  regions.  \Ve  have  .the  successful  ex- 
ample of  our  natural  rivals  before  our  eye-,  as  to  the  advan- 
tages derivable  from  preliminary  information,  whether  statis- 
tical, geographical,  or  hydrographical,  in  the  intercourse  with 
foreign  countries.  Every  intelligent  traveller  knows  how  inde- 
fatigable the  French  are  in  the  acquisition,  and  how  methodical  in 
the  application,  of  all  those  branches  of  local  knowledge  to  the  pur- 
poses of  war  or  peace.  This  department  of  study  is  too  much  left 
to  chance  amongst  us.  In  proportion  to  our  population,  we 
possess  a  greater  number  of  well  informed  individuals  than  any 
other  country,  perhaps,  except  parts  of  Germany.  But  our  pro. 
gressive  knowledge  of  the  globe  is  not  digested  into  convenient 
and  authentic  form.  Our  marine  charts,  some  local  surveys  attached 
to  expensive  publications  excepted,  are  in  general  so  defective  as 
to  disgrace  a  naval  nation.  One  map-maker  copies  the  antiquated 
blunders  of  another :  and  thus  is  error  perpetuated  by  each  suc- 
•eeding  publication ;  in  which  the  map-seller  is  more  attentive  to 
the  workman-like  appearance  of  the  article,  than  to  the  scientific 
merit  of  the  performance.  The  revival  of  Levantine  navigation 
offers  a  desirable  opportunity  for  rectifying  the  hydrography  of 
the  Black  Sea.  If  the  readers  and  correspondents  of  the  NAVAL 
CHRONICLE  would  take  the  trouble  of  communicating,  through 
the  same  medium,  such  details  as  they  may  have  collected,  a 
tolerable  stock  of  materials  might  soon  ba  formed.  To  which 
shall  be  added  the  occasional  contribution  of 

MERCATOR, 

Join's  Coffee- House,  9lh  March,  1809. 


Memorial  to  the  Sublime  Ottoman  Porte. 

His   Britannic   Majesty's    minister  plenipotentiary  has  already 

taken  occasion  to  apprise  the  Sublime  Ottoman  Porte  of  a  petition 

;>g  been  presented  to  his  majesty's  government  on  the  part  cf 


220  BLACK    SLA. 

an  anticnt  corporation  (not  unknown  to  the  illustrious  Ottoman 
ministry)  cntituled  by  Royal  charter,  "  the  Company  of  Merchants 
of  England  trading  into  the  Levant  Seas."  The  prayer  of  -which 
petition  is  to  obtain  from  the  Sublime  Porte  the  same  advantages  as 
are  enjoyed  within  the  Ottoman  empire,  by  other  more  favoured 
nations,  meaning  thereby,  in  express  terms,  the  privilege  suc- 
cessively recognised  in  favour  of  the  Russians  and  Germans, 
relative  to  the  navigation  of  the  Black  Sea.  In  addition  to  the 
earliest  communication  of  the  fact,  the  English  minister  thought 
it  expedient  to  avail  himself  of  the  friendly  intercourse  arising  out 
of  the  mutual  dutios  of  alliance,  in  order  to  prepare  the  Ottoman 
ministers  of  state  tor  the  more  formal  agitation  of  the  question,  by 
previous  confidential  explanation  of  the  opinion  entertained  by 
his  superiors  upon  its  merits.  He  is  glad  of  this  public  opportu. 
nity  to  acknowledge)  the  favourable  reception  of  those  preliminary 
overtures,  which  it  is  now  become  his  duty  to  authenticate,  as 
•well  as  to  substantiate  his  verbal  arguments,  by  the  present  detailed 
exposition. 

Prior  to  the  treaty  of  defensive  alliance  concluded  on  the  5th 
of  January,  17&9,  the  political  relations  of  the  two  empires  rested 
on  the  basis  of  "  THE  SACKED  CAPITULATIONS  AND  ARTICLES  OF  THE 
PEACE,"  as  th  y  have  been  digested  in  the  times  of  several  ambassa- 
dors :  *  and  as  they  have  been  revised  and  amplified  in  1661-2  by  the 
Earl  of  Wiu chelsea, T  ambassador  extraerdinary  from  King  Charles 
II.  And  also  as  they  have  been  since  augmented  and  renewed  at 
Adrianople  in  1086,  A.H.  1675,  A.O.  by  Sir  John  Finch,  Knt. 
ambassador  in  ordinary  from  his  said  Majesty  to  the  Emperor 
Sultan  Mahommed  Khaan. 

This  treaty  contains  several  articles  which  apply  with  peculiar 
force  to  the  present  case,  viz.  1.  4.  7.  18.  22.  27.  36.  and  38.+  to 
•which  the  under- igned  begs  leave  respectfully  to  refer. 

The  text  of  articles  1.  4.  and  7.  sets  forth  in  general,  but  in  most 
comprehensive  terms,  that  "  the  English  subjects  and  dependants 
may,  with  their  merchandise  and  faculties,  freely  pass  and  repass 
into  all  parts  of  the  Ottoman  dominions;  and  that  their  ships 

*  Amongst  whom  are  named  Sir  Thomas  Roe,  Knt.  Sir  Sackvill  Crow, 
Bart,  and  Sir  Thomas  Bendish. 

f  Stiled  in  the  text  Sir  Heneage  Finch,  Knt.  Earl  of  Winchelsea,  Viscount 
Maidston,  Baron  Fit/herbert.  of  Eastwell,  Lord  of  the  Royal  Manor  of 
Wye,  Lieutenant  of  the  county  of  Kent,  and  city  of  Canterbury. 

£  See  Appendix. 


BLACK    SEA.  221 

may  come  and  harbour  in  any  of  the  ports  or  scales*  of  the  same." 
Article  22.  recapitulating  the  preceding  permission  to  "  na-igate 
and  abide,  buy  and  sell  all  leg  A!  merchandise,"  enumerates  prohi- 
bited commodities.  Article  18.  sufficiently  secures  to  the  English 
<i  all  privileges  granted  to  other  nations  :  "  but  (o  make  the  point 
more  clear,  it  is  corroborated  by  the  prospective  language  of 
article  27.  which  declares  that  the  u  privileges  granted  by  divers 
imperial  decrees,  whether  before  or  after  the  date  of  these  capitu- 
lations, shall  always  be  understood  and  interpreted  in  favour  of 
the  English  nation."  Article  36.  distinctly  defines  the  general 
permission  of  ingress  and  egress  to  enable  "  the  English  merchants, 
and  all  under  their  banner,  to  go  by  the  way  of  the  7b/jai**+  into 
Moscovia  ;  and  also  to  and  from  Persia ;  and  to  traffic,  by  land  or 
by  sea.,  through  all  those  confines."  Finally,  as  if  it  were  decreed 
that  not  a  shadow  of  doubt  should  remain  respecting  the  extent  of 
of  our  navigation,  article  38  contains  the  following  remarkable 
maritime  provision,  viz.  '•  If  English  ships,  bound  to  Consian- 
tinople,  shall  be  forced  by  stress  of  weather  into  Coffa.^  or  to  such 
like  port,  they  are  not  to  be  compelled  to  break  bulk  arbitrarily," 
&:•.  &c.  The  local  description  given  by  this  and  the  preceding 
article  can  need  no  comment. 

This  is  our  case,  as  far  as  it  rests  on  historical  testimony  ;  w  Inch 
incontrovertibly  proves  that,  in  point  of  fact,  the  English  have 
once  enjoyed  a  right,  recognised  by  an  authentic  instrument, 
afterwards  reduced  by  the  vicissitudes  of  human  affairs  to  a  dormant 
state;  but  never  extinguished:  nicer  disuse,  occasioned  by  the 
varying  circumstances  of  succeeding  times,  is  surely  very  different 
from  renunciation  or  forfeiture. 

But  supposing  that  the  implied  riant  to  equality  of  favour  was 
not  so  explicitly  admitted  as  it  is  by  article  18  ;  supposing  farther, 
that  the  fact  of  the  waters  of  the  Ivrimca  had  not  been  so  specifically 
established  as  it  is  by  article  38  ;  nay,  that  England  could  produce 
no  title  at  all  in  support  of  this  claim,  there  are  other  arguments  to 
influence  the  decision  of  the  question  in  our  favour,  derived  from 

*  Scale.  Term  employed  in  the  levant  factories  from  Scald  in  the 
lingua  Franca  dialect,  or  from  the  Turkish  word  Iskeli,  signifying  literally  a 
ladder  or  stairs,  and  figuratively  a  commercial  quay. 

t  7Wi'<:'j>>or  Don,  a  river  of  llu-shi  falling  ir.to  the  sea  of  Azof,  or  Pa'us- 
Mczo'is:  accessible  only  from  the  Black  Sea  by  the  straight  of  Tuman  or 
Yimi-Kalch,  formerly  tlie  Cimmerian  Bospliorus. 

+  Ctffit,  Knffu,  Kfffcfi,  alias  Tlicodosia,  a  port  in  the  Black  .Sea,  on  the 
S.E.  coast  of  Kriinea,  formerly  il;c  Tunnc 


BLACK    J-EA. 

the  liberal  system  of  (lie  Subliir.  [  \me  jtsclf  in  Us  foreign  relation^ 
from  the  fitness  of  things,  and  connected  wuh  the  interests  of  this 
empire. 

In  the  daily  transactions  between  the  chancery  of  state  and  the 
clifferentEjropeauiegations,hovr  often  do  pretensions  come  under  dis. 
cussion  which  arc  unsupported  by  conventions  ad  hoc.  Theinvariable 
practice  is  to  refer  all  such  doubtful  cases  to  the  tcot  of  antient  usage, 
which  is  almost  always  considered  as  equivalent ;  and  lapse  of  lime  so 
far  rendering  precedent  obsolete,  generally  stamps  it  with  additional 
value  in  the  eyes  of  the  Porte.  In  proof  of  which  may  be  cited  the 
conduct  of  the  Ilsii^-EJfendi  towards  the  English  embassy  in  1795, 
•when  certain  reforms  were  projected  in  the  custom-house  tariff^ 
by  which  the  duties  on  foreign  merchandise  were  collected,  ad  va- 
lorem^ in  order  to  bring  the  chargeable  valuation  nearer  to  the 
current  prices  of  the  day.  The  two  Imperial  courts  not  acceding 
to  the  proposed  change,  on  the  ground  of  their  commercial  tariff's 
forming  an  integral  part  of  the  text  of  their  respective  treaties  of 
peace,  the  Sublime  Porte  desisted  from  the  measure  with  respect 
to  them  :  and,  although  we  could  not  make  the  same  plea  (inasmuch 
as  our  tariff  stood  upon  the  ground  of  a  simple  contract  between 
the  customer  of  Constantinople  and  the  English  factory,  with  the 
exception  of  very  few  articles  enumerated  in  the  capitulations), 
yet,  for  the  sole  reason  above-mentioned,  Rashid  Eiiemli,  then 
in  office,  voluntarily  and  formally  exempted  Mr.  Listen  from  any 
farther  discussion  of  the  subject.  A  memorable  instance  of  that 
exemplary  good  faith  manifested  by  the  Ottoman  government  in 
the  observance  of  treaties,  and  particularly  shewing  its  equitable 
construction  of  their  meaning  relative  to  the  English. 

Since  the  time  when  the  Black  Sea  formed,  as  it  were,  a  lake 
encircled  by  the  Turkish  territory,  circumstances,  unnecessary  to 
retrace  here,  have  transferred  a  part  of  the  Kuxine  coasts  to 
Russia:  and  collateral  causes  have  rendered  the  house  of  Austria  a 
participator  in  -the  same  privilege  of  access  to  the  Black  Sea,  al- 
though not  possessing,  like  the  former  power,  any  territorial  pro. 
perty  in  its  shores.  However  natural  it  might  be  for  any  power 
which  was  sole  possessor  of  the  key  of  those  inland  waters  to  con- 
reive  iis  duty  as  guardian  of  the  commerce  and  navigation  of  i's 
subjects  best  fulfilled  by  a  rigid  exclusion  of  strangers;  yet, 
the  ice  once  broken,  by  the  admission  of  a  single  foreign  flag,  the 
argument  s  for  the  original  system  of  monopoly,  not  only  cease  <o 
be  tenable,  but  actually  change  their  bearing  in  favour  of  ano<h  , 
order  of  things,  whereby  the  .excessive  benefit  of  the  first  grantee 


BLACK    SEA.  223 

shall  be  shared  and  subdivided  with  one  or  more  competitors, 
leaving  the  particular  shades  of  their  rival ity  out  of  the  question. 
So  far  from  the  Turkish  coasting  trade  being  interfered  with  by 
the  direct  voyages  of  foreign  vessels,  it  is  rather  to  be  expected 
that  the  seamanship  of  the  Ottoman  mariners  would  be  improved 
by  the  example  of  a  naval  nation  like  the  English,  and  the  ship, 
builders  be  advanced  in  their  art  by  the  inspection  of  more  perfect 
models.  The.  government  can  always  keep  the  concourse  of  foreign, 
shipping  within  due  bounds  by  navigation  laws  ;  while  the  trea- 
sury cannot  but  feel  the  beneficial  effects  of  the  transit  by  Con- 
stantinople. The  commodities  furnished  by  the  trade  with  Eng- 
land are  of  admitted  utility  to  all  classes  of  this  nation,  and  of 
prime  necessity  to  some.  By  enabling  the  English  navigator  to 
penetrate  the  deep  gulfs  of  the  Black  Sea,  and  thus  rendering  the 
remotest  districts  accessible  to  the  English  merchant,  instead  of  the 
present  languid  routine  of  a  single  factory  superintending  two  or 
throe  annual  cargoes  assorted  according  to  the  Ihnitted  consumption 
of  the  metropolis,  with  the  refuse  of  which  the  provincial  traders 
are  scantily  furnished  at  second  and  third  hand,  we  shall  see  whole 
fleets  laden  with  the  richest  productions  of  the  old  and  new  world. 
British  capital  and  credit  would  attract  flourishing  establishments  in 
the  solitary  harbours  of  Anatolia;  from  whence  the  adjacent  citi-s 
would  receive  less  indirect  supplies  ;  and  where  the  land  owners 
would  find  a  more  ready  exchange  for  their  produce.  Sinope  ami 
Trebizoud  would  again  emuhiu  the  prosperity  and  poj  uLuion  of 
Aleppo  and  Smyrna.  The  Abuses*  Laies,  and  other  turbulent 
hordes  who  inhabit  the  mountainous  fastnesses,  by  mixing  more 
frequently  with  their  fellow-subjects  at  those  marts,  could  not  fail 
to  learn  their  real  interest  to  be.  inseparable  from  the  performance 
of  their  duty. 

After  this  solution  of  the  problem,  in  one  sense,  there  are  still 
some  other  substantial  reasons,  to  evnect  the  Ottoman  ministry 
will  consent  to  an  arrangement,  tending  to  consolidate  more  and 
more,  the  c.oisii.-ctioii  it  has  pleased  the  Supreme  Providence  to 
ordain  between  the  two  empires:  but  the  most  elevated  ground  of 
hope  is  found  in  the  magnanimous  sentiments  of  his  Imperial 
Majesty.  That  monarch  will  MI  rely  not  suffer  the  ancient  and 
unalterable  friend,  the  zealou»  and  devoted  ally  of  his  empire,  to 
sustain  a  disadvantageous  comparison  with  any  other  power,  ia 
point  of  the  enjoyment  oi'  immunities  within  his  dominions  ;  on 
the  contrary,  the  English  Minister  .ndulgcs  himself  in  the  Haltering 
persuasion,  that  even  v.y.s  this  tjuestio:  ".ew  ecu- 


221  BLACK    SEA. 

cession  in  favour  of  his  countrymen,  provided  their  desires  were 
not  unreasonable  in  themselves,  nor  incompatible  with  the  essen- 
tial interests  of  the  Ottoman  empire  :  it  would  encounter  no 
difficulty  on  the  part  of -the  Emperor;  whereas,  what  is  solicited, 
is  the  revival  of  the  dead  letter  of  a  venerable  compact;  the 
favourable  interpretation  of  an  ancient  grant,  become  equivocal  by 
change  of  circumstances ;  the  restoration  of  a  privilege,  become 
questionable,  solely  for  Avant  of  exercise.  It  is  suggested,  to 
seize  the  present  auspicious  moment,  for  assimilating  that 
banner  which  is  the  victorious  antagonist  of  the  enemies  of 
the  Ottoman  name,  the  violators  of  its  territory,  to  the  flags 
of  its  neighbours  and  friends,  not  less  the  friends  of  England. 
Can  Russia,  for  instance,  take  umbrage  at  any  arrangement  that 
•would  open  its  southern  ports  to  those  who  are  the  harbingers 
of  abundance  and  wealth,  to  the  northern  provinces  of  that 
empire  ? 

Nor  are  certain  moral  effects  inseparable  from  such  a  cause  as 
the  arrangement  in  question,  to  be  overlooked  by  governments,  in 
the  cultivation  of  political  relations  ;  for  although  diplomatic 
contracts  may  organize  the  body,  yet  national  feeling  must 
animate  the  soul  of  alliance.  It  is  impossible,  but  that  such  an 
unequivocal  proof  of  the  interest  taken  by  the  Emperor,  in  the 
•welfare  of  the  King's  subjects,  must  make  the  most  lively  and 
lasting  impression  on  his  majesty's  mind  ;  and  must  augment,  if 
possible,  the  just  confidence  he  already  entertains  in  the  person  and 
government  of  his  august  ally.  The  people  of  England,  distin- 
guished as  they  are  by  active  industry  and  speculative  habits,  will 
fully  appreciate  a  concession  at  once  so  valuable  and  so  seasonable. 
Public  opinion  will  derive  therefrom  that  additional  intensity  and 
permanent  direction,  in  favour  of  the  connection  between  the  two 
countries,  no  less  desirable  to  ensure  its  durability,  than  requisite 
mutually  to  realise  all  its  immediate  benefits.  To  appropriate  the 
enterprising  energies  of  a  warlike  people,  is  no  unfair  equivalent 
for  mercantile  encouragement:  the  cordial  voice  of  an  independent 
nation  is  no  unworthy  return  for  an  act  of  grace.  British  gratitude  . 
will  pay  this  tribute  to  Sultan  Selim. 

Here  closes  the  case  which  the  English  minister,  in  obedience  to 
his  instructions,  has  the  honour  to  submit  to  the  consideration  of 
the  illustrious  ministry.  In  the  first  place,  he  has  endeavoured  to 
bring  the  existence  of  the  privilege  within  the  scope  of  historical 
evidence,  as  a  claim  of  unextinguished  right.  Secondly,  he  has 
discussed  the  question  upon  the  ground  of  political  expediency.  And 


BLACK   SEA.  225 

lastly,  solicits  the  imperial  assent  as  a  national  boon.  The  re- 
liance that  he  places  in  the  justice  and  -wisdom  of  the  Sublime 
Porte;  and,  above  all,  in 'the  generosity  of  the  Emperor,  hardly 
permits  him  to  harbour  a  doubt  adverse  to  the  issue  of  a  nego- 
ciation,  which,  if  committed  to  feeble  hands,  is  founded  on  such 
a  solid  basis. 

It  now  becomes  the  duty  of  the  undersigned  to  state,  in  the 
name  of  his  court,  the  distinct  object  of  this  memorial :  namely, 
the  promulgation  of  an  imperial  Fermaan  (edict),  enacting  the 
re-establishment  of  the  English  navigation  in  the  Black  Sea,  on  the 
footing  it  appears,  by  the  sacred  capitulations,  to  have  been  in 
the  reign  of  Sultan  Mahommed  Khaan,  the  most  puissant  Emperor 
of  the  Ottomans,  and  of  Queen  Elizabeth  of  glorious  memory, 
or  of  her  immediate  royal  successors.  It  is  more  particularly 
wished  to  move  the  Sublime  Porte  to  decree  the  same,  according  to 
the  tenor  of  its  treaty  with  Russia,  dated  at  Constantinople,  10th 
June,  1783,  of  the  Christian  aera ;  confirmed  by  the  treaty  of 
peace  concluded  at  Yassy*  on  the  9th  January,  1792,  from 
article  17  to  article  35  inclusive;  subject,  nevertheless,  to  such 
provisions  as  existing  circumstances  may  render  expedient.  To 
•which  end  the  proper  officers  on  both  sides  shall  be  instructed  to 
take  arrangements  in  concert,  consulting  the  regulations  for  the 
passage  of  the  Sound  into  the  Baltic  Sea,  or  such  other  acts  de 
transita  as  obtain  authority  in  the  public  or  maritime  law  of 
Europe. 

Individually,  there  remains  one  other  duty  for  the  undersigned 
to"  fulfil ;  and  that  is,  to  offer  his  most  respectful  thanks  to  the 
illustrious  Ottoman  ministry,  for  the  courteous  attention  always 
paid  to  his  representations,  in  transacting  the  business  of  the 
station  he  has  the  honour  to  hold,  and  especially  on  the  present 
affair  ;  as  well  as  for  the  ready  access  allowed  him  on  all  occasions. 
Also  to  renew  the  assurances  of  that  conscientious  discharge  of 
duty  towards  the  court  where  he  is  sent  to  reside,  of  which  he 
trusts  the  labours  of  his  ministry,  in  critical  times,  have  furnished 
too  frequent  and  ample  testimony  for  those  assurances  not  to  be 
accepted  as  sincere  by  the  Sublime  Porte. 

(Signed)  I.  S.  SMITH. 

Heli'grad)  near  Constantinople, 
1st  September,   1799. 

*  Yassv,  or  lassi,  the  capital  of  Moldivia,  a  frontier  province  of  Turkey, 
the  governor  or  Vdivoda  of  which  is  always  selected  from  the  Greek oobility. 

JRJato,  Gfrom  Ool*  XXI.  G  e 


225  BLACK    SE*. 

APPENDIX  TO  MEMORIAL. 

Extract  from  the  Treaty,  entitled  Hie  Capitulations  or  Articles  of  tke- 
Peace. 

ARTICLE  1. 

Fifst,  That  the  said  nation  and  the  English  merchants,  and  any  other 
nation  or  merchants  which  are  or  shall  come  under  the  English  banner  and 
protection,  with  their  ships  small  and  great,  merchandise,  faculties,  and  aH 
other  their  goods,  may  always  pass  safe  in  our  seas,  and  freely  and  in  all 
security  may  come  and  go  into  any  part  of  the  imperial  limits  of  our 
dominions  in  such  sort,  that  neither  any  of  the  nation,  their  goods'  and 
faculties,  shall  receive  any  hindrance  or  molestation  from  any  person  what- 
ever. 

ARTICLE  4. 

All  English  ships  or  vessels,  small  or  great,  shall  and  may  at  any  time 
safely  and  securely  come  and  harbour  in  any  of  the  scales  and  ports  of  our 
dominions,  and  likewise  may  from  thence  depart  at  their  pleasure,  without 
detention  or  hindrance  of  any  man. 

ARTICLE  7. 

The  English  merchants,  interpreters,  brokers,  and  all  other  subjects 
of  that  nation,  whether  by  sea  or  land,  may  freely  and  safely  come  and  go 
in  all  the  ports  of  our  dominions  ;  or,  returning;  into  their  own  country,  al!  our 
bezlcrbegs,  ministers.,  governors,  and  other  officers,  captains  by  sea  of  ship*, 
and  others  whomsoever  our  slaves  and  subjects,  we  command  that  none  of 
them  do  or  shall  lay  hands  upon  their  persons,  or  faculties,  or  upon  any 
pretence  shall  do  them  any  hindrance  or  injury. 

ARTICLE  18. 

All  those  particular  privileges  and  capitulations,  which  in  former  times 
have  been  granted  to  the  French,  Venetians,  or  any  other  Christian  nation, 
whose  king  is  in  peace  and  friendship  with  the  Porte,  in  like  manner,  the 
same  were  granted,  and  given  to  the  said  English  nation ;  to  the  end,  that 
in  time  to  come,  the  tenor  of  this  our  imperial  capitulation  may  be  always 
observed  by  all  men ;  and  that  none  may,  in  any  manner,  upon  any  pretence, 
presume  to  contradict,  or  violate  it. 

ARTICLE  22. 

The  English  nation,  and  all  those  that  come  under  their  banner,  their 
vessels,  small  or  great,  shall  and  may  navigate,  traffic,  buy,  sell,  and  abide 
in  all  parts  of  our  dominions,  arid,  excepting  arms,  gunpowder,  and  other 
such  prohibited  commodities,  they  may  load,  and  carry  away  in  their  ship*, 
whatsoever  of  our  merchandize,  at  their  own  pleasure,  without  the 
impeachment  or  trouble  of  any  man  ;  and  their  ships  and  vessels  may  come 
safely  and  securely  to  anchor  at  all  times  and  traffic  at  all  limes  in  any  part 
of  our  dominions,  and  with  their  money  buy  victuals,  and  all  other  things, 
without  any  contradiction  or  hindrance  of  any  maix 


BLACK   SFA.  227 

ARTICLE  2". 

.AH  these  privileges,  and  ot!>cr  liberties  granted  to  the  English  nation, 
and  those  who  come  under  their  protection,  by  divers  imperial  commands, 
whether  Jbeforc  or  after  the  date  of  tiiese  imperial  capitulations,  shall  be 
ahvays  obeyed  and  observed,  and  shall  always  be  understood  and  interpreted 
in  favour  of  t!ie  English  nation,  according  to  the  tenor  and  true  contents 
thereof. 

ARTICLE  3G. 

The  English  merchants,  and  all  under  their  banner,  shall  and  may  safelv, 
throughout  o-.ir  dominion,  tra<ie,  buy,  sell,  (except  only  commodities  pro- 
hibited) all  sorts  of  merchandise  ;  likewise  either  by  land  or  sea,  they  maj 
go  and  traffic,  or  by  the  way  of  the  river  Timais,  in  Moscavia,  or  by  Russia, 
and  from  thence  may  bring  their  merchandise  into  our  empire;  also  to  and 
from  Persia  they  may  <io  and  trade,  and  through  all  that  part  newly  by  us 
conquered,  and  throusli  those  confines,  without  the  impediment  or  molesta- 
tion of  any  of  our  ministers  :  and  they  shall  pay  the  custom  or  other  duties 
of  that  country,  and  nothing  more. 

ARTICLE  38.   - 

The  English  ships  which  shall  come  to  this  our  city  of  Constantinople,  if 
by  fortune  of  seas,  or  ill  weather,  they  shall  be  forced  to  Coffii,  or  to  such 
like  port,  as  long  as  the  English  will  not  unlade  or  sell  their  own  merchan- 
dise and  "  goods,  no  man  shall  enforce  nor  give  them  any  trouble  or  an- 
noyance :  but  in  all  places  of  danger  the  Caddtcs,  or  other  of  our  ministers, 
shall  alwavs  protect  and  defend  the  said  English  ships,  men,  and  goods; 
that  no  damage  may  come  unto  them :  and  with  their  money  may  buy 
victuals  and  other  necessaries:  and  desiring  also  with  their  money  to  hire 
carts  or  vessels,  which  before  were  not  hired  by  any  other,  to  transport  their 
goods  from  place  to  place  ;  no  man  shall  do  them  any  hindrance  or  trouble 
whatsoever.'' 

0 

TRANSLATION 

Of  the  Original  Grunt  of  the  Freedom  of  the  Black  Sea,  as  ddhered 
to  I.  S.  SMITH,  Esq.  and  recorded  in  the  Public  Register  of' the  Ciiancery, 
of  the  British  Factory  at  Constantinople. 

The  friendship  and  good  intelligence  which  subsist  sines  the  most  remote 
times,  between  the  Sublime  Porte,  of  solid  glory,  and  the  court  of  England, 
being  now  crowned  by  an  alliance  founded  on  principles  of  the  most  invi- 
olable sincerity  and  cordiality;  and  these  new  bands  thus  strengthened 
between  the  two  courts  having  hitherto  produced  a  series  of  reciprocal  ad- 
vantages, it  is  not  presumptuous  to  suppose,  that  their  salutary  fruits  will 
be  reaped  stiii  more  abundantly  in  time  to  come.  New,  after  mature 
reflection  on  the  representations  that  the  English  minister  plenipotentiary 
residing,  at  the  Sublime  Porte,  our  very  esteemed  friend,  has  made  relative 
to  the  privilege  of  navigation  in  tiip  Black  Ser^  for  the  merchant  vessels  cf 


228  BLACK   SEA. 

liis  nation;  representations  that  he  lias  reiterated,  both  in  writing  and  ver- 
bally, in  conformity  to  his  instructions,  and  with  a  just  confidence  in  the 
lively  attachment  of  the  Porte  towards  his  court:  therefore,  to  give  a  new 
proof  of  these  sentiments,  as  well  as  of  the  hopes  entertained  by  the  Sublime 
Porte,  of  seeing  henceforward  a  multiplicity  of  new  fruits  spring  from  the 
connection  that  has  been  renewed  between  the  two  courts,  the  assent 
granted  to  the  before-named  minister's  solicitations  is  hereby  sanctioned  as 
a  sovereign  concession  and  gratuitous  act  on  the  part  of  his  Imperial  Ma- 
jesty ;  and  to  take  full  and  entire  effect  as  soon  as  farther  amicable  con- 
ferences shall  have  taken  place  with  the  minister  our  friend,  for  the  purpose 
of  determining  the  burthen  of  the  English  vessels,  the  mode  of  transit  by 
the  canal  of  Constantinople,  and  such  other  regulations  and  conventions  as 
appertain  to  the  object;  and  which  shall  be  as  exactly  maintained  and 
observed  with  regard  to  the  English  navigation,  as  towards  any  other  the 
most  favoured  nation.  A"d  in  order  that  the  minister,  our  friend,  do 
inform  his  court  of  this  valuable  grant,  the  present  rescript  has  been  drawn 
up,  and  is  delivered  to  him, 

Constantinople,  I  Jemazi'ul-Evrell,  A.  H.  1214. 
30  October,  A.D.  1799. 


TRANSLATION. 

Official  Note  delivered  by  the  REIS  EFFENDI  to  ALEXANDER  STRATON,  Esq. 
at  a  Conference  in  his  Excellency's  House  on  the  Canal,  the  '29t/i 
July,  1802, 

It  behoves  the  character  of  true  friendship,  all  sincere  regard  to  promote 
with  cheerfulness,  all  such  affairs  and  objects  as  may  be  reciprocally  useful, 
and  may  have  a  rank  among  the  salutary  fruits  of  those  steady  bonds  of 
alliance  and  perfect  good  harmony,  which  happily  subsists  between  the  Sub- 
lime Porte  and  the  court  of  Great  Britain  ;  and  as  permission  has  heretofore 
been  granted  for  the  English  merchants  ships  to  navigate  in  the  Black  Sea 
for  the  purposes  of  trade,  the  same  having  been  a  voluntary  trait  of  his 
•Imperial  Majesty's  own  gracious  heart,  as  more  amply  appears  by  an  offi- 
cial note  presented  to  our  friend,  the  English  minister,  residing  at  the  Sub- 
lime Porte,  dated  1  Jemazi-ul-Akhirt  1214,*  this  present  Takrir\  is 
issued ;  the  imperial  court  hereby  engaging,  that  the  same  treatment  shall 
be  observed  towards  the  English  merchant  ships  coming  to  that  sea,  as  is 
offered  to  ships  of  powers  most  favoured  by  the  Sublime  Porte,  oil  the 
score  of  that  navigation. 

23  R6bi-ul-Ewcl,  1217. 
23  July,  1802. 


*  00th  October,  1799.  }  Official  note. 


229 

MARINE  SCENERY. 

THE    FEUOE  ISLANDS. 
(Translated  from  the  Danish.) 

STfTlHE  Feroe  Islands  are  situated  in  the  North  Sea,  between  the 
Jl_  latitude  of  61  deg.  15  min.  and  62  deg.  21  min.  In  regard 
to  longitude,  the  town  of  Thorsharn  lies  19  deg.  15  rain.  15  sec. 
west  from  Copenhagen,  and  9  deg.  47  min.  45  sec,  east  from 
Tencriffe.  They  are  eighty-four  miles  distant  from  the  coast  of 
Norway  on  the  eastern  side,  and  forty-five  miles  from  the  Shet- 
land isles  towards  the  south-west. 

These  islands  are  in  number  twenty-two,  seventeen  of  which  are 
inhabited.  They  occupy,  in  a  direction  from  north  to  south, 
fifteen  miles;  extend  in  breadth,  from  cast  to  west,  ten  miles; 
and  contain  altogether  nearly  twenty-three  and  a  half  square  miles- 
They  consist  of  a  group  of  steep  rocks  or  hills,  rising  from  the  sea, 
chiefly  of  a  conical  form,  and  placed  for  the  most  part  close  to 
each  other,  some  of  which  proceed  with  an  even  declivity  to  the 
shore ;  but  the  greater  part  of  these  declivities  have  two,  three,  or 
more  sloping  terraces,  formed  by  projecting  rocks,  and  covered 
with  a  thin  stratum  of  earth,  which  produces  grass.  Close  to  the 
sea,  however,  the  land  in  general  consists  of  perpendicular  rocks, 
from  two  to  three  hundred  fathoms  in  height.  The  highest  of  all 
the  hills  in  these  islands,  and  that  first  seen  by  navigators,  particu- 
larly from  the  west,  is  Skaelling,  which  lies  in  the  southern  part  ef 
Nordstromoc.  Its  perpendicular  height  is  400  Danish  fathoms,  or 
2,240  English  feet;  and  though  it  is  the  steepest  of  all  these  hills, 
jt  is  possible  to  ascend  to  the  top  of  it.  When  viewed  from  the 
bottom,  it  appears  to  terminate  in  a  long  sharp  point ;  but  when 
you  have  climbed  up  to  its  summit,  you  find  a  pretty  level  plain 
covered  with  moss,  about  three  hundred  ells  in  length,  and  a  hun- 
dred in  breadth.  When  the  weather  is  clear,  the  whole  of  the 
Ferae  islands  may  be  scfcn  from  it. 

The  hills  lie  so  close  to  each  other,  that  the  termination  of  the 
bottom  of  one  is  the  commencement  of  the  bottom  of  another, 
being  separated  merely  by  a  brook  or  rivulet.  There  are  no 
vallies  of  any  extent  between  them  :  in  the  higher  ground  between 
their  summits  a  few  dales,  covered  with  wretched  grass,  are  some- 
times seen  ;  but  these  arc  not  letel,  being  interrupted  sometime* 


230  M.VKTNE    fcCENEHY. 

by  collections  of  large  loo.se  stones,  which  have  the  appearance  of 
being  thrown  together  by  a  volcanic  eruption.  On  some  heights 
there  are  found  considerable  tracts  covered  with  rubbish,  which 
seems  to  be  effloresced  matter  thrown  down  from  the  rocks  ;  and 
these  tracts  produce  no  grass,  for  the  finer  mould,  fit  for  the  pur- 
poses of  vegetation,  which  might  be  collected  in  them,  is  swept 
away  by  the  violence  of  the  winds,  or  washed  down  by  the  rain 
and  snow-water.  Some  moist  places,  less  exposed  to  the  impetuo- 
sity of  the  winds,  a!Tord  a  scanty  nourishment  to  the  Ka'nigia 
islundica,  and  the  drisr  spots  produce  the  Saxijraga  oppositifoiia, 
and  the  Stalicc  Armeria.  But  such  is  the  smoothness  and  steep- 
ness of  many  parts  of  these  hills,  that  no  earth  can  remain  on  them  ; 
and,  in  general,  the  stratum  of  earth  by  which  the  rocks  of  the 
Fcroe  islands  are  covered  is  so  thin,  that  it  is  sometimes  no  more 
than  a  quarter  of  an  ell  in  depth  ;  and  in  the  vall.es,  where  the 
land  is  arable,  it  never  exceeds  two  ells. 

The  form  of  the  hills  is  different,  according  to  their  situation, 
•whether  more  to  the  north  or  to  the  south.  Those  in  Sudcroe 
exhibit,  in  general,  an  evener  surface;  but  those  in  Stromoe  and 
Ostcroc  have  on  their  side  several  sloping  terraces  and  hillocks, 
lying  close  to  each  other.  These  hillocks  present  nearly  the  same 
appearance;  so  that  when  viewed  at  some  distance,  particularly 
from  another  hill  or  eminence,  they  resemble  a  camp  consisting  of 
pitched  tents  ;  and  when  these  hillocks  are  covered  with  snow, 
which  is  often  the  case  when  there  is  no  snow  in  the  lower  regions, 
this  resemblance  is  still  more  striking  ;  but  the  case  with  Norderoc 
is  entirely  diifercnt ;  the  hills  are  steeper,  and  of  a  more  conical 
form ;  and  they  have  rough  ridges  on  their  summits,  beset  with 
projecting  paps  and  asperities. 

The  rocks  in  general  consist  of  trap,  almost  every  where  hit;  r- 
mixed  with  feld-spar,  some  glimmer,  and  small  grains  of  zeolite. 
The  ridges  of  the  hills  sometimes  exhibit  cle'ts  or  fissures,  which 
the  inhabitants  call  skaurc ;  and  very  often  these  fissures  may  be 
traced,  in  a  strait  line,  through  other  islands,  notwithstanding  the 
interposition  of  the  sea. 

No  certain  traces  of  any  crater  or  signs  of  volcanic  eruption  are 
here  to  be  found ;  nor  did  I  ever  observe  any  pumice-stone  or 
lava  in  these  islands,  unless  basaltes  can  be  considered  as  belonging 
to  that  kind  of  production. 

Besides  the  large  collections  of  stones  already  mentioned,  which 
'arc  occasionally  found  in  the  hills,  there  are  seen  sometimes  in  thw 
Tallies  single  stones,  three,  four,  or  five  ells  in  diameter,  but  lii 


MARINE   SCEVEirY.  531 

places  where  it  is  Impossible  they  could  have  fallen  down  from  the 
hills.  Such  stones  are  found  also  here  and  there  at  a  considerable 
height  in  the  hills,  where  there  is  no  other  eminence  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood from  which  they  might  have  rolled  down.  On  the  side 
of  many  of  the  hills,  and  particularly  on  the  lower  projecting  de- 
clivities, there  are  often  found  great  heaps  of  stones,  among  which 
there  are  some  large  ones  ;  but  it  may  be  plainly  perceived  that 
these  have  been  thrown  down  from  (he  higher  projections,  in  the 
fissures  of  which  the  rain-water  lodges,  and  when  it  freezes  in  win- 
tor  it  splits  the  rock  by  its  expansion,  and  on  a  thaw  taking  place 
these  fragments  tumble  down,  and  by  their  fall  destroy  the  grass 
plats  below.  But  the  stones  thrown  down  in  this  manner  arc 
tlifierent  from  those  before  mentioned  ;  for  the  latter  have  two 
sides,  which  stand  at  a  right  angle,  or,  at  least,  they  have  one  or 
more  flat  surfaces  ;  whereas  the  former  are  in  general  round. 

In  some  of  the  hills  there  are  strata  of  basaltic  columns,  standing 
in  a  perpendicular  position  ;  in  other  places  they  have  an  oblique 
direction.  At  Fredeboe,  in  Suderoe,  is  a  series  of  these  columns, 
the  bottoms  of  which  are  concealed  ;  but  their  summits  are  all 
visible.  It  extends  to  a  considerable  height  in  the  side  of  the  hill 
proceeding  north  to  north-west,  but  sinks  down  towards  the  shore 
in  a  south  or  south-east  direction  ;  and  at  the  bottom  of  the  hill 
these  columns  stretch  out  several  fathoms  into  the  sea,  always 
sinking  lower,  till  they  at  length  disappear  beneath  the  water. 

In  several  parts  of  those  islands  may  be  seen  lofty  columns, 
bearing  large  arches,  which  support  huge  masses  of  rock;  and 
under  these  arches  there  are  large  apertures  0r  cavities,  six,  eight, 
or  more  ells  in  length  and  breadth,  the  bottoms  of  which  are 
covered  by  the  sea.  There  are  also  in  some  places  narrower 
cavities,  but  these  extend  to  a  greater  distance  within  the  hills, 
and  produce  a  very  loud  echo  when  a  person  calls  out  before  the 
mouth  of  them.  Some  of  these  cavities,  which  serve  as  places  of 
retreat  for  the  seals,  are  of  such  length,  that  one  can  proceed  for- 
wards in  them  with  a  boat  from  thirty  to  a  hundred  fathoms. 
Others  extend  quite  through  the  hill,  so  as  to  be  open  at  both 
ends;  and  some  of  them  stretch  across  a  whole  island. 

In  some  siyall  creeks  at  the  bottom  of  the  steep  lulls,  or  which 
form  indentations  in  them,  there  are  frequently  seen  tall  rugged 
rocks,  of  a  pyramidal  form,  some  of  them  like  towers,  and  at  *uch 
a  distance  from  the  parent  rock,  that  a  boat  can  row  betwcca 
them.  These  rocks,  to  which  the  inhabitants  gave  the  name  of 
are  of  various  heights,  for  some  of  them  rise  scarcely  to 


MARINE   SCENERY. 

the  fourth  part  or  half  the  height  of  the  parent  rock,  while  other* 
rise  to  the  same  height.  But  these  rocks  are  not  confined  merely 
to  the  creeks  ;  some  of  them  are  found  at  the  projecting  extremities 
of  the  islands ;  others  stand  close  to  the.  sides  of  the  hills,  at  the  dis- 
tance of  a  few  fathoms  from  the  land  :  and  some  so  close,  that  the 
water  can  scarcely  find  passage  between  them  ;  but  it  is  cvidenfly 
seen  that  they  have  once  formed  a  part  of  the  coast  from  which 
tluy  have  by  some  means  or  other  been  torn. 

At  the  bottom  of  the  rocks  there  are  sometimes  seen  immense 
columns,  between  some  of  which  and  the  rock  there  is  a  vacant 
space  towards  the  foot  of  them,  while  the  tops,  bent  towards  the 
rock,  are  united  with  it,  as  if  they  had  been  raised  on  purpose  to 
support  it,  and  prevent  it  from  falling  into  the  sea.  Others  of 
them  arc  connected  with  the  hill  at  the  bottom,  and  have  their  tops 
entirely  free  and  disengaged  from  it. 

The  Fcroe  islands  contain  a  great  many  streams  and  rivulets, 
but  none  of  considerable  size.  At  most  seasons  of  the  year  they 
arc  all  fordable,  and  may  be  crossed  with  safety,  except  at  the 
time  of  heavy  rains,  when  they  receive  such  an  addition  of  water1 
that  they  become  impassable.  Some  of  them  produce  trout,  which 
are  caught  after  rain,  by  angling  for  them  with  a  rod  and  line. 
Sometimes  the  inhabitants  kill  them  by  striking  them  with  a  stick, 
or  take  them  by  groping  with  their  hands  in  the  holes  under  the 
banks.  This  kind  of  fishing,  however,  is  of  very  little  importance. 
There  are  some  fresh-\vater  lak^s  also  between  the  hills,  where 
trout  are  canght,  but  seldom  in  any  considerable  quantity.  The 
largest  lake,  and  that  most  abundant  in  fish,  as  far  as  I  could  learn, 
is  iu  Vaagoc,  to  the  north  of  Midwaag  ;  it  is  about  two  miles  in 
circumference.  Leinum,  and  some  smaller  pieces  of  water  in. 
Nordstromoe,  contain  a  few  fish  ;  and  in  the  latter  is  found  a  spe- 
cies of  trout,  which  are  red  on  the  belly ;  on  that  account  they  are 
called  red-bellies.  Some  rivulets  and  small  lakes  afford  likewise 
a  few  eels,  but  they  seldom  attain  to  a  large  size.  These  are  the 
only  kinds  of  fresh  water  fish  in  these  islands  with  which  I  am 
acquainted. 

As  the  hills  are  for  the  most  part  steep,  the  streams  pour  down 
their  sides  with  great  impetuosity,  and  some  of  them  form  small 
water-falls,  which  are  very  convenient  to  the  inhabitants,  parti- 
cularly  when  they  are  in  the  neighbourhood  of  villages,  as  they 
afford  them  the  means  of  erecting  water-mills. 

Some  of  these  falls  appear  only  after  a  heavy  rain,  and  precipitate 
themselves  ftora  the  bare  rocks,  m  places  where,  at  other 


MARINE   SCENERY.  231 

tbsre  is  no  appearance  of  them.  If  a  strong  wind  happens  at  the 
same  period  to  blow  towards  the  rock,  the  water  is  dispersed,  and 
falls  down  in  the  form  of  small  rain  ;  but  if  the  wind  increases  to 
a  hurricane,  none  of  the  water  falls  down  ;  the  whole  being  forced 
tip  into  the  atmosphere,  it  assumes  the  appearance  of  a  thick  mist 
or  smoke,  in  which  a  rainbow  of  the  most  vivid  colours  is  some- 
times observed.  The  most  remarkable  water-fall  which  I  ever  had 
an  opportunity  of  seeing  in  these  islands  is  Fosaa,  between  Qualvig 
and  Haldervig,  in  Nordstromoe.  It  consists  properly  of  two 
falls,  one  above  the  other,  each  of  which,  judging  by  the  eye,  for 
I  did  not  measure  them,  is  from  twelve  to  sixteen  fathoms  in  height; 
and  the  higher  one  projects  so  far  from  the  rock,  that  a  person  can 
walk  between  it  and  the  rock  without  being  wet.  An  inhabitant 
of  Qualvig  assured  me,  that  he  had  stood  and  seen  trouts  work 
themselves  up  this  impetuous  fall ;  a  circumstance  which,  if  true, 
appears  to  be  very  remarkable.  The  water  of  the  rivulets  here  is 
in  general  pure,  wholesome,  and  well  tasted,  or  rather  has  no  taste 
at  all.  But  there  are  two  exceptions ;  that  is,  when  the  water 
becomes  turbid  after  a  few  hours  rain,  or  when  a  small  stream  runs 
through  ground  that  is  muddy,  or  abundant  in  cupreous  particles  ; 
for  in  these  cases  the  water  becomes  noxious  and  ill  tasted.  Some 
times  these  small  streams  run  into  the  larger  rivulets  which  sup- 
ply the  inhabitants  with  water ;  but  the  quantity  of  corrupted 
water  they  contain  is  too  small,  when  mixed  with  that  of  the  larger 
rivulet,  to  produce  any  bad  effect. 

These  islands  abound  also  in  springs,  some  of  which  rise  from 
deep  cavities  in  the  fields,  or  burst  out  at  the  bottoms  of  the  hills, 
and,  making  their  way  through  the  fissures  in  the  rocks,  flow 
incessantly,  even  during  the  driest  weather.  They  are  of  two 
kinds,  cold  and  warm  ;  but  the  greater  part  of  them  belong  to  the 
former  class.  They  produce  excellent  water,  which  in  some  places 
is  said  to  be  endowed  with  the  property  of  strengthening  the  sto- 
mach and  checking  diarrhoea. 

The  most  remarkable  of  the  warm  springs  is  Vermakielde,  fn 
Osteroe,  which  spouts  out  from  a  bank  of  earth  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  sea.  It  is  said  to  be  so  warm  in  winter,  that  if  a  lira- 
pet  (patella  testudinalis)  be  put  into  it,  the  animal  will  be  sepa- 
rated froKi  its  shell.  In  the  mouth  of  Noveaiber,  at  which  time  I 
*aw  it,  I  found  it  to  be  almost  milk  warm  ;  the  bottom  of  it  is 
covered  with  that  species  of  moss  called  Fontintdis  antipyretica. 
In  former  times  people  were  accustomed  to  assemble  here  at  Mid« 

/2it>.  C&ton.  QoU  XXI.  H  H 


334  SATAL   STATE   PAPERS. 

summer,  partly  to  amuse  themselves  with  singing,  dancing,  and 
various  sports,  and  partly  to  use  the  water  as  a  remedy  for  different 
disorders.  It  is  still  frequented  by  a  few,  but  the  confidence  in  it# 
healing  qualities  is  much  lessened. 


NAVAL  STATE  PAPERS. 

Papers  presenfed  to  the  House  of  Commons,  relative  to  the 
Rustiajt  Fleet  in  the  Tagus,  and  to  the  Contention  concluded 
teith  the  Russian  Admiral. — Ordered  to  be  printed  on  the  Qth 
if  February )  1809. 

HO.  1  is  the  following  extract  of  an  order,  from  the  Admiralty 
to  Sir  Charles   Cotton,    dated  on  the   9th  of  December, 

1807  :— 

"  Whereas  since  thr  orders  given  to  Rear-admiral  Sir  Sydney  Smith,  in- 
formation has  been  received  of  the  entrance  of  a  Russian  squadron,  consist- 
ing of  seven  sail  of  the  line  and  two  frigates,  into  the  river  Tagus,  and  orders 
have  been  issued  for  seizing  and  sending  into  port  all  Russian  ships  of  war 
and  merchant  ships  ;  and  whereas  it  has  in  consequence  become  necessary, 
that  the  officer  commanding  his  majesty's  ships  off  the  Tagus  should  be  fur- 
nished with  further  instructions  : — We  do  hereby  require  and  direct  you,  if 
the  Portuguese  government  should  recur  to  its  original  intention  of  pro-, 
reeding  to  the  Bra/ils,  but  should  represent  to  you  that  the  Russian  squadron 
interposes  an  obstacle  to  their  departure,  to  demand  possession  of  the  prin- 
cipal forts  upon  the  Tagus^  as  you  may  deem  necessary  for  the  safe  passage 
of  the  squadron  under  your  orders  ;  and  having  obtained  it,  to  proceed  up 
the  river  for  the  purpose  of  attacking  the  Russian  squadron,  and  conveying 
the  Portuguese  fleet  out  of  the  Tagus. 

"  And  where/is,  in  consequence  of  the  recent  conduct  of  the  court  of 
Russia,  in  renouncing  ail  intercqurse  with  his  Majesty,  the  capture  of  the 
Russian  squadron  in  the  Tagus  has  become  an  object  of  the  greatest  im- 
portance, and  Major-general  Spencer,  with  a  corps  of  seven  thousand  men, 
who  is  destined  for  Sicily,  is  directed  to  proceed  with  you  off  Lisbon  on  his 
way  thither,  to  co-operate  with  you  for  the  attainment  of  that  object,  and 
to  put  himself  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant-general  Sir  John  Mooref 
who  may  be  expected  on  that  station  with  a  similar  force  from  Sicily,  and 
with  whom  Rear-admiral  Sir  William  Sydney  Smith  was  by  our  secretary's 
letter  of  the  7th  ultimo,  directed  to  co-operate;  we  herewith  transmit  to 
you  a  copy  of  the  instructions  which  have  been  given  to  the  Lieutenar/r- 
ccncral  by  Lord  Hawkcsbury,  one  of  his  Majesty's  principal  secretaries  of 
state,  and  do  hereby  require  and  direct  you  to  co-operate  with  the 
Lieutenant-general,  or  in  his  absence,  with  Major-general  Spencer,  for  th* 
purpose  of  effecting  the  capture  of  die  Russian  squadron  above-mentioned. 


NAVAL   STATE   PAPERS.  235 

**  In  the  event  of  its  not  being  judged  prudent  or  practicable  to  make  aix 
attack  on  the  ships  in  the  Ta^us,  or  in  the  event  of  the  failure  of  such 
attack,  you  are  to  continue  with  tiie  fleet  off  that  river,  for  the  purpose  of 
maintaining  and  enforcing  a  strict  blockade  thereof,  so  as  to  prevent  the 
entrance  of  any  supplies  whatever,  even  of  provisions. 

"  Siiould  the  Portuguese  government,  in  consequence  of  the  strictness  of 
the  blockade,  surrender  to  th-j  fleet  under  your  com  nand  the  Portuguese 
and  Russian  squadrons*,  you  are  in  timt  case  (hut  in  no  other)  to  relax  th* 
blockade  of  the  Tagus,  so  far  as  relates  to  the  supply  of  provisions  to  the 
inhabitants,  and  in  that  case  only." 

No.  2  consists  of  instructions  to  Sir  Charles  Cotton,  for  pro* 
curing  the  surrender  of  the  Russian  fleet. — A  letter  from  Mr.  Can- 
ping  to  Lord  Castlereagh,  dated  December  28,  1807,  says  : — 

"  It  also  appears  from  Lord  Strangford's  information,  that  the  Russian 
fleet  in  the  Ta»us  must  shortly  be  reduced  by  the  continuance  of  the  block- 
ade, to  a  state  of  the  utmost  distress  ;  and  as,  iu  such  a  state,  it  maybe  not 
impossible  that  a  proposal  for  the  surrender  of  that  fleet,  upon  honourable 
conditions,  might  be  listened  to  by  the  Russian  admiral,  it  might  be  desirable 
that  instructions  should  be  sent  to  the  commander  of  his  Majesty's  fleet,  to 
convey  to  the  Russian  admiral  a  proposal  for  the  surrender  of  the  fleet  to 
his  Majesty,  offering  as  a  condition,  that  the  officers  and  men  shall  not  b« 
considered  as  prisoners  of  war,  but  shall  be  conveyed  to  Russia  by  thf 
earliest  opportunity,  at  the  expense  of  Great  Britain." 

No.  3  is  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole, 
dated  January  25,  1808,  enclosing  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  him  to 
Vice-admiral  ^eniavin,  and  stating  the  difficulties  under  which  lie 
laboured,  wiih  regard  to  communication  with  that  admiral 

No.  4,  a  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole,  dated  Hibernia, 
off  the  Tagus,  February  8,  1808,  mentions  the  arrival  of  two 
Russian,  and  one  French,  officers,  in  a  tlag  of  truce.  From  one 
of  the  former  having  found  means  to  separate  them,  he  understood 
the  Russians  to  be  extremely  dissatisfied  witri  their  situation,  sub- 
ject as  they  were  to  the  immediate  controul  of  the  French,  who 
had  possession  of  all  the  old  batteries  on  the  banks  of  the  Tagus, 
and  were  daily  erecting  new  ones.  "  The  Russian  ships,"  saya 
Sir  Charles,  "  are  said  to  be  full  of  provisions  of  every  descrip- 
tion, completed  to  ten  months  ;  all  the  Irish  provision*,  &c.  that 
were  in  store  previous  to  the  entry  of  a  French  army,  having,  in 
preference  to  its  falling  a  prey  to  them,  been  sent  to  the  Russian 
squadron. — The  port  of  St.  Ubes  and  coast  to  the  southward,  is, 
I  understand,  to  be  immediately  occupied  by  French  troops,  in, 
ijrder  to  prevent  a  possibility  of  any  supplies  being  seat  tOj  o? 


23(5  JJAVAL   STATE   PAPER. 

communication  whatever  held  with,  the  squadron  under  fliy 
command." 

No.  5  is  a  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole,  dated  Marcb 
29,  1808,  stating  that  Mr.  Setarro,  (formerly  contractor,  or  agent 
for  supplying  the  British  army  and  navy  with  provisions,  but  now 
commissary  to  the  French  army)  had  come  on  board  the  Hibernia, 
to  request  permission  for  the  importation  of  flour,  for  the  relief  of 
the  suffering  inhabitants  of  Lisbon.  To  this  request  Sir  Charles 
gave  a  decided  negative.  Mr.  Setarro  also  requested  permission 
for  about  fifteen  merchant  vessels,  which  were  lying  in  the  Tagus, 
to  proceed  to  the  Brazils.  Sir  Charles  replied,  that  all  persons  of 
respectability  attached  to  their  Prince  would  meet  with  no  obstacle 
to  their  intention  of  proceeding,  but  that  they  must  first  pass  under 
an  examination. 

No.  6.  Sir  Charles  Cotton,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Pole,  dated 
April  1,  intimates  a  probability  that  the  Russian  squadron  will 
come  out,  in  consequence  of  their  disagreeing  with  the  French. 

Nos.  7  and  8,  relate  to  the  following  order  from  the  Admi- 
ralty to  Sir  Charles  Cotton,  for  the  provisional  relaxation  of  th,e 
blockade  of  the  Tagus  :— 

"  Whereas  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Castlereagh,  one  of  his  Majesty's 
principal  secretaries  of  state,  hath  by  his  letter  of  this  day's  date  signified 
to  us  the  King's  pleasure,  that  in  consequence  of  the  application  made  to 
you  by  Mr.  Setarro.  as  represented  in  your  letter  of  the  29th  of  last  month, 
for  allowing  the  entrance  into  the  Tagus  of  vessels  laden  with  flour  for  the 
use  of  the  inh  bitants  of  Portugal,  we  should  give  you  instructions  for  your 
further  proceedings;  we  do  in  pursuance  of  his  Majesty's  pleasure  signified 
to  us  as  aforesaid,  hereby  require  and  direct  you  immediately  to  open  a 
communication  by  a  flag  of  truce  with  the  existing  government  at  Lisbcyi, 
and  to  conform  to  the  following  instructions. 

As  it  does  not  appear  by  your  letter  above-mentioned,  by  what  authority 
Mr.  Setarro  was  commissioned  to  solicit  you  tp  permit  the  importation  of 
flour  for  the  support  of  the  native  inhabitants  of  Portugal,  nor  whether  he 
professed  to  speak  on  the  part  jointly  of  the  French  commander  and  of  the 
Portuguese  government,  it  is,  in  either  case  material,  that  the  proposals 
which  you  are  herein  directed  to  make  should  if  possible  be  transmitted  at 
the  same  time  to  the  Portuguese  commander,  (Don  Gomes  Frero)  to  the 
Civil  government  of  Lisbon,  and  to  Vice-admiral  Seniavin  ;  and  lastly 
(should  Mr.  Setarro  have  come  to  you  on  the  part  of  General  Junot)  to  the 
French  commander  also. 

"  In  the  communications  above  mentioned,  you  are  expressly  to  declare, 
that  the  blockade  of  the  ports  of  Portugal  lias  not  been  established  with  any 
view  of  inflicting  the  calamity  of  famine  on  the  natives  of  Portugal,  but  on 
the  contrary,  that  you  deeply  lament  their  sufferings,  as  the  inevitable  cooi« 


KAVAL  STATE  PAPERS.  237 

«equence  of  a  necessary  operation  of  war ;  that  Lisbon,  having  become  in 
the  bands  of  the  enemy  a  port  of  equipment  tor  the  invasion  of  his  Majesty's 
dominions,  the  rigid  enforcement  of  a  strict  blockade  has  followed  as  an 
indispensible  measure  of  self  defence,  a  measure  which  can  neither  be  with- 
drawn or  relaxed  whilst  the  port  of  Lisbon  shall  retain  that  character . 
that  the  relief  of  the  suffering  inhabitants  of  Portugal  rests,  therefore,  en- 
tirely with  those  who  exercise  the  powers  of  government  at  Lisbon ;  that 
the  interest  and  compassion  with  which  his  Majesty  considers  these  sutler- 
ings,  have  induced  him  to  authorize  you  to  offer  the  most  liberal  terms  of 
maritime  capitulation,  by  which  the  pressure  of  blockade  may  be  removed, 
and  the  people  be  entirely  relieved  from  distress  ;  but,  that  in  the  event  of 
the  rejection  of  the  terms  proposed,  you  are  at  the  same  time  commanded 
to  render  the  blockade  still  more  rigorous. 

"  You  are  then  to  proceed  to  state,  that  in  consideration  of  the  urgency 
of  distress  which  has  been  represented,  you  are  authorized  to  open  at  once, 
the  full  extent  of  liberal  terms  which  you  are  prepared  to  grant,  as  the  con- 
dition of  raising  the  strict  blockade  of  the  ports  of  Portugal. 

"  You  are  to  accompany  the  foregoing  declaration  with  the  drafts  of 
article?  of  convention  in  due  form,  and  to  the  following  effect  :— 
-  "  1st.  The  ships  of  war  of  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  now  in  the  Tagus, 
shall  be  delivered  immediately  to  you,  to  be  held  as  a  deposit  by  his 
Majesty,  and  to  be  restored  to  his  Imperial  Majesty  within  six  months  after 
thtf  conclusion  of  a  peace  between  his  Majesty  and  the  King  of  Sweden* 
together  witli  any  other  powers,  being  the  allies  of  his  Majesty  at  the  time, 
and  the  Emperor  of  Russia. 

"  2dly.  Vice-admiral  Seniavin,  with  the  officers,  sailors,  and  marines 
Vnder  his  command,  to  return  .to  Russia  without  any  condition  or  stipula- 
tion respecting  their  future  services. 

"  3diy.  The  Portuguese  ships  of  war  and  merchant  vessels  to  be 
delivered  over  to  you,  with  all  their  stores,  sails,  and  equipment,  subject  only 
to  such  arrangements  respecting  such  ships  of  war  and  merchant  vessels,  as 
shall  be  subsequently  agreed  upon  and  concluded  on  the  part  of  his 
Majesty,  and  on  that  of  his  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Regent  of 
Portugal. 

"  4thly.  All  merchant  vessels  belonging  to  the  enemy,  now  in  the 
Tagus,  shall  be  taken  in  deposit  to  be  restored  to  the  powers  to  which  they 
ihall  respectively  belong  on  the  conclusion  of  peace. 

"  Sthly.  All  neutral  vessels  actually  in  the  Tagus,  to  be  required  to  saif 
cut  in  ballast,  or  with  such  cargoes,  destined  for  Great  Britain  or  the  Bra- 
zils, as  shall  be  specified  in  a  schedule  to  be  annexed  to  the  convention,  the 
cargoes  of  such  neutral  ships  to  be  verified  by  examination  either  under 
your  direction,  or  in  some  British  port  to  which  the  vessel  shall  be  sent  for 
that  fiirpose. 

"  6thly.  On  the  part  of  his  Majesty,  you  shall  suffer  the  free  entry  of 
provisions,  not  being  enemy's  property,  into  the  several  ports  of  Portugal, 
jtnd  shall  relax  the  strict  military  blockade  of  such  ports. 

f?  The  foregoing  draft  or  a  convention  contains  the  full  extent  of  the 


<23S  KAVAL   STATE    PAPER*. 

terms  which  you  are  hen  by  authorized  to  offer  on  the  part  of  his  Majesty . 
but  as  it  may  possibly  happen  that  the  Russian  Admiral  may  not  consider 
himself  at  liberty  to  negotiate  for  the  surrender  of  ti.e  ships  under  his  coiu- 
mand,  although  the  Portuguese  inhabitants  may  prevail  with  the  French 
Commander  to  allow  of  the  surrender  of  any  other  enemy's  ships,  and  of 
the  Portuguese  ships,  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  a  supply  which  may 
avert  the  dreadful  calamity  of  famine  ;  you  are  hereby  further  required  and 
directed  (in  the  event  of  every  condition  of  the  terms  proposed  by  you  being 
admitted,  with  the  exception  of  the  suiTt-mler  of  ihe  llussian  tleei)  in  that 
case  to  conclude  a  convention  xvith  that  exception,  and  to  permit  the  intro- 
duction of  provisions  into  the  ports  of  Portugal. 

"  But  as  this  arrangement  would  render  it  necessary  still  to  maintain  a 
large  force  off  the  Rock  of  Lisbon  to  watch  the  Russian  squadron,  to  the 
manifest  detriment'of  other  important  services,  you  are  on  no  account  to 
open  this  arrangement  as  a  proposal  on  your  part,  but  are  only  hereby 
authorized  to  agree  to  it  ys  a  suggestion  from  the  enemy,  in  tiie  event  of  the 
failure  of  the  more  general  surrender  of  the  maritime  means  collected  ia 
the  Tagus.  Given,  &c.  16th  April,  IbOS. 

«  MULGRAVE, 
"  R,  BICKERTON, 
«  W.  J.  HOPE.1' 

u  Sir  Charles  Cotton,  Bar!.  Vice-admiral 
of  the  Red,  Sfc.  off  the  Tugus. 

"  By  command  of  their  Lordships, 

"  VV.  W.  POLE." 

No.  9  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  the  above  order,  by  Sir 
C.  Cotton. 

No.  10  encloses  to  Mr.  Pole,  the  copy  of  a  proclamation  whicli 
Sir  C.  Cotton  had  issued  to  the  Portuguese,  on  the  28th  of  April, 
pointing  out  the  means  by  which  they  might  obtain,  a  relief  from 
blockade. 

No.  11  is  a  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole,  dated  May 
18,  stating  the  events  which  had  been  occasioned  by  the  above 
mentioned  proclamation.  The  following  is  an  extract :-— 

"  I  request  you  will  please  to  acquaint  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Admiralty,  that  in  consequence  of  the  proclamation  issued  by  me,  copy 
of  which  I  had  the  honour  to  transmit  to  you  on  the  28th  ult.  Mr.  Setarro 
this  day  came  on  board  the  Ilibernia^  and  declared  that  he  was  sent  express, 
by  General  Junot,  to  say,  that  one  of  my  proclamations  had  reached  him 
on  Thursday  the  12th  inst.  which  had  immediately  been  transmitted  tc» 
Bayonne,  and  orders  thereupon  requested  from  the  Emperor  of  the  French, 
whose  answer  might  be  shortly  expected  ;  that  in  the  mean  time,  if  I  had, 
any  thing  to  propose,  as  stated  in  the  proclamation,  respecting  a  maritime 
capitulation,  it  might  accelerate  the  business  by  communicatinj;  the  same  tq 
feyii  (Mr.  Setarro.) 


NAVAL   STATE   PAPERS.  233 

•'  To  which  I  replied,  that  General  Junot  must  be  aware  that  all  com- 
munications of  the  nature  solicited,  between  respective  comrnanders-in- 
chief',  usually  pass  through  officers  of  rank ;  and  b.e  having  thought  proper  to 
prohibit  the  entry  of  flags  of  truce,  threatening  to  destroy  one,  and  when 
employer!  upon  purposes  of  humanity  regarding  his  own  wounded  country- 
men, prevented  my  sending  a  flag  of  truce  ;  but  if  his  assurance  in  writing 
was  conveyed  to  me  by  an  officer  of  rank,  that  a  flag  of  truce  should  meet 
due  respect  in  the  Tagus,  an  officer  should  be  sent  to  communicate  the 
terms  for  a  maritime  capitulation,  by  which  the  blockade  of  the  .ports  of 
Portugal  may  be  immediately  raised,  and  a  free  entry  of  provisions  per- 
mitted; terms  the  most  liberal,  influenced  solely  by  the  lively  interest  and 
great  compassion  his  Britannic  Majesty  felt  for  the  sufferings  of  an  unfor- 
tunate people,  whose  present  misery  and  probable  increase  of  calamity  from 
approaching  scarcity,  Mr.  Sctarro  took  infinite  pains  to  depict. 

"  With  respect  to  Vice-admiral  Senia'vin,  and  the  Russian  squadron, 
Mr.  Setarro  said  the  following  questions  had  been  agitated:—'  What  would 
be  the  conduct  of  the  Russian  Admiral  if  the  French  met  with  a  disaster  in 
Spain,  and  were  opposed  in  Portugal  ?' — To  which  the  generally  ascribed 
reply  is,  '  That  Russia,  not  being  at  war  with  Spain  or  Portugal,  the  flceV 
could  not  act  in  any  manner  hostile  to  either  of  those  countries.' 

"  '  What  would  be  the  conduct  of  the  Russian  Admiral  should  the 
British  fleet  enter  the  Tagus  ?' — To  which  the  reply  ascribed  in  like  manner 
is,  '  Unless  a  very  commanding  and  superior  force  rendered  such  a  mea- 
sure improper — light  them.'  " 

No.  12  is  a  lottcr  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole,  dated  June 
12,  recommending  that  .5  or  6,000  British  troops  should  be  landed) 
to  occupy  the  forts  on  the  Tagus  (as,  from  intelligence  received, 
the  French  had  not  above  4,000  men  at  Lisbon),  to  enable  the 
fleet  to  enter  and  take  possession  of  the  maritime  means  in  the 
Tagus. 

No.  13.  Sir  C.  Cotton  states  his  having  requested  5  or  6,000 
men  from  Sir  Hew  Dalrymple,  for  the  purpose  above  mentioned. 

No.  14.  A  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole,  encloses  the 
convention  entered  into  with  Vice-admiral  Seniavin  relating  to  the 
Russian  fleet. — Vide  NAVAL  CHUOMCLE,  Vol.  XX.  page  245. 

No.  15  is  the  following  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole, 
with  additional  proposals  made  by  the  Russian  admiral : — 

««  sin,  "  Hibernia,in  the  Tagis,  1th  September,  1808. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  enclose  herewith,  for  the  information  of  the 
Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty,  copy  of  the  translation  of  two 
additional  proposals,  made  by  the  Russian  Vice-admiral  Seniavin,  since  my 
letter  to  you  of  the  -1th  instant,  which  being  of  so  unimportant  a  nature, 
in  order  to  gratify  the  Vice-admiral,  I  havf  acceeded  to  without  hesitation. 

"I  beg  leave  further  tu  observe  to  their  Lordships,  iu.  additiuif  w  mj 


240  NAVAL  STATE   PAPERS.  % 

before-mentioned  letter,  that  upon  the  whole,  the  Russian  squadron  having 
entered  the  Tagus  previous  to  the  departure  of  the  Prince  Regent  of  Por- 
tugal ;  having  committed  no  act  of  hostility  against  Portugal,  or  joined  the 
French  in  opposing  us,  as  they  were  repeatedly  requested  to  do;  and 
having  their  Lordships'  instructions  for  ray  conduct  towards  them  upon  a 
former  occasion  (the  supposed  famine  in  Portugal)  I  feel  satisfied  their 
Lordship*  will  approve  of  the  favourable  terms  that  have  been  granted. 
"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

*'  Your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

"  C.  COTTON." 
"  Hon.  W.  WeUesky  Pole,  $c." 

"  P.S.  No  account  or  charge  has  been  taken  of  the  stores  on  board  the 
Russian  ships,  it  being  understood,  that  the  fame  will  be  delivered  up  to 
the  proper  officers  on  their  arrival  at  Spithcad." 


"  The  colours  of  his  Imperial  Majesty  on  board  the  flag-ship,  or  on  board 
any  of  the  others,  are  not  to  be  struck  until  tho  admiral  quits  the  ship,  or 
until  the  respective  captains  do  the  same. 

"  At  the  conclusion  of  a  peace,  the  ships  and  the  frigate  will  be  restored 
to  his  Majesty  the  Emperor  of  all  the  Russias  in  the  same  state  in  which 
they  arc  actually  delivered  up. 

*'  Of  the  nine  ships  the  Yaroslarf  and  Rafael  *  will  remain  in  the  Tagus^ 
and  their  crews  be  distributed  amongst  the  other  seven  ships  that  proceed 
to  England. 

"  The  above  two  articles  will  be  regarded  as  forming  part  of  the  conven- 
tion concluded  and  signed  3d  September,  1808. 

"  Given  and  concluded  on  board  the  ship  Twerdoy  in  the  Tagus,  and  OR 
board  the  Hibernia  at  the  mouth  of  the  said  river,  4th  September,  1808. 

"  DE  SENIAVIN, 
"  C.  COTTON." 
"  By  command  of  the  Admiral, 

«  J.  SASS, 
"  Assesseur  de  College. 

"  By  command  of  the  Admiral, 

u  JAMES  KENNEDY, 
"  Secretary.** 

No,  H6  announces  the  sailing  of  Admiral  Tyler  from  the 
Tagus,  with  the  Russian  squadron. 

No.  17  is  the  following  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Admi- 
ralty to  Sir  C.  Cotton  : — 

"  sin,  "  Admiralty-Office,  17th.  September,  18,08. 

"  I  am  commanded  by  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  to  ac- 
Icnovs ledge  the  receipt  of  your  despatches  of  the  3d  and  4th  instant,  togethef 

*  These  iliips  uot  sea-ivorUy. 


* 

NAVAL   STATE   PAPER.  241 

vrith  the  articles  of  agreement  concluded  between  you  and  the  Russian 
Admiral  Seniavin. 

"  Their  Lordships,  comparing  those  articles  with  the  articles  of  an 
armistice  and  basis  of  convention,  signed  at  the  head  quarters  of  the  British 
army  on  the  22d  August,  and  transmitted  to  you  for  your  concurrence,  have 
commanded  me  to  express  their  fullest  approbation  of  your  having  rejected 
the  stipulation  of  the  neutrality  of  the  Tagus  fur  the  Russian  fleet:  their 
Lordships  observe  with  regret,  in  the  convention  which  you  have  concluded 
with  the  Russian  admiral,  the  adoption  of  a  new  principle  of  maritime  sur- 
render, by  the  qualified  detention  and  eventual  restoration  of  the  ships  of 
war  of  the  enemy.  Their  Lordships,  however,  taking  into  their  considera- 
tion all  the  circumstances  of  the  moment  at  which  these  conditions  were 
adopted,  and  that  you  may  have  acted  under  a  misapprehension  of  the  na- 
ture of  their  temporary  instructions  of  the  16th  April  last,  which  were  issued 
solely  with  an  anxious  desire  to  relieve  the  people  of  Lisbon  from  the 
pressure  of  famine,  are  not  prepared  to  mark  the  transaction  with  their 
disapprobation,  trusting  that  the  measure  will  not  be  drawn  into  a  prece- 
dent on  any  future  occasion. 

"  I  am  directed  by  their  Lordships,  to  express  their  entire  approbation 
of  the  zeal,  vigilance,  and  discretion,  manifested  by  you  during  your  com- 
mand off  the  coast  of  Portugal,  as  well  in  the  judicious  measures  with  which 
you  have  met  the  political  events  that  have  arisen  in  that  kingdom,  as  in 
the  maintenance  of  the  diflicult  blockade  of  the  Tagus. 

"  I  am,  Sir,  &c. 

"  Admiral  Sir  Charles  Cotton:'  "  W.  W.  POLE." 

No.  18  is  the  following  order  from  the  Admiralty,  to  Rear, 
admiral  Tyler,  respecting  the  additional  articles  agreed  to  by  Sir 
C.  Cotton  with  the  Russian  admiral. 

"  Whereas  Admiral  Sir  Charles  Cotton,  bart.  hath  transmitted  to  us, 
with  his  letter  of  the  7th  instant,  two  articles  whichjVke-admiral  Seniaviu, 
late  commanding  the  Russian  squadron  in  the  Tagus,  had  proposed  to  him 
subsequent  to  the  convention  concluded  between  them  on  the  3d  instant, 
for  the  surrender  of  the  said  squadron  in  deposit  to  his  Majesty,  and  at  the 
same  time  acquainted  us,  that  he  had,  for  the  reasons  therein  mentioned, 
agreed  thereto.  And  whereas  the  Right  Hun.  Lord  Viscount  Castlereagh, 
one  of  his  Majesty's  principal  secretaries  of  state,  by  his  letter  to  us  of  this 
day's  date,  luuh  by  the  King's  command  acquainted  us,  that  the  two  arti- 
cles which  have  thus  arisen  subsequent  to  the  conclusion,  signature,  and 
exchange  of  the  original  convention,  cannot  be  admitted  as  forming  a  part 
of  that  instrument,  inasmuch  as  the  said  articles  do  not  bear  the  character 
of  explanatory  articles,  but  on  the  contrary,  are  in  form  and  substance  of 
the  nature  of  a  distinct  snti  supplementary  convention,  a  measure  which  the 
parties  contracting  were  not  at  liberty  to  negociate  and  conclude,  after  the 
exchange  of  a  perfect  instrument  and  its  transmission  to  the  Government, 
by  which  the  provisions  of  the  said  convention  were  to  be  carried  into 

.  «J$ion.  (Hoi.  XXI.  1 1 


212  KAf  At    KJETRT, 

effect,  and  that  bis  Majesty  cannot  allow  the  flag  of  an  hosttle  power  to  be 
displayed  in  the  ports  and  harbours  of  his  dominions ;  we  do  therefore 
hereby  require,  and  direct  you  to  cat»e  the  flag  of  his  Imperial  Majesty  to- 
be  removed  from  the  mast-heads,  and  flag-staves  of  the  said  ships  as  soon  a* 
they  shall  have  come  to  an  anchor,  but  not  to  order  any  other  colours  to  be 
displayed  on  board  them;  and  you  are  to  acquaint  their  respective  com- 
manders, that  they  are  at  liberty  to  land,  and  remain  on  shore  until  the 
period  of  their  return  to  Russia,  and  you  are  to  take  such  measures,  as  iu 
your  judgment  may  be  best  calculated  to  secure  the  stores  on  board  the  said 
ships  from-  injury,  embezzlement,  or  loss  of  any  kind  whatever.  Given, 
&c.  30th  September  1808. 

•*  MULGRAVE, 
"  R.  WARD, 

«  W.  DOMETT. 
"  Charles  Tyler,  Esqr  Rear-atfiniral 
of  the  Blue,  &-c,  at  sea." 

"•  By  command  of  their  k>?dshrps> 
"  W.W.  POLE," 

No.  19  is  a  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty,  of 
the  same  date  as  above,  and  announcing  its  purport,  to  Sir 
C.  Cotton. 

No.  20  announces  the  arrival  of  the  Russian  squadron  at 
pithead. 

No.  21  is  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  Sir  C.  Cotton  to  Mr.  Pole, 
inclosing  reports  of  survey  on  two  Russian  ships  represented  imser. 
viceable,  and  stating  his  intention  to  get  them  repaired,  to  enable 
them  to  proceed  to  England  in  the  next  spring. 


The  heart's  remote  recesses  to  explore, 

And  touch  its  springs,  when  prose  avail'd  BO  more. 

FAI.COSEE. 

A   SHIPWRECK. 

(From  Poems  ly  RICHARD  WESTALL,  Esq.  Rjl*} 

I. 

AWAY  with  sloth  !  for  I  would  climb 
With  cautious  steps,  the  rock  sublime, 
What,  thouch  the  snow  hath  all  the  night 
Been  falling  fast,  and  cover'd  light 
With  a  pale  mantle,  hill  and  plain, 
the  ploughshare  of  the  swain  : 


NATAL  P02TRT. 

I  know  the  path  that  leads  on  high, 
Where  the  bold  Pilot's  signals  fly  ; 
While  vent'rous,  they  with  daring  hand 
Launch  their  Hght  vessels  from  the  land, 
And  change  the  distant  ship's  distress 
To  safety,  and  to  happiness. 
'Tis  in  its  wint'ry  garb,  the  most 
I  love  upon  our  rocky  coast 
To  stand,  and  from  the  mountains  height 
Muse  on  the  vast,  the  solemn  sight. 

If. 

Deep  at  my  feet,  with  sullen  roar, 
The  dark  waves  roll  upon  the  shore  ; 
And  far  beyond  the  stretching  eye 
The  broad  the  boundless  waters  lie, 
Meeting  with  mighty  line  the  bellied  sky. 
Here  thou,  my  country — thou,  my  pride, 
The  God  of  battles  on  thy  side, 
Insulting  Europe  hath  defied 
Full  oft;  and  fill'd  with  dare  alarm, 
Europe  hath  fled  thy  lifted  arm ; 
Each  struggle  shall  but  fix  thy  reign, 
Sole  empress  of  the  circling  main  ; 
Till  fell  ambition's  rage  shall  cease, 
And  the  wide  wprld  repose  jn  peace. 

III. 

When  first  I  gain'd  the  mouatain's  brow, 
One  only  vessel  rode  below  ; 
I  saw  her  anchor  rais'd,  and  heard, 
Or  seem'd  to  hear,  the  vows  preferr'd 
By  those,  whom  iat'rest,  anxious  care, 
Or  love  more  anxious,  gather'd  near. 
The  sailor,  long  in  battle  tried, 
Call'd  by  his  country,  left  his  bride  : 
"  Farewell,  my  love  !  (he  seem'd  to  say) 
We'll  meet  again  some  happier  day : 
Farewell  !  farewell !  "—The  op'ning  sails5 
Bending  caught  the  rising  gales. 
But  ot't,  as  gentler  roll'd  the  swell, 
Methought  I  heard,  farewell !  farewell  ? 
Slow  from  the  shore,  with  heavy  heart,, 
I  saw  the  kindred  group  depart, 


244  NAVAL  FOETRY. 

One  fairest  form,  with  head  reclin'd, 
Lingering  fond,  was  still  behind, 
And  trembled  at  the  passing  wind  : 
She  trembled  then,  when  all  was  calm, 
And  love  alone  could  feel  alarm. 

IV. 

Now  from  the  north,  with  vengeful  force, 
The  wild  winds  drive  their  destin'd  course  j 
The  vex'd  sea  lifts  its  monstrous  form, 
And  raging,  meets  the  raging  storm  ; 
The  welUtrimm'd  ship,   that  rode  butlate, 
(Proud  of  her  strength)  in  gallant  state, 
That  buoyant  on  the  treach'rous  seas, 
Spread  wide  her  sails  and  caught  the  breeze  ; 
Now,  with  those  sails  defaced  and  torn, 
By  adverse  winds  like  light'ning  borne  ; 
Full  on  yon  rock  (a  sullen  throne 
"Where  desolation  sits  alone) 
Unheeding  feels  the  steersman's  hand, 
Who  shudd'ring  at  the  dreadful  land, 
Strains  every  nerve ;  the  hardy  crew, 
By  danger  prcss'd,  again  renew 
Their  utmost  effort,  and  again 
Urge  her  torn  head  to  meet  the  main. 

V. 

The  effort  fails,  like  corn  unmown, 
Swept  by  the  rage  of  autumn,  down, 
'Down  come  her  masts !   with  horrid  shock 
The  liquid  mountains  'gainst  the  rock 
Crash  her  vast  hulk!  her  bulging  side 
Drinks  deep  the  dark  unpitying  tide.     • 
More  loud  the  wild  chaotic  rdar, 
Sweeps  o'er  the  main  and  rends  the  shore; 
She  parts,  she  sinks !  the  troubled  air 
Rings  with  the  scream  of  deep  dispair  ! 
Fierce,  and  more  fierce  the  billows  rise, 
Spout  tlu'ir  white  foam  amid  the  skies, 
And  hide  the  ruin  from  my  eyes. 

VI. 

Ah  !  wherefore  turn'd  my  search  below  ? 
There  once  again  the  form  I  know. 


NAVAL  POETRY.  245 


The  lovely  form  with  head  reclin'd, 
Who  liog'ring  fond  was  ?till  i  ehind, 
And  trembled  at  the  passim'  wind; 
She  trembled  then,  when  all  was  calm, 
And  only  love  could  feel  alarm. 
What  doth  she  now  ?  nor  groans,  nor  sighs  ! 
She  faints,  she  falls  !  she  dies,  she  dies ! 
O'er  their  lost  child  an  aged  pair, 
Low  bending,  tear  their  rev'rend  hair, 
While  pale,  around,  their  kindred  train 
Pour  wide  an  agonizing  strain. 
The  mingled  horrors  fill  my  heart, 
And  n:v  biood  chills  in  ev'ry  part. 
Swift  down  the  fatal  steep  I  haste, 
And  trembling  quit  the  wat'ry  waste; 
And  press  with  fault'ring  steps  the  plain, 
And  mourning,  reach  my  home  again. 

VII. 

There,  tho'  the  crackling  faggots  sound, 

There,  tho'  the  merry  flask  goes  round; 

There,  tho'  the  sparkling  sallies  flit, 

New  from  the  ready  tongue  of  wit  ; 

Awhile  to  cheer  me  tries  the  jest 

In  vain,  and  vainly  smiles  the  feast ; 

My  thoughts  o'er  ev'ry  joy  prevail, 

And  vain  appears  each  soothing  tale : 

Till  anxious  friendship,  by  degrees, 

Pours  o'er  my  soul  a  kind  of  ease; 

Won  by  her  voice,  I  strive  to  join 

The  mirth,  and  lose  my  cares  in  wine. 

But  when  the  dying  embers  fade, 

And  I  upon  my  couch  am  laid, 

Memory  then  asserts  her  sway  ; 

And  all  the  misery  of  the  day 

I  feel  with  added  force  again 

Whirl  round  my  dream  distemper'd  brain; 

Nor  those  alone  which  late  I  knew, 

But  other  horrors  cross  my  view  ; 

E'en  now,  methinks,  the  south  wind  blows, 

E'en  now,  perhaps,  the  melted  snows, 

From  the  hoar  mountain's  rugged  side. 

Spread  impetuous  ruiu  wide: 


NAVAL    POETRY. 

I  hear  pale  terror's  thrilling  cry, 
I  feel  the  groan  of  agony  ! 
On  yonder  bank  the  mourner  stand- 
With  fixed  eyes  and  clasped  hands, 
The  wild  waves  rolling  at  her  feet, 
Roll  o'er  her  lately  blest  retreat, 
Roll  o'er  the  husband  of  her  soul, 
O'er  her  lost  children,  dreadful  roll. 

IX. 

No  more  ray  fever'd  spirit  bears— 
Fast  flowing  fall  the  healing  tears  ; 
And  as  they  fall,  my  thoughts  revolve  ; 
The  visions  fly  !  the  dreams  dissolve  ! 
List'ning  J  stand  —  the  stream  remains 
Fast  bound  in  winter's  icy  chains  ; 
Bright  shine  the  stars,  and  .shining  show 
The  plains  all  wrapt  in  crisped  snow  ; 
The  new  moon  sinks  beneath  yon  hill, 
Hush'd  are  the  winds,  and  all  is  still. 

X. 

And  be  thou  hush'd,  my  troubled  soul  ! 
Lo  !  the  calm  scene,  with  soft  controul, 
Steals  o'er  my  frame,  all  languid  grown, 
And  weighs  my  weary  eye-lids  down  : 
No  more  I  muse  on  human  coil, 
On  short-Iiv'd  joys,  or  lasting  toilj 
My  alter'd  spirit,  void  of  fear, 
Rises  above  its  mortal  sphere, 
And  wing'd  with  strength,  but  newly  given, 
Looks  upwards  and  aspires  to  Heav'n. 


MR.  EDITOR, 

A  S  an  addition  to  your  memoir  of  the  late  Admiral  Barring- 
~^*-  ton,*  it  may,  perhaps,  gratify  many  of  your  readcri  to  be 
informed,  that  his  remains  were  interred  in  the  family  vault,  at 
Shrivenham,  in  the  county  of  Berks  ;  and  that  a  monument  to  his 
memory  has  since  been  erected  in  Shrivenham  church,  bearing  the 
following  inscription,  the  poetical  part  of  which  is  from  the  pen 
of  the  well-known  Miss  Hannah  More. 

I  am,  &c.  H. 

*  Vide  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  IV.  page  169. 


NAVAL   iTlSTORY   OF   THE   PRESENT    YKAR,  1809.  247 


Sacred  to  the  Memory  of  the  Honourable  SAMUEL 

Admiral  of  the  White,  and  General  of  Marines.    Born  Feb- 
ruary 15,  1730;  died  August  16,   1800. 

Here  rests  the  hero,  who,  in  glory's  page, 
Wrote  his  fair  deeds  for  more  than  half  an  age. 
Here  rests  the  patriot,  who,  for  England's  good, 
Each  toil  encounter'd,  and  each  clime  withstood. 
Here  rests  the  Christian  ;  his  the  loftier  theme 
To  seize  the  conquest,  yet  renounce  the  fame. 
He,  when  his  arm  St.  Lucia's  trophies  boastsa 
Ascribes  the  glory  to  the  Lord  of  hosts; 
And,  when  the  harder  task  remain'd  behind, 
The  passive  courage,  and  the  will  resign'd  ; 
Patient  the  veteran  victor  yields  his  breath, 
Secure  in  Him  who  conquer'd  sin  and  death. 


NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1809. 

(February  —  March.  ) 
RETROSPECTIVE  AND  MISCELLANEOUS. 


great  object  on  which  the  House  of  Commons  have  been  so  long 
-    engaged,  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Wardle,  has  so  entirely  taken  up  the 
attention   of  the  public,  that  little  else  has  been  thought  of  during  these 
important  proceedings.     His   Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  York  has  re- 
signed, and  Sir  David  Dundas  U  appointed  his  successoi. 

We  still  direct  our  attention  towards  Spain  with  considerable  interest 
and  hope.  Saragossa,  notwithstanding  all  the  lies  which  the  French  pub- 
liah  under  the  title  of  bulletins,  was  defended  in  a  most  noble  and  gallant 
ruanuer  by  the  Spanish  hero  Palafox,  who  is  thought  to  have  been  poisoned 
or  murdered  by  the  French  tyrant.  In  a  private  letter,  which  he  addressed 
to  one  of  the  Spaniards  of  rank  in  this  country,  and  which  has  not  been 
published,  was  the  following  beautiful  passage  .—Saragossa  has  been  lom- 
barded  seren  days  and  seven  nights;  two  thirds  of  the  city  is  now  in  ashes. 
But  whilst  there  remains  a  single  house,  standing,  so  long  shall  Saragossa 
atund  against  the  French.  Palafox  began  the  siege  with  about  200  regular 
troops  ;  and  the  amount  of  the  money  in  the  public  treasury  was  little  more 
than  251.  English.  An  excellent  account  of  tlie  various  Spanish  state 
papers  which  have  been  issued  by  the  different  Juntas,  and  of  the  opinions 
that  have  been  given  by  different  writers  in  our  own  country,  respecting 
the  Spanish  patriots,  forms  the  first  article  in  the  new  QUARTERLY  RE- 
VIEW that  lias  been  published. 

A  complete  revolution  has  been  very  suddenly  effected  in  Sweden.     The 


248  NATAL    HISTORY    OF   THE    PRESENT    YEAR,    1800, 

king  has  been  deposed,  and  is  in  close  confinement;  and  the  reins  of  go- 
vernment have  been  assumed  by  his  uncle,  the  Duke  of  Sudermania.  The 
particulars  of  these  events  have  riot  yet  reached  us ;  but  we  understand 
that  the  king  was  attacked  in  his  palace,  and  that  he  wounded  several  of 
his  assailants  before  he  was  secured. 

The  following  letter  contains  some  of  the  latest  information  respecting 
the  court  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  There  are  some  parts  which  do  not  entirely 
agree  with  what  we  had  heard  respecting  Sir  S.  Smith.  The  Diana  frigate 
conveyed  Admiral  De  Courcy  from  Plymouth  to  the  Brazils,  to  succeed  Sir 
Sydney.  We  regret  that  the  intelligence  is  so  slight  concerning  the  affairs 
of  South  America,  which  are  every  day  rising  in  importance. — 

"  Rio  dc  Janeiro,  Dec.  18. 

"  The  affairs  of  the  Spanish  colonies  have  produced  very  serious  mis- 
understandings at  the  palace.  The  princess  was  desirous  to  go  in  the 
Spanish  frigate  to  Monte  Video,  in  order,  it  is  supposed,  to  promote  some 
plan  of  obtaining  possession  of  the  settlements  on  the  north  of  the  river. 
The  prince  applied  to  Sir  Sydney  Smith  for  his  advice  on  the  projected 
journey  of  the  princess,  who  of  course  resisted  strongly  giving  support  to 
any  thing  which  might  alarm  the  Spaniards.  The  prince  followed  his  ad- 
vice, and  the  princess  and  Sir  Sydney  have  been  very  cool.  Sir  Sydney 
ordered  the  squadron  to  prepare  for  sea,  but  the  voyage  was  delayed  from 
day  to  day,  and  they  are  now,  I  believe,  on  better  terms.  Sir  Sydney  was 
at  court  yesterday  (being  the  queen's  birth-day)  for  the  first  time  since 
the  dispute,  and  was  presented  with  a  grand  cross  of  the  Order  of  the 
Tower,  and  the  sword  of  a  new  created  order.  Lord  Strangford  had  the 
same;  and  thecaptains  of  the  squadron  were  presented  with  commanderies 
of  the  order;  and  all  the  first  lieutenants  of  the  fleet  were  made  knights  of 
the  order. 

"  Accounts  from  the  River  Plata  are  very  uncertain.  Two  vessels  have 
lately  been  allowed  to  land  their  cargoes,  and  deposit  them,  with  liberty  to 
dispose  of  one  third  thereof  to  pay  for  rrpairs,&c.  This  is  the  state  of  affairs 
at  Monte  Video;  and  at  Buenos  Ayres  things  are  much  worse,  for  Liniers 
is  taking  every  step  to  render  Ellis,  the  governor  of  Monte  Video,  un- 
popular. We  are  anxious  to  hear  what  steps  the  new  governor  will  take 
on  his  arrival." 

The  last  accounts  from  Portugal,  dated  the  20th  of  February,  stale, 
that  Sir  Robert  Wilson,  with  a  division,  consisting  of  Portuguese,  and  some 
Spanish  cavalry,  had  taken  considerable  property,  in  money,  provisions,  and 
horses,  collected  by  the  French  at  Zamora.  Portugal  itself,  up  to  the 
20th,  had  no  accounts  of  French  movements  towards  that  country. 

Private  letters  from  Holland  report,  that  according  to  a  secret  article 
of  the  recent  treaty  between  Great  Britain  and  Turkey,  the  Porte  is  to  join 
with  Austria  in  the  war  against  France,  and  Great  Britain  is  to  furnish  the 
Turkish  government  with  arms  and  ammunition  at  Malta  or  the  Morea. 
This  intelligence,  it  is  said,  comes  from  Malta. 

It  is  stated  in  the  foreign  papers,  that  the  treaty  with  Mr.  Adair  was 
signed  on  the  part  of  the  Turkish  government  by  Ilakki  Pacha.  Such  may 
have  beep  the  fact;  but,  at  the  time  of  Mr,  Adair's  arrival  ia  the  Parda- 


fl.SVAt,    HISTORY    OP   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  249 

s,  Hakki  war,  in  disgrace,  having  been  banished  by  Bairactar  to  the 
to  the  Isle  of  Leinnos,  to  make  room  for  Selim  Schambli  Ratib,  who  was 
entrusted  by  the  Vizier  with  the  command  of  the  castles  of  the  Dardanelles 
and  from  whom  Mr.  Adair  received  much  attention  and  facility  in  the. 
business  of  his  mission. 

The  Vienna  Gazette  contains  the  following  article,  under  the  head  of 
Turkey:— 

"  Ou  the  5th  of  January  peace  was  concluded  between  England  and  the 
Sublime  Porte,  by  the  English  Minister  Mr.  Adair,  and  Hakki  Eilendi; 
in  consequence  of  which  all  the  ports  in  the  Turkish  empire  are  open  to 
the  English  ships.  This  important  intelligence  was  immediately  trans- 
mitted to  the  principal  commercial  towns  in  Eurupe,  Asia,  and  Africa; 
and  a  great  change  may  be  expected  in  the  trade  of  the  great  towns  of  the 
Levant,  and  the  price  of  most  commodities." 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  2-1-th  of  February,  the  enemy's  squadron, 
which  had  escaped  from  Brest,  consisting  of  eight  sail  of  the  line,  ap- 
peared off  Rochefort,  in  a  widely  extended  semi-circle.  Their  first  object, 
there  is  no  doubt,  was  to  capture  the  squadron  of  three  sail  of  the  line 
under  Captain  Beresfordj  which  had  been  at  anchor  in  Basque  Jloads. 
But  Captain  Bercsford  had  fortunately  learnt  the  precedirg  day,  that  the 
French  admiral  had  struck  his  flag,  and  gone  to  L'Orient  to  bring  out  the 
squadron  Jying  there,  in  order  to  join  in  the  attack  upon  the  British  Squa- 
dron off  Rochefort.  In  consequence  of  this  information,  Captain  Beres- 
ford  got  under  weigh,  and  stood  off,  and  very  soon  after  he  observed  the 
entrance  into  the  bay  of  the  .French  squadron.  Here  the  enemy  was  joined 
by  three  sail  of  the  line  lying  in  Rochefort,  which,  exclusively  of  smaller 
vessels,  make  his  force  consist  of  eleven  sail  of  the  line. 

Towards  the  latter  end  of  February,  the  Medusa  frigate  having  sailed 
from  Falmouth,  in  company  with  his  Majesty's  &h:ps  Resistance  and  Are- 
thusa,  to  cruise  off  Brest;  the  Arethusa  stood  into  that  harbour  to  recon- 
noitre, and  found  that  the  French  squadron  had  sailed :  she  immediately 
proceeded  in  quest  of  the  Channel  fleet,  but  could  not  meet  with  them. 
The  French  fleet  consisted  of  ten  sail  of  the  line;  the  English  seven,  five 
of  which  are  three  deckers.  The  Medusa  having  fallen  in  with  the  Lyra 
gun-brig,  Lieutenant  Bevians,  immediately  despatched  her  home  with  the 
intelligence.  A  messenger  was  immediately  sent  off  to  town,  and  a 
telegraphic  communication  made  to  the  Admiralty. 

The  Brest  fleet  had  or.  the  26'th  been  joined  by  three  large  ships  from 
Rochefort;  when  joined  by  the  whole  of  the  squadron  there,  it  would  con- 
sist of  14  sail  of  the  ':ne  (two  of  which  are  three-deckers)  two  50-gim 
ships,  10  frigates,  and  several  small  vessels. 

An  official  report  baa  been  made  concerning  the  escape  of  the  Brest 
squadron ;  and  the  enemy  triumphs  in  the  succeps  which  attended  the 
artifice  by  which  "  Captain  Tronde'has  been  able  to  run  out  with  his 
division  to  fulfil  the  mission  which  the  emperor  had  entrusted  to  him." 
This  is  the  division  met  by  the  Surveillante,  and  which  it  has  been  guessed 
is  destined  to  attempt  effecting  a  counter-revolution  in  South  "America. 
The  frigates  which  were  chased  under  the  batteries  in  the  roads  of  Sables, 

2iol,  XXI.  '  K  * 


250  NAVAL   HISTORY   OP   THE   PRESENT   YEAR,    1809. 

we  are   told,  drove   away  four  ships ;  but   their  being  themselves  drive* 
aground  is  wisely  concealed. 

Lord  Gambier,  in  the  Caledonia,  took  the  command  of  the  blockading 
squadron  off  Rochefort,  on  8th  of  March. 

Should  the  squadron  from  L'Orient  have  proceeded  to  the  West  Indies, 
they  will  probably  fall  in  with  Sir  John  Duckworth's  squadron,  which  there 
is  no  doubt  has  proceeded  in  that  direction  in  search  of  the  Brest  fleet. 

The  escape  of  the  fleet  which  had  been  so  long  weather-bound  at  Oporto, 
and  which  crossed  the  Bar  on  the  23d  ult.  is  a  matter  of  consolation,  con- 
sidering the  menaced  condition  of  that  country.  The  property  on  board  is 
estimated  at  the  value  of  400,0001.  and  hisurances  have  been  done  at 
Lloyd's  to  that  amount.  There  are  from  eight  to  ten  thousand  pipes  of 
wine  in  the  fleet. 

At  Constantinople  an  occurrence  has  taken  place,  which  may  throw  some 
light  upon  the  situation  of  Austria.  The  Austrian  Internuwcio,  Baron  Von 
Sturmer,  had,  on  occasion  of  the  marriage  of  one  of  his  kinsmen,  given  a 
dinner,  and  invited  to  it  the  secretary  of  the  English  legation.  The  French 
charge  d'affaires,  M.  Latour-Mauburg,  who  was  also  invited,  wrote  to  M.  Von 
Sturmer  that  he  could  not  be  present  at  any  entertainment  while  an  enemy 
of  France  was  of  the  party.  M.  Von  Stunner  not  answering  this  letter,  M. 
Latour-Mauburg  communicated  the  circumstance  to  the  diplomatic  agents, 
and  invited  them  to  break  off  all  intercourse  with  M.  Von  Sturmer;  whicii 
all  the  agents  who  were  at  Constantinople  have  carried  into  effect. 

The  Dutch  papers,  as  well  as  the  private  letters  from  Holland,  state  the 
capture  of  his  Majesty's  frigate  Proserpine,  in  the  Mediterranean,  by  two 
French  frigates,  la  Penelope  and  la  Pauline:  she  was  carried  into  Toulon. 
From  the  French  official  accounts,  it  appears-  that  the  Proserpine  had  been 
very  audacious,  frequently  standing  so  close  to  the  shore  as  to  look  into  the 
port. of  Toulon.  This  provoked  the  French  admiral,  who  sent  out  against  her 
the  two  abovementioned  frigates.  Once  she  escaped  by  flight,  but  on  a  second 
occasion  her  pursuers  came  up  with  her  about  half  past  four  o'clock  in  the 
morning.  An  engagement  ensued,  whieh  was  fought  close  alongside  for 
three  quarters  of  an  hour;  at  length  the  Proserpine  struck  to  her  two 
opponents.  The  enemy  states  the  Proserpine  to  have  had  11  men  killed, 
arid  15  wounded,  and  that  both  the  French  frigates  came  out  of  the  action 
without  the  loss  of  a  man  killed  or  wounded. 

Private  accounts  from  Holland  state,  that  the  crews  of  two  Danish  ships 
of  the  line  lyiug  at  Flushing  had  refused  to  obey  the  orders  of  the  French 
government.  They  were  ordered  to  sail  for  Brest,  but  the  captains  de- 
clined compliance  till  they  received  instructions  f;;nn  their  government; 
upon  which  they  were  arrested.  The  crews  having  likewise  declared  their 
resolution  to  refuse  obedience,  a  representation  of  the  affair  was  at  lenjth 
sent  to  the  Danish  government. 

The  Hon.  John  Hope  has  resigned  his  appointment  as  one  of  the  Lords  of 
the  Admiralty,  and  has  set  off  for  Scotland.  Captain  Moorsom  has  suc- 
'ceeded  him. 

The  Emperor  Alexander  has  recently  issued  an  Ukase,  ordering  that  ail 


NAVAL   HISTORY    OF   THE    PRESENT    YEAR,     1809.  251 

commerce  with  Finland  shall  he  carried  on  agreeably  to  the  laws  already  in 
existence  as  to  the  other  dominions  of  his  empire. 

The  Topaze  French  frigate,  of  40  guns  and  360  men,  from  Brest,  was 
captured  on  the  22d  of  January  at  anchor  at  Point  Noire,  Guadaloupe,  by 
the  Cleopatra  frigate  and  Hazard  sloop  of  war,  after  an  action  of  45 
minutes.  The  Topaze  had  10  men  killed  and  19  wounded;  the  Cleopatra 
two  killed  and  one  wounded. 

The  French  brigs  Napoleon  and  Josephine,  from  Bayonne  to  Martinique, 
with  wines,  flour,  &c.  were  captured  in  January  off  Martinique  by  the  Wol- 
verine and  Dominica  sloops  of  war,  and  carried  into  Barbadoes. 

Sir  James  Saumarez  is  to  have  the  chief  command  of  a  large  fleet,  which 
is  to  be  sent  to  the  Baltic,  and  Sir  Samuel  Hood  is  to  accompany  him. 
They  will  hoist  their  flags  on  board  the  Victory  and  Centaur.  The  fol- 
lowing litre  of  battle  ships  are  to  compose  part  of  the  fleet  :— 

Vanguard .   74  guns,    Captain  Glynn. 

Minotaur 74- • Thompson. 

Standard 64 Harvey. 

Ardent 64  — —     Vashon. 

Dictator  ..........   64 Pierson. 

Ruby    64 Hall. 

Africa 64 Barrett. 

Besides  several  frigates  and  bomb-vessels. 

The  reports  of  an  early  adjustment  of  the  differences  which  snbsist  be- 
tween Kussia  and  England,  had  induced  a  considerable  reduction  in  the 
price  of  colonial  produce  in  the  former  country.  Sugar,  in  particular,  had 
fallen  near  30  per  cent,  namely,  from  78  to  56,  and  53  rubles  per  pud 
of40lb. 

The  following  is  an  account  of  the  last  convoy  which  sailed  from  Carls- 
crona  the  22d  of  December,  bou:id  to  England,  consisting  of  five  English 
ships  of  war,  three  Swedish  ships  of  war,  and  twelve  merchant  vessels, 
principally  large  Prussians.  British  vessels  of  war,  viz. 

"  Salcctte  fri»ate,  drifted  from  the  Mahno  channel,  among  the  ice  in 
the  Baltic,  without  anchors  or  cables;  Magnet  gun-brig,  totally  wrecked 
the  llth  of  January,  near  Malnio,  crew  saved;  Argent  gun-brig,  sent  round 
by  the  Baltic  with  despatches,  the  28th  of  December;  Fama,  brig-cutter, 
totally  lost  in  Bornholm,  on  the  23d  of  December,  with  her  commander 
and  three  of  her  crew ;  Sacorner,  sloop-cutter,  totally  lost  near  Ystadtj 
crew  saved ;  Camilla,  frigate,  drifted  into  the  Baltic,  from  the  Mahno 
Channel,  without  anchors,  &c.  Wen  tali  t  a  brig-cutter,  drifted  through  the 
.Sound  the  6th  of  January,  and  got  into  the  Swedish  port  Toreko;  Frau«h- 
ton,  brig-cutter,  drifted  through  the  Sound  the  6ih  of  January,  and  got 
into  the  Swedish  port  \Varberg. 

"  The  names  of  the  merchant  vessels  chiefly  loaded  from  different  Rus- 
sian ports,  with  hemp,  &c. — Recommencement,  Captain  Kruger  burnt 
while  on  shore  in  the  Mahno  Channel  by  the  Danes,  on  the  17th  January; 
Britannia,  Anderson,  taken  by  the  Danes  the  9th;  JoshinaFortunaUsshen- 
dorf,  drifted  into  the  Baltic  with  Daues  on  board;  Satisfaction,  Becker, 


252      NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1809. 

drifted  through  the  Sound  the  6th  of  January,  and  not  since  heard  of; 
Four  Friends,  Grenson,  an  English  vessel,  taken  by  the  Danes  the  6th  of 
January;  Three  Davids,  Bulk, stranded  nearSkani,  cargo  saved;  Minorca, 
Wegner,  taken  by  the  Danes  the  10th  of  January;  Nadicashda,  Dottas, 
drifted  into  the  Baltic  without  anchors,  and  returned  with  Danes  on  board, 
•and  sunk  near  Malino,  crew  saved ;  Yeschkenshal,  Sandboy,  burnt  by  the 
Danes  while  on  shore  near  Malmo,  the  iSth  of  January  ;  Eneykeil,  Eliza- 
beth, and  another  galliot,  taken  by  the  Danes  near  Ilornbeck." 


ADJUDICATION  OF  PRIZE  CAUSES,  IN  THE  ADMIRALTY 
COURT. 

DOCTORS'-COIIMONS,    MARCH    1. 

RANGER,  Henderson,  master. — This  was  a  question  of  salvage.  The, 
vessel,  under  British  colours,  was  captured  by  a  French  privateer,  and 
afterwards  recaptured  by  the  exertions  of  the  mate  and  a  boy,  the  only 
part  of  the  crew  that  were  suffered  to  remain  on  board,  who,  when  the 
Frenchmen  were  below,  threw  the  companion-hatch  over  them,  and 
steered  for  the  English  coast,  when  they  were  met  by  one  of  his 
majesty's  ships,  who  took  possession  of  her,  and  claimed  as  joint  salvors. 
The  Court  pronounced  for  the  usual  salvage,  and  directed  that  the  male 
should  be  paid  SOI.  and  the  boy  101.  thereof,  and  the  remainder  to  be 
equally  shared  amongst  the  other  salvors. 

THE  ADVENTURE,  Lisby,  master. — This  British  vessel  was  also  cap- 
tured by  a  French  privateer,  and  recaptured  by  a  British  cruiser.  The 
Court  pronounced  for  one-sixth  salvage. 

ECONOMIE. — This  was  a  Danish  vessel  bound  from  Petersburg!!  to  Lis- 
bon, and  the  question  was  respecting  a  claim  for  a  certain  quantity  of 
goods  on  board.  The  Court  rejected  the  claim. 

ANNA  DOROTHEA,  Schroeder,  master. — This  vessel  was  under  Prussian 
colours,  in  ballast,  at  the  time  of  capture.  Ship  condemned. 


^Imperial  parliament, 

HOUSE  OF  LORDS. 

WEDNESDAY,  JANUARY  25. 

thanks  of  the  House  were  unanimously  voted  to  Rear-admirals 
De  Courcy  and  Sir  Samuel  Hood,  and  to  the  captains  and  officers  of 
the  fleet  under  their  command,  for  the  assistance  which  they  had  af« 
forded  to  the  British  array  at  Corunna. 

THURSDAY,  JANUARY  26. 

An  address  of  thanks  was  unanimously  voted  to  his  Majesty,  for  his 
communication  of  the  papers  relating  to  the  negotialion  for  peace,  pro- 
posed by  the  Emperor  of  Russia,  and  Buonaparte,  at  Erfurth. 


MAVAL   HISTORY   OF  THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  253 

FRIDAY,  FEBRUARY  17. 

Lord  Grenville  made  his  promised  motion  on  the  Orders  in  Council, 
(recommending  conciliatory  measures  towards  America,  and  the  rescind- 
ing the  Orders ;  assuring  his  Majesty  at  the  same  time,  that  the  House 
was  disposed  to  resist  all  novel  claims  on  the  part  of  America,  and  to 
maintain  the  maritime  rights  of  his  Majesty. 

Lord  Bathurst  went  into  a  discussion  of  the  French  decrees,  that  »ave 
rise  to  the  Orders  of  Council,  and  justified  the  expediency  of  the  latter, 
which  he  said  the  late  ministry  had  themselves  admitted  by  the  Orders 
pf  Council  issued  on  the  7th  of  January,  1807.  He  said,  that  whenever 
the  object  of  those  Orders  in  Council  should  be  effected,  that  of  brin^- 
ing  France  to  reason,  and  inducing  her  to  repeal  her  decree  against  our 
commerce,  then  would  his  Majesty  rescind  the  Orders  in  Council. 

When  the  question  was  put,  the  House  divided  on  Lord  Grenville'g 
motion — Contents  70 — Non-contents  115 — Majority  against  the  motion 
45. 

HOUSE  OF  COMMON'S. 
WEDNESDAY,  JANUARY  25. 

The  thanks  of  the  House  were  unanimously  voted  to  Rear-admirals 
De  Courcy  and  Sir  Samuel  Hood,  and  to  the  captains,  officers,  seamen, 
and  marines  of  the  fleet  which  they  commanded,  for  the  assistance 
which  they  had  afforded  in  the  embarkation  of  the  British  troops  at 
Corunna. 

TUESDAY,  JANUARY  31. 

Mr.  Canning  moved  an  address  to  his  Majesty,  thanking  him  for  his 
communication  of  the  papers,  &c.  respecting  the  proposal  of  peace  made 
from  Erfurth. 

Mr.  Whilliread  moved  an  amendment,  importing  a  censure  on  minis- 
try for  their  answer  to  the  overture,  as  unwise,  impolitic,  intemperate, 
&c. 

FRIDAY,  FEBRUARY  3. 

Mr.  Ward  moved,  in  a  Committee  of  Supply,  130,000  seamen  for 
1809,  including  31,400  marines. 
Wages  for  130,000   seamen   and   marines,  for  13  months, 

at  ll.  17s.  per  man  per  month ...=£3,126,000 

Wear  and  tear  of  ships  during  the  same  period,  at  ll.  19s. 

per  man  per  month ......... 3,295,500 

Victuals  for  ditto,  at  2l.  19s.  per  man  per  month 4,985,500 

Agreed  to. 

MONDAY,  FEBRUARY  20. 

Mr.  Pole  presented  several  papers  from  the  Admiralty,  one  of  which 
related  to  the  circumstance  of  Admiral  Montague,  declaring,  if  the 
Russian  Admiral,  in  the  Tagus,  did  not  haul  down  his  colours  before  sun- 
set, he  would  send  him  on  shore,  and  never  suffer  them  to  be  hoisted 
again, 


254  NAVAL   HISTORY    OF   THE    PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

MOMDAY,  FEBRUARY  27. 

Sir  C.  M.  Pole,  referring  to  the  Navy  Estimates  upon  the  table,  ob- 
served, that  an  additional  commissioner  had  been  appointed  at  the  Pay 
Board  ;  he  would  ask  then  how  it  was,  that  the  crew  of  a  64  gun  ship 
bad  lately  paraded  the  streets  of  London  for  want  of  pay,  and  had  been 
sent  back  to  their  ship?  He  thought  he  could  shew  that  of  late,  in  many 
departments  of  the  navy,  several  appointments  had  taken  place,  in  which 
patronage  was  more  consulted  than  the  interests  of  the  public  service. 
He  should  be  happy  to  hear  that  there  were  other  reasons  for  such  ap- 
pointments, than  being  merely  a  relative,  a  brother-in-law  of  some 
personage  high  in  office.  (Hear!  Hear!} 

Mr.  Wcllesley  Pole  said,  he  was  perfectly  ready  to  meet  the  hon. 
l>aronet  on  these  points.  The  hon.  baronet  had  been  pleased  to  represent 
a  ship's  company  (the  Standard),  as  assailing  the  Admiralty,  almost  in  a 
state  of  mutiny,  for  their  pay ;  but  the  fact,  when  it  came  to  be 
explained,  would  shew  there  was  no  foundation  for  such  insinuation.  The 
present  lords  of  the  Admiralty  had  lately  made  a  regulation,  that  when  a 
ship's  company  had  been  long  at  sea,  on  their  coming  home  they  should 
receive  their  pay,  and  leave  to  visit  their  friends.  The  Standard,  after 
feeing  long  on  a  foreign  station,  had  come  home  to  England,  and  the 
ship's  crew  got  leave  of  absence,  without  receiving  an  advance  of  pay, 
in  consequence  of  their  not  coming  exactly  within  the  general  regulation 
laid  down  by  the  Admiralty.  They  came  to  London,  and  represented" 
their  case  to  thelAdmiralty  in  the  most  respectful  manner.  They  were 
told  that  their  case  should  be  considered,  and  also  desired  to  return  to 
their  ship,  which  they  did  in  the  most  orderly  way.  Their  case  was 
taken  into  consideration,  and  they  obtained  an  advance  of  pay.  He 
•would  not  libel  the  character  of  British  seamen,  by  saying  there  was  any 
thing  like  a  mutiny  on  that  occasion.  The  honourable  baronet  had  also 
thrown  out  a  broad  insinuation  against  Lord  Mulgrave,  to  the  effect  that 
he  had  made  various  appointments  rather  from  personal  favour  to  indivi- 
duals that  a  sense  of  public  duty.  He  denied  the  charge.  The  appoint- 
ment to  the  office  of  commissioners  at  the  Navy  Board  had  been  made 
from  lists  given  in  by  the  other  lords  of  the  Admiralty,  containing  the 
names  of  many  captains :  and  the  appointments  had  taken  place  from 
seniority  alone,  without  the  persons  themselves  being  so  much  as  known 
by  the  noble  lord,  lie  could  also  stale,  that  the  business  at  the  Victual- 
ling Board  had  been  lately  carried  on  upon  the  most  vicious  and 
faulty  system;  and  it  was  absolutely  necessary,  in  order  to  abolish 
the  system,  that  those  at  the  head  of  it  should  be  removed.  This  had 
been  done,  and  successors  to  them  appointed  in  the  manner  he  had  stated 
above.  The  persons  now  appointed  were  a  Peter  Brown,  who  had  been 
long  a  purser  in  the  navy,  and  a  Mr.  Overs,  of  whom  the  noble  lord  at 
the  head  of  the  Admiralty  had  no  personal  knowledge  whatever.  When 
the  hon.  baronet  thought  fit  to  mention  a  brother-in-law,  he  conceived 
^he  allusion  must  Lave  been  to  Cplonel  Walsh,  who  is  married  to  a  sister 


KAVAL    HISTORY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  255 

•f  Lady  Mulgrave.  Now  the  fact  was,  that  Mr.  Harrison,  the  gentleman 
whom  Colonel  Walsh  succeeded,  had  long  wished  to  resign  from  old  age, 
and  he  was  permitted  to  retire  with  a  pension  of  5001.  a-year.  Colonel 
Walsh,  who  was  appointed  in  his  room,  was  an  officer  who  had  b'een  long 
in  active  service  in  India,  a  man  perfectly  conversant  in  business,  and 
likely,  from  his  habits  and  talents,  to  be  of  public  service.  Was  there 
anything  like  a  job  in  this,  as  had  been  insinuated  ?  Unless  a  person  was 
bound  to  exclude  his  friends  and  relations  from  all  offices  to  which  he 
had  the  appointment  (a  doctrine  certainly  which  was  quite  absurd),  he 
did  not  see  that  Lord  Mulgrave  had  much  to  answer  for  in  this  appoint- 
ment. 

FRIDAT,    MARCH  3. 

The  Attorney  General  obtained  leave  to  bring  in  a  bill  for  altering 
and  amending  the  Police  of  Plymouth  Dock. 

MONDAY,    MARCH    6. 

Mr.  JVhitbread  made  the  following  motion  relating  to  America  :— 
"  That  an  humble  address  be  presented  to  his  majesty,  representing  to 
his  majesty,  that  in  consequence  of  the  decree  of  Berlin  of  the  enemy, 
the  orders  in  Council  had  been  issued  by  his  majesty's  government,  both 
equally  contrary  to  the  usages  of  nations;  that,  however,  it  had  been  at 
the  same  time  vested  in  his  majesty  to  rescind  these  orders  as  circum- 
stances might  require;  that  America,  feeling  the  danger  likely  to  accrue 
from  those  measures  to  the  neutral  trade,  had  laid  an  embargo  on  her 
ports,  prohibiting  all  commercial  intercourse  with  foreign  states;  that 
America,  willing  to  put  an  end  to  these  inconveniences,  and  finding  the 
enemy  to  persist  in  his  Berlin  decree,  had  made  an  offer  to  this  country 
to  remove  the  embargo  with  respect  to  us,  should  we,  on  the  other  hand, 
consent  to  rescind  the  orders  in  Council ;  that  this  offer,  on  the  part  of 
America,  was  Justin  its  principle,  and  advantageous  to  Great  Britain,  a* 
it  would  infallibly  secure  to  us  the  trade  of  America:  though  this  offer 
had  not  at  first  been  accepted,  that  we  still  believe  it  is  in  the  power  of 
his  majesty's  government  to  restore  a  good  understanding  between  the 
two  countries  ;  and  that  therefore  we  heartily  pray  his  majesty  may  be 
pleased  to  adopt  such  measures  as  are  calculated  to  restore  a  good  under- 
standing, and  to  re-establish  the  commercial  intercourse  between  thi* 
country  and  America." 

This  motion  was  negatived  by  1-15  against  83. 

THURSDAY,    MARCH     16. 

In  a  committee  on  the  Marine  Mutiny  bill,  Mr.  /?-  Jlrard  rose  to  answer 
*ome  observations  made  by  an  hon.  baronet  (Sir  C.  Pole),  on  a  former 
night,  respecting  the  pay  captains  of  the  marines.  The  statement  of  the 
hon.  baronet  was  totally  fallacious.  Those  paymasters  were  established 
under  the  administration  of  Lord  St.  Vincent ;  they  were  selected  from 
the  oldest  captains  in  that  service;  and  in  consideration  of  the  duty  of 
paymaster  allotted  them,  they  were  exempted  from  all  duty  afloat,  and 
kad  nothing  to  do  but  to  attend  courts-martial  in  the  places  where  they 


256  NAVAL    HISTORY    OF    THE    PRESENT    YEAft,    ISO?. 

were  quartered ;  and  instead  of  having  imposed  on  them  the  duty  of 
paying  the  whole  body  of  marines,  amounting  to  32,000  men,  they  had 
not  above  one-fourth,  or  perhaps  one-sixth  of  the  whole,  for  the 
remainder  were  always  afloat,  and  the  pay  was  only  to  be  issued  to 
divisions  occasionally  landing,  even  for  this  purpose  they  had  Pay- 
masters'-serjeants  allowed  them,  and  had  only  toconlroul  their  accounts. 
With  respect  to  the  stoppages  of  one  day's  pay  in  a  year  from  the  marines 
to  Chelsea  Hospital,  from  which  they  derived  no  advantage,  he  found  no 
stoppage  whatever  was  made  from  the  privates,  except  for  Greenwich 
Hospital,  to  the  benefits  of  which  they  were  entitled,  in  common  with 
seamen ;  and  as  to  the  stoppage  of  a  day's  pay  in  each  year,  and  the 
poundage  of  five  per  cent,  upon  the  pay  of  officers,  it  was  handed  over 
to  the  War  Office  for  the  benefit  of  the  Widows'*  Fund  ;  which  the  relicts 
of  marine  officers  enjoyed  in  common  with  those  of  officers  of  the  line  f 
but  those  stoppages  had  never  been  made  since  the  year  1806,  as  the  pay 
was  issued  net,  to  all  officers  under  the  rank  of  colonel,  on  the  same  oot- 
ing  as  the  other  officers  of  the  army. 

Sir  Cliarfca  Pole  said,  he  still  held  the  same  opinion  with  respect  to  the 
situation  of  the  pay  captains.  He  was  wel!  informed,  they  had  a  regular 
ledger  account  to  keep  with  every  man  and  boy  in  the  marine  service,  for 
which  they  had  no  remuneration,  although  the  captains  of  marine  artil- 
lery, for  only  paying  their  own  companies,  had  2s.  per  day  additional 
pay.  Besides,  those  old  officers,  in  any  branch  of  the  service,  would  have 
been  entitled  to  majorities,  and  many  of  theui  now  would  have  been  old 
field-officers. 

Mr.  Wellesley  Pole  said,  it  was  the  intention  of  the  present  Board  of 
Admiralty  to  afford  to  the  marine  corps  every  practicable  and  reasonable 
indulgence.  But  there  was  a  mistake  with  respect  to  the  stoppages  front 
the  pay  of  marine  officers  in  general  for  the  Widow's  Fund.  No  such 
stoppages  were  now  made  but  from  officers  who  retired  on  full  pay  ; 
and  the  widows  of  the  marine  officers  received  their  pensions  at  the  War 
Office,  paid  by  the  public.  With  respect  to  the  situation  of  the  pay 
captains,  he  begged  leave  to  refer  the  hon.  baronet  to  a  petition,  pre- 
sented by  those  very  officers  to  the  Admiralty,  when  he  himself  was  at 
that  board,  praying  for  this  very  allowance,  which  the  hon.  baronet  now 
sought  to  obtain  for  them  ;  and  the  answer  then  given  to  their  petition 
•was,  that  the  birth  was  a  pretty  good  one,  and  it  was  very  desirable  it 
should  continue  to  exist ;  but  if  they  did  not  like  it  with  full  p;vy,  and 
exemption  from  all  other  duty,  they  might  take  their  turns  of  service: 
ever  since,  they  had  been  pretty  well  satisfied  to  remain  as  they  were. 
With  respect  to  the  Compassionate  List,  for  which  there  was  a  bill  now 
in  progress,  it  was  only  for  such  widows  and  orphans  as  were  not  entitled 
to  any  provision  otherwise;  nor  was  it  ever  thought  of  before  the  esta- 
blishment of  the  present  Admiralty  Boaid;  and  it  was  his  intention,  in 
the  committee  on  this  bill,  to  place  the  widows  of  marine  officers  on 
the  same  footing  in  this  respect  with  those  of  the  officers  of  the  navy  and 
army. 


JTAVAL   HISTORY   OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  257 


on 

Copied  verbatim  from  the  LONDON  GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE,    MARCE    4,    1809. 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Captain  Worth,  of  his  Myesty's  Sloop  Helena, 
dated  at  Sta,  28M  February  1809,  to  Admiral  Young,  Commander 
•in  Chief  at  Plymouth,  and  transmitted  by  the  latter  to  the  Hon.  W. 
W.  Pole. 


T  HAVE  the  honour  to  acquaint  you,  that  before  day-light  this  morning;  a 
suspicious  vessel  was  seen  coming  from  under  the  Dodman,  and  standing 
for  the  convoy  under  my  protection.  The  wind  being  very  light,  I  sent  the 
boats  after  her.  She  proved  to  be  I'Auguste,  of  St.  Maloes,  armed  with  two 
carriage  guns,  large  swivels,  and  twenty-four  men;  out  six  days  without 
making  any  captures.  She  sailed  in  company  with  the  Speculator  lugger,  of 
10  guns,  and  seventy  men,  parted  from  her  yesterday;  the  Speculator 
had  that  day  captured  two  brigs,  which  are  now  in  sight.  "  I  lost  no  time  in 
dispatching  my  First  Lieutenant,  who  was  in  charge  of  a  fast  sailing  brig, 
which  I  had  previously  captured,  after  one,  and  the  master,  with  a  suffi- 
cient number  of  men,  in  the  privateer,  after  the  other. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

J.  A.  WORTH. 

MARCH  7. 

Copy  qfa  Letter  from  the  Hon.  Robert  Stopford,  Rear-Admiral  of  the  Slue, 
to  the  Hon.  William  Wellesley  Pole,  dated  on  board  his  Majesty's  ship 
the  Caesar,  at  Anchor,  Baleine  Light-House,  N.E.byN.  Four  Miles, 
Chussiron  S.S.E.  Ten,  the  27th  February,  1809. 

SIR, 

You  will  be  pleased  to  acquaint  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, that  on  the  23d  instant,  being  at  anchor  to  the  N.W.  of  the  Chassiron, 
light-house,  with  the  ships  named  in  the  margin,*  the  Amethyst  looking  out 
in  the  N.W.  the  wind  being  to  the  eastward,  about  ten  P.M.  I  observed 
several  rockets  in  the  N.W.  quarter,  which  induced  me  to  get  under  sail, 
and  stand  towards  them.  At  eleven  observed  several  strange  sail  to  the 
eastward,  to  which  I  gave  chase  with  the  squadron  until  day-light  next 
morning;  at  which  time  the  strange  ships  were  standing  into  the  Pertuis 
d'Antioche,  consisting  of  eight  sail  of  the  line,  one  of  them  a  three  decker, 
and  two  frigates.  They  hoisted  French  colours,  and  conceiving  them  to  be 
the  squadron  from  Brest,  I  immediately  detached  the  Naiad  by  signal,  to 
acquaint  Admiral  Lord  Gambier. 

The  Naiad  having  stood  a  few  miles  to  the  N.W.  made  the  signal  for 
three  sail  appearing  suspicious,  I  immediately  chased  them  with  the  squa- 
dron under  my  command,  Heaving  the  Amethyst  and  Emerald  to  watch 
the  enemy,)  and  I  soon  discovered  them  to  be  three  French  frigates 
standing  in  for  the  Sable  d'Olonne;  I  was  at  the  same  time  joined  by  the 
Amelia  and  Dotterel. 

*  Caesar,  Defiance,  Donegal,  Emerald,  Naiad. 


258  NAVAL    HISTORY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809. 

The  French  frigates  having  anchored  in  a  position  which  I  thought  s&- 
tackahle,  I  stood  in  with  the  Caesar,  Defiance,  Donegal,  and  Amelia,  and 
opened  our  fire  in  passing  as  near  as  the  depth  of  the  water  would  permit 
the  Caesar  and  Donegal  to  go.  The  Defiance  being  of  much  less  draught 
of  water,  anchored  within  half  a  mile  of  them  ;  in  which  situation,  so  judi- 
ciously chosen  by  Captain  Hothatn,  the  fire  of  the  Defiance  and  the  other 
ships  obliged  two  of  the  frigates  to  cut  their  cables  and  go  on  shore.  The  / 
ebb  tide  making,  and  the  water  falling  fast,  obliged  the  Defiance  to  get 
under  sail,  and  all  the  ships  to  stand  out ;  leaving  all  the  frigates  ashore, 
two  of  them  heeling  much.  They  have  been  noticed  closely,  and  from 
Captain  Rodd's  report  yesterday  afternoon,  they  appeared  with  all  their 
topmasts  on  deck,  sails  unbent,  main- yards  rigged  for  getting  guns  out,  and 
several  boats  clearing  them.  I  fancy  they  will  endeavour  to  get  over 
the  bar  into  a  small  pier,  but  I  am  informed  by  the  pilots  that  it  is 
scarcely  practicable. 

The  batteries  protecting  these  frigates  are  strong  and  numerous.  The 
Caesar  had  her  bowsprit  wounded  and  rigging  cut.  The  Defiance  has  all 
her  masts  badly  wounded;  two  men  killed,  and  twenty-five  wounded. 
Donegal,  one  killed  and  six  wounded. 

The  French  frigates  had  been  out  from  POrient  two  days;  and,  by  Cap- 
tain Irby's  report,  appear  to  be  the  Italienne,  Calypso,  and  Furieuse.  I 
am  very  confident  they  will  never  go  to  sea  again.  I\Jy  chief  object  in 
attacking  tLese  frigates  so  near  a  superior  force  of  the  enemy,  was  to  en- 
deavour to  draw  them  out,  and  to  give  our  squadron  more  time  to  assemble; 
but  in  this  I  was  disappointed.  I  returned  to  the  Chassiron  at  sun-set,  and 
observed  the  enemy  anchored  in  Basque  roads. 

On  the  25th  I  was  joined  by  Captain  Beresford,  in  the  Theseus,  with  the 
Triumph,  Revenge,  Valiant,  and  Indefatigable,  I  therefore  resumed  the 
blockade  of  the  enemy's  ships  in  Basque  Roads,  and  shall  continue  it  till 
further  orders. 

The  enemy's  force  consists  of  eleven  sail  of  the  line,  four  frigates,  and 
the  Calcutta.  The  force  under  my  command  consists  of  seven  sail  of  tiie 
line  and  five  frigates. 

*    I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

ROB.  STOPFORD. 

"Extract  of  a  Letter  from  Contain  Seymour,  of  his  Majesty's  ship  Amethyst, 
to  Rear-Admiral  Stafford,  dated  near  Chassiron,  Feb.  27,  1000. 

Yesterday  the  26th  the  whole  weighed  from  Basque  Roads,  and  proceeded 
to  the  Isle  d'Aix  anchorage,  one  frigate  excepted,  which  run  aground  on 
the  shoals  near  Isle  Madame,  called  les  Palles,  and  after  endeavouring  to 
force  her  off  by  press  of  sail  she  failed,  and  unrigged. 

The  enemy  are  anchored  from,  to  the  southward  of  the  Isle  of  Aix,  to  the 
northward  of  the  end  of  the  Boyart,  with  top  gallant  y^arcls  across,  but  not 
in  a  line  of  battle,  or  apparent  order  of  defence  ;  and,  I  conclude,  gone  in 
from  not  knowing  our  force;  but  seeing  our  numbers  increased,  they  have 
a  third  cable  bent  to  the  anchor  in  the  main  chains,  and  stopped  along  their 
side.  No  movement  to-day. 

MARCH  1 1. 

Copy  cf  a  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Lord  Colling&ood,  Commander-in-chief 
of  hit  Majesty  i  Ships  and  VeastU  in  the  Meditei  ranean,  to  the  Hon.  W, 
— W,  PolCf.  dated  oil  board  the  Ocean,   at  Malta,  the  20th  of  January, 
J8Q9. 

si  a, 
The  Iinperieuse  having,  with  other  ships,  been  employed  in  the  Bay  of 


NAVAL    HISTOIIY   OF  THE   PRESENT     YEAR,    1809.  259 

Rosas,  to  assist  the  Spaniards  in  defending  that  fortress,  and  Captain  Lord 
{Jochrane  taken  on  him  the  defence  of  Trinity  Castle,  an  outwork  of  that 
•garrison,  I  have  received  from  him  a  letter,  dated  the  5th  December,  a. 
<;opy  of  which  is  inclosed,  stating  the  surrender  of  the  citadel  of  Rosas  by 
the  Spaniards  on  that  day,  and  of  his  having  embarked  the  garrison  of 
Trinity  Castle  on  board  the  ships,  which  castle  he  had  however 
destroyed. 

The  heroic  spirit  and  ability  which  has  been  evinced  by  Lord  Cochrane 
in  defending  this  castle,  although  so  shattered  in  its  works,  against  the 
repeated  attacks  of  the  enemy,  is  an  admirable  instance  of  his  Lordship's 
zeal;  and  the  distinguished  conduct  of  Lieutenants  Johnson  and  Hoare,  of 
the  royal  marines,  and  the  officers  and  men  employed  in  this  affair 
tinder  his  Lordship,  will  doubtless  be  very  gratifying  to  my  Lords  Com- 
missioners of  the  Admiralty. 

I  have,  &c.  COLLTNGWOOD. 

Laperieutf,  Bay  of  Rosas, 

MY  LORD,  December  5,  1808. 

The  Fortress  of  Rosas  being  attacked  by  an  army  of  Italians  in  the  ser- 
vice of  France,  in  pursuance  of  discretionary  orders  that  your  lordship  had 
given  me,  to  assist  the  Spaniards  wherever  it  could  be  dune  with  the  most 
•effect,  I  hastened  here.  The  citadel,  on  the  22d  ultimo,  was  already  half 
invested,  and  the  en-emy  making  his  approaches  towards  the  south-west 
bastion,  which  your  lordship  knows  was  blown  down  last  war  by  the  ex- 
plosion of  a  magazine,  and  tumbled  into  the  ditch;  a  few  thin  planks  and 
dry  stones  had  been  put  up  by  the  Spanish  engineers,  perhaps  to  hide  the 
defect;  all  things  were  in  the  most  deplorable  state,  both  without  and 
within;  even  measures  for  their  powder,  and  saws  for  their  fusees  were  not 
to  be  had — hats  and  axtrs  supplied  their  place.  The  castle  of  Trinidad, 
.situated  on  an  eminence,  but  commanded  by  heights,  was  also  invested; 
three  twenty-four  pounders  battered  in  breach,  to  which  a  fourth  was  after- 
wards added,  and  a  passage  through  the  wall  to  the  lower  bomb  proof  being 
nearly  erlected,  on  the  53d  the  marines  of  the  Fame  were  withdrawn.  I. 
went  to  examine  the  state  of  the  castle,  and,  as  the  senior  officer  in  the  bay 
had  not  officially  altered  the  orders  I  received  from  your  Lordship,  to  give 
every  possible  assistance  to  the  Spaniards,  I  thought  this  a  good  oppor- 
tunity, bv  occupying  a  post  on  which  the  acknowledged  safety  of  the  citadel 
depended,  to  render  tticni  an  effectual  service.  The  garrison  then  consisted 
of  about  eighty  Spaniards,  and  were  on  the  point  of  surrendering;  accord- 
ingly I  threw  nivself  into  it,  with  fifty  seamen  and  thirty  marines  of  the 
linperieuse.  The  arrangement  made  I  need  not  dotsiil  to  your  Lordship ; 
suffice  it  to  say,  that  about  one  thousand  bags,  besides  barrels  and  pali- 
sadoes,  supplied  the  place  of  walls  and  ditches;  and  that  the  enemy,  who 
assaulted  the  castle  on  the  30th,  with  a  thousand  picked  men,  were  repulsed 
with  the  l-.ss  of  their  commanding  othcer,  storming  equipage,  and  all  who 
had  attempted  to  mount  the  breaclu  The  Spanish  garrison  being  changed, 
gave  good  assistance;  and  Lieutenant  Botmnao,  of  the  regiment  of  Ulto- 
,nia,  who  succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  Spanish  soldiers  in  the  castle, 
•on  Captain  Fitzgerald's  being  wounded  in  the  hand,  deserves  every  thing 
his  country  can  do  for  an  active  and  gallant  officer.  Inocenti  Maranger, 
cadet  of  the  same  regiment,  particularly  distinguished  himself  by  his  ztal 
and  vigilance.  As  to  the  officers,  seamen,  and  marines  of  this  ship,  the 
fatigues  they  underwent,  and  the  gallant  manner  in  which  they  behaved, 
deserve  every  praise.  1  must,  however,  particularly  mention  Lieutenant 
Johnson  of  the  navy,  Lieutenant  Hoare  of  the  marines,  Mr.  Bnrney, 
•gunner,  Mr.  Lodwick,  carpenter,  and  Messrs.  Stewart,  Stovin,  and  Maryat, 
midshipmen. 


260     NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1809. 

Captain  Hall,  of  the  Lucifer,  at  all  times  and  in  every  way,  gave  his 
zealous  assistance.  I  feel  also  indebted  to  Captain  Collins,  of  the  Meteor, 
for  his  aid. 

The  citadel  of  Rosas  capitulated  at  twelve  o'clock  this  day.  Seeing,  my 
Lord,  further  resistance  in  the  castle  of  Trinidad  useless  and  impracticable 
against  the  whole  army,  the  attention  of  which  had  naturally  turned  to  its 
reduction,  after  firing  the  trains  for  exploding  the  magazines,  we  embarked 
in  the  boats  of  the  Magnificent,  Impeneuse,  and  Fame. 

I  have,  &c.  COCHRANE. 

List  of  Killed  and  Wounded,  between  the  23d  November  and  5th  Decem- 
ber, 1808. 

John  Lloyd,  marine,  killed ;  John  Hitchins,  ditto,  ditto;  William  Fawkes, 
ditto,  ditto;  four  seamen  and  three  marines  wounded. 

Spaniards  of  the  Regiment  of  Ultonia. 
Two  killed,  five  wounded. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  from  the  Honourable  Rear- Admiral  Stafford  to  the 
Honourable  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  Cassar,  at  Anchor,  March  2/1809,  Ckas- 
siron  Light  House  S.  E.  \  S.  Eleven  Miles }  Balcine  Light  House  N.E. 
Four  Miles.  Wind  North. 

The  enemy's  ships  remain  at  Tsle  d'Aix.  On  the  28th  I  closely  recon- 
noitred them  in  the  Caesar,  and  only  counted  ten  sail  of  the  line,  four  fri- 
gates, and  the  Calcutta.  The  eleventh  ship  of  the  line  was  observed  on  her 
beam  ends,  with  all  her  masts  gone,  and  apparently  bilged.  She  grounded 
upon  the  shoal  called  les  Palles,  within  PIsle  d'Aix;  and  is  the  same  ship 
mentioned  in  my  letter  of  the  27th  ultimo,  supposed  by  Captain  Seymour 
to  have  been  a  frigate.  From  many  circumstances,  I  apprehend  this  ship 
is  the  Warsaw,  a  new  eighty.  There  are  two  rear-admiral's  flags  and  a 
broad  pendant  at  the  main.  One  rear-admiral  is  on  board  the  three 
decker. 

The  enemy's  frigates  remain  at  the  Sables  d'Olonne.  One  of  them  is 
abandoned  by  the  crew,  and  bilged  upon  the  beach;  another  is  hauled  up 
close  to  the  opening  of  a  small  inlet,  but  grounding  every  tide;  and  the 
third  is  in  the  same  situation,  but  not  quite  so  near  the  inlet.  These  two 
sail  appear  to  float  at  high  water,  but  are  on  their  beam  ends  at  low  water; 
a  western  swell,  which  has  set  in,  will  completely  destroy  them. 

The  loss  of  a  French  line-of-battle  ship  is  confirmed  by  the  masters  of 
three  doggers  which  came  out  of  the  Charante,  and  were  boarded  in  the 
night  by  our  frigates,  but  they  did  not  know  her  name. 

I  st-nd  this  account  to  England  by  the  King  George  cutter,  and  a  similar 
report  for  the  information  of  Admiral  Lord  Gambier,  in  the  event  of  the 
latter  falling  in  with  his  lordship  on  her  passage. 

MARCH  14. 

Vice-admiral  Doyglr.s,  commandcr-in-chief  at  Yarmouth,  has  transmitted 
to  the  Hon.  William  Wellesley  Pole,  a  letter  from  Captain  Hole,  of  his 
Majesty's  sloop  the  Egeria,  giving  an  account  of  his  having  captured  on  the 
2d  instant  off  the  Scaxv,  the  Danish  national  cutter  Aalborg,  of  six  guns, 
and  twenty-five  men,  bound  to  Norway  with  army  clothing. 

Mr.  Stewart,  commander  of  the  Lord  Nelson  packet,  had  brought  the 
above  vessel  to  close  action,  and  assisted  in  her  capture. 


NAVAL   HISTORY    OF   THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  261 

Copy  of  a  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Sir  J.  B.  Warren,  Barf,  and  K.  B. 
Commander  in  Chief  of -his  Majesty"  s  Ships  and  Vessels  at  Halifax,  to  the 
tion.  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  Bermuda,  January  27,  1809. 

SIR, 

I  have  the  honour  herewith  to  enclose,  for  their  lordships'  information, 
the  copy  of  a  letter  I  have  received  from  Captain  Wales  giving;  an  account 
of  the  French  privateer  Becune  having  been  captured  by  the  Ferret. 

I  hare  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

J.  B.  WARREN. 

SIR,  His  Majesty's  Sloop  Ferret,  Oct.  27,  1808. 

I  have  the  honour  to  acquaint  you,  that  yesterday  his  Majesty's  sloop 
under  my  command,  after  a  chase  of  four  hours,  came  up  with  and  cap- 
tured la  Becune,  French  privateer  schooner,  mounting  one  long  nine- 
pounder  amidships,  and  two  carronades.  small  arms,  &c.  with  a  complement 
of  thirty-eight  men.  She  is  coppered,  and  sails  very  fast;  out  ten  days 
from  Martinique  on  a  three  months'  cruize,  and  has  one  made  capture. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

11.  WALES. 

To  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  J.  B.  Warren,  Bart.  K.  B, 
Vice-admiral  of  the  White,  and  Commander  in 
Chief,  4-c.  4-c.  $<-. 

Copy  of  another  Letter  from  Vice-admiral  Sir  J.  B.  Warren,  Bart,  and  K.B. 
to  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  dated  Bermuda,  the  Id  of  February  last. 

SIR, 

I  have  inclosed  a  letter  for  their  lordships'  information  from  Captain 
Hawker,  of  his  Majesty's  ship  Melampus,  who,  with  his  usual  activity  and 
zeal,  has  captured,  after  some  resistance,  the  French  corvette  Colibri,  of 
fourteen  twenty-four  pounder  carronades  and  two  long  eight-pounders, 
with  a  complement  of  ninety-two  men,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  de 
Vaisseau  des  Landes,  and  having  on  board  570  barrels  of  Hour,  and  a  great 
quantity  of  gunpowder,  for  the  relief  of  the  enemy's  islands.  The  above 
vessel  is  new  off  the  stocks,  and  of  a  superior  class  of  workmanship; 
coppered  and  fastened,  and  appears  well  calculated  for  his  Majesty's  service. 
I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

J.  B.  WARREN, 

jflis  Majesty's  Ship  Melampus,  at  Seat 

SJTR,  29th  January,  1809. 

Having  seen  the  transports  in  safety  to  Barbadoes  agreeably  to  your 
orders,  ami.  being  on  my  return  to  the  northward  on  the  16th  instant,  in  lat. 
19  deg.  30  rain.  long.  59  deg.  39  min.  the  Melampus  captured  the  French 
national  brig  le  Colibri,  Mons.  Desjandes,  lieutenant  de  vaisseau,  com- 
mander, of  sixteen  twenty-four  pounder  carronades  and  ninety-two  men, 
three  of  which  were  killed,  a  lieutenant  with  eleven  wounded,  through  the 
persevering  endeavours  of  her  commander  to  escape,  who  had  the  temerity 
to  return  our  fire  for  a  short  time  when  fairly  alongside.  She  is  quite  new; 
from  Cherbourg,  bound  with  a  cargo  of  flour  and  gunpowder  for  the  relief 
of  St.  Domingo;  had  taken  and  sunk  two  English  brigs  from  Newfoundland 
to  Lisbon,  (the  Hannibal  and  Priscilla  of  Dartmouth.) 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

E.  HAWKER. 

Vice-Admiral  Sir  John  Borlase  Warren,  Bart.  $c. 


562  NAVAL   HISTORY   OF   THE   PRESENT   TEAR,    1809. 

ipromotions  anU  appointments* 

Captain  Moorsom,  private  secretary  to  Lord  Mulgravc,  has  succeeded 
Captain  Hope,  as  one  of  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty. 

Captain  Hamond  is  appointed  to  the  Victorious  ;  Captain  John  Bligh  to 
the  Valiant,  vice  Kerr,  acting  ;  Captain  Alexander  Robert  Kerr  to  the  Re- 
venge; Captain  Cocks  to  the  Naiad,  vice  Dundas;  Captain  Edward  Ster- 
ling Dickson  to  the  Inconstant;  Captain  Serrel  to  the  Helder,  late  Guel- 
derland,  Dutch  frigate  captured  by  the  Phoenix;  Captain  Morris  of  the 
Magnet,  to  the  command  of  the  sea-fencibles  at  Lynn,  in  Norfolk;  Cap- 
tain Bvam,  late  of  the  Bermuda,  to  the  Oppossum;  Captain  Thompson  of 
the  Minotaur  to  the  Perlin  ;  Captain  Phillip  Sommerville,  of  the  Nemesis, 
to  die  Rosa;  Captain  Henderson  to  the  Champion,  vice  Crawford;  Captain 
Henry  Whitby  to  the  Cerberus;"  Capt.  Richard  If.  Pearson,  eldest  son  of 
the  late  Sir  Richard  Pearson,  lieutenant-governor  of  Greenwich  hospital, 
to  the  Dictator;  Captain  Zachariah  Mudge,  to  the  Phoenix;  Captain  Major 
Henniker  to  the  Mermaid;  Captain  Hugh  Cook  to  the  Diomede;  Captaiu 
W.  Ferris,  to  the  Nemesis;  Captain  R.  T.  Hancock  to  the  Foudroyant; 
Captain  Jos.  Bi"gham,  to  the  Sceptre;  Captain  Thomas  Usher  to  the  Ley- 
den  ;  Captain  Hew  Steuart  to  the  Renard ;  Capt.  Jos.  R.  Watson  to  the 
Alfred ;  Captain  William  Mather  to  the  Rapid;  Captain  W.  Sanders  to  the 
Vesuvius ;  and  Captain  Alexander  Renney  to  the  Alert. 

Colonel  Richard  Williams,  of  the  royal  marines,  is  appointed  to  be  2d 
colonel  commandant  of  the  Plymouth  division;  Colonel  L.  Desborough  to 
be  2d  commandant  at  Chatham ;  Colonel  James  Meredith  to  be  ad  com- 
mandant at  Portsmouth ;  and  Colonel  Richard  Hill  Fanner  to  be  2d  com- 
mandant at  Woolwich, 

Majors  Robert  Moncreet,  James  CasscI,  and  Lewis  Charles  Mears  are 
appointed  lieutenant-colonels  of  the  Plymouth  division;  and  Major  John 
M'Intosh,  lieutenant-colonel  at  Portsmouth. 

.  Captain  Thomas  Davey  is  appointed  to  be  a  major  of  the  Woolwich  di- 
vision; Captain  Robert  Smith,  ditto  at  Woolwich;  Captain  Richard  Wil- 
liams, late  commander  of  the  royal  marine  artillery,  to  be  a  major  of  the 
Portsmouth  division;  and  Captain  James  Errol  Gordon,  to  be  a  major  of 
Woolwich  ditto.  / 

• 

Lieutenants  appointed. 

Lieutenant  Thomas  Davis  is  appointed  to  the  Weasel;  the  Hon.  J.  A. 
Maude  to  the  Ville  de  Paris;  Henry  Gary  to  ditto;  James  Brasier  to  the 
Alfred;  James  N.  Taylcr  to  the  Victorious;  Robert  John  Fayrer  to  the  Ni- 
jaden;  Edward  Kelly  to  the  Lynx;  Charles  Adams  to  the  St.  George ;  John 
Rude  to  the  Implacable  ;  Samuel  Mann  to  the  Standard ;  John  Hi^gins  to 
the  Badger;  George  Hay  to  the  Vulture;  G.  B.  Maxwell  to  the  Victory; 
Richard  Williams  (2)  to  the  Helder;  James  M'Ghie  to  ditto;  Michael  No- 
vosielski  to  the  Repulse;  James  Thomas  to  the  Raven;  Charles  C.  Dobson 
to  the  Brevdrageren ;  Henry  Rokeby  to  the  Crocus;  John  Armstrong  to  the 
Illustrious;  Edward  Fliu  to  the  Castor;  D.  Philpot  to  the  Myrtle;  Richard 
Welch  to  the  Surly  cutter;  Thomas  John  Ley  to  the  Standard;  William 
Pearce  (2)  to  ditto;  Charles  Letch  to  the  Plover;  John  Boulton  to  the  1m- 
petueuxj  E.  Turner  to  the  Ruby;  C.  Ilaultain  to  the  Decade;  Edward  S. 
Cotgrave  to  the  Achates;  William  Webb  (2)  to  the  Dreadnought;  William 
Nicholson  to  the  Resolution;  Wm.  C.  Hillyar  to  the  llovalist ;  John  Bucke 
to  the  Impetuetix  ;  Samuel  Slout  to  the  Champion  ;  John  Alexander  (2)  to 
the  Glomen ;  William  M.  Wyatt  to  the  Sparrow-hawk;  Matthew  Daven- 
hill  to  the  Childers;  John  Roberts  (2)  to  the  Gluckstadt;  John  R.  Colraau 


NAVAL   H-ISTORY   OF  THE   PRESENT    YEAR,    1809.  263 

to  tbe  Princess  of  Orange;  Edmund  Bennett  to  the  Africa;  George  Young 
to  the  Bermuda;  Thomas  Kingston  to  the  Tyrian ;  Lewis  Campbell  to  die 
Phcenix;  Doweil  O'Reilly  to  the  Tisiphone;  Walter  Croker  to  the  Aided  ; 
Wm.  Broad  water  to  the  Princess;  Thomas  Carter  to  the  Minotaur;  Magnes 
M*  Kelly  to  the  Phoenix;  Ethelbert  Turner  to  the  Rota,  commission  for  the 
Ruby  cancelled ;  William  Hoe  Walker  to  the  Euryalus;  Charles  Augustus 
Baumgart  to  the  Gibraltar;  James  G.  Harrington  to  the  Eagle;  Charles  Hill 
to  the  Rota;  Henry  L.  Baker  to  the  Ea-^le;  George  Elliott  to  the  Dictator; 
John  Greeiilaw  to  the  Naiad;  John  Mann  to  the  Ephira;  John  Ellis  to  the 
Vesuvius. 

Lieutenants  A.  Anderson,  II.  Garthwaite,  Frederick  Delmont  and  T.  J. 
Matthews  are  appointed  captains  of  the  royal  marines;  and  2d  Lieutenants 
Henry  Doswell,  G.  J.  Richardso-),  W.  L.  Wigg,  and  Wm.  Gray  1st  lieu- 
tenants of  the  said  corps. 

List  of  midshipmen  passed  for  lieutenants  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  the 
month: — William  Wade  West,  Robert  Speirs,  Edward  William  Pitt,  Thos. 
Robbins,  William  Henry  Rowcroft,  Richard  Langdon;  William  Roberts, 
Charles  Butts,  George  Peters  Browne,  Charles  Coppen,  George  Renny, 
Jarnes  Reid,  Wm.  Syfrett,  Jos.  Churchill,  Simon  Edward  Antram,  J.  G. 
Gordon. 

Surgeons  appointed. 

Mr.  W.H.  Bull  is  promoted  to  the  rank  of  surgeon,  and  appointed  to  the 
Tyrian  sloop;  Andrew  Gewmel  to  the  Cherokee;  Richard  Thompson  to 
the  Impetueux ;  Stephen  Jones  t«  the  Rhodian;  John  Oickson,  from  the 
Zebra,  to  the  Bermuda;  Walter  Steel,  assistant  of  the  Implacable,  surgeon 
of  the  Achates;  J«hn  Adams  to  the  Raven;  Francis  Jotmstoue  to  the  Hel- 
der;  H.  Baillie  to  the  Lavinia;  John  Edwards  to  the  Rapid  sloop;  Cuthbert 
Eden  to  the  Galgo;  William  Davis  to  the  Thetis;  J.  S.  L.  Miehad  to  the 
Linnet;  Hugh  Monk  to  the  Phcenix  ;  James  Wade  to  1' Argus;  William 
Dingwall,  from  the  Nemesis,  to  the  Rota;  Evau  Edwards  to  the  Eagle; 
H.  Hutchison  to  the  Crown  prison  ship;  Joseph  Arnold  to  the  Hindostan; 
William  M'Laughlin,  from  the  Brunswick,  to  the  Sceptre;  Jos.  Olliver  to 
the  Tigress;  James  Carroll  to  the  Pluto  sloop ;  L.  Armstrong  to  the  Clyde; 
D.James  to  the  Cerberus;  H.  Baillie  to  the  Naiad;  Jarnes  Hoi  brook  to 
the  Wrangler;  John  Adams  to  the  Helder;  William  Wilson  to  the  Neme- 
sis; James  Milligan,  from  the  Trusty,  to  the  Princess  of  Oraijge. 

Mr.  Robert  Mulberry,  surgeon  of  the  Ville  de  Paris,  who  performed  the 
operation  on  Lieutenant-general  Sir  David  Baird,  after  the  battle  of  Co- 
runna,  is  appointed,  by  the  Lords  of  die  Admiralty,  to  be  surgeon  of  the 
division  of  royal  marines,  at  Chatham. 

A.  Dalrymple,  Esq.  purser  of  his  Majesty's  hospital  ship  Tromp,  is  ap- 
pointed to  the  The  ban,  a  new  frigate. 

Assistants  appointed. 

Mr.  G.T.  Webb  is  appointed  to  be  assistant  surgeon  of  his  Majesty's  ship 
Eagle;  Mr.  J.  Dunthorn,  from  Plymouth  hospital,  to  the  Gibraltar;  Win. 
Hector  to  ditto;  Wm.  Porteous,  from  the  Alpaca  cutter,  to  be  an  hospital 
mate  at  Haslar;  Wm.  Bland,  to  be  an  hospital  mate  at  Plymouth;  Archi- 
bald Robertson  to  be  an  assistant  of  the  Caledonia;  J.  F.  Bailey  to  the 
Protector  gun-brig;  H.  D.  Morrison  to  be  an  hospital  mute  at  Barbadoes 
hospital;  Win.  Chrichton  to  be  an  hospital  mate  at  Plymouth;  Alexander 
Osborue  to  be  an  assistant  surgeon  on  board  the  Bellona;  James  Forrie  to 
the  Victory;  James  Carrol  to  the  Martial  gun-brig;  S.  J.  Dickeuson  to 
the  Thetis;  and  Richard  Morgan  to  be  au  hospital  mate  at  Haslar. 


264     NAVAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  PRESENT  YEAR,  1809* 

BIRTHS. 

Lately,  at  Blackheath,  the  lady  of  Captain  Thomas  Larkins,  of  the  HOD. 
East  India  Company's  service,  of  a  daughter. 

On  the  6th  of  March,  the  lady  of  Captain  Hawtayne,  of  the  royal  navy, 
of  a  daughter. 

Lately,  the  lady  of  Captain  Pultney  Malcolm,  of  a  son. 

In  Charles-street,  St.  James's-square,  the  lady  of  Robert  Mitford, 
Esq.  brother  to  Captain  Mitford  who  was  unfortunately  lost  in  his  Majes- 
ty's ship  York,  of  a  son. 


MARRIAGES. 

At  St.  Mary-le-bone  church,  Captain  Peter  Parker,  of  his  Majesty's  ship 
Melpomene,  son  of  the  late  Vice-admiral  C.  Parker,  and  grandson  of  Sir 
Peter  Parker,  admiral  of  the  fleet,  to  Miss  Marrianue  Dallas,  second 
daughter  of  Sir  George  Dallas,  Bart. 

At  Winterhorhe,  in  Wilts,  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Goddard,  Lieutenant  Henry 
Haytfard  Budd,  of  the  royal  navy,  to  Miss  Turkey,  daughter  to  John  Tur- 
key, Esq.  of  that  place. 

On  the  16th  of  March,  at  Mary-le-bone  church,  Captain  Woodley  Lo- 
sack,  of  the  royal  navy,  to  Miss  Gordon,  only  daughter  of  the  late  George 
Gordon,  Esq. — Viscount  Melville  gave  Miss  Gordon  away. 

On  the  18th  of  March,  by  his  Grace  the  Archbishop  of  York,  Captain  T. 
le  M.  Gosselin,  of  the  royal  navy,  to  Miss  Hadsley,  eldest  daughter  of  the 
late  J.  II.  Hadsley,  Esq.  of  Ware  Priory,  Herts. 


OBITUARY. 

On  the  5th  of  March,  at  his  mother's  house  in  South  Wales,  Maurice 
Beauchamp  Bissel,  Esq.  of  the  royal  navv,  nephew  to  Walter  Bagenal, 
Esq.  M.  P. 

Lately,  after  a  long  and  painful  illness,  which  she  bore  with  unshaken 
fortitude,  Miss  Percival,  only  sister  of  Lieutenant  Thomas  Percival,  of  his 
Majesty's  ship  Valiant. 

Lately,  was  unfortunately  drowned  at  Bermuda,  by  the  boat  upsetting, 
Lieutenant  Ram  of  the  royal  navy,  brother  of  Lieutenant  Ram,  who  fell  in 
the  glorious  victory,  off  Trafalgar,  on  board  the  Victory. 

Also,  at  the  same  time,  Captain  Peake,   of  the  royal  marines. 

On  the  4th  of  March,  in  consequence  of  a  duel  with  P.  Powell,  Esq.  the 
Right  Hon.  Lord  Viscount  Falkland,  a  captain  in  his  Majesty's  navy,  and 
premier  viscount  of  Scotland.  He  is  succeeded,  in  his  titles,  by  his  eldest 
son,  who  is  about  live  years  old. 

Lately,  at  Chatham,  Mr.  Skinner,  surgeon  of  the  royal  marine  infirmary, 
at  that  place. 

In  the  royal  hospital  at  Haslar,  on  the  18th  of  March,  of  a  typhus  fever, 
Mr.  William  Bragg,  surgeon  of  his  Majesty's  prison  ship  San  Antonio.  He 
had  been  upwards  of  20  years  a  surgeon  in  the  royal  navy,  and  was  much 
respected  for  his  gentlemanly  conduct. 


; 


Street. 


MEMOIR  OF  THE  PUBLIC  SERVICES 


OF 


ADMIRAL  SIR  C.  M,  POLE,   BART.  3VI.P. 


"  Spotless  Integrity  in  a  brave  and  a  firm  mind." 


men  have  served  their  conntry  more  faithfully  than  this 
officer,  and  still  fewer  in  this  age  of  egotism  and  vanity,  have 
taken  so  little  pains  to  make  (heir  services  known. 

Mr.  C.  Pole,  the  son  of  Reginald  Pole,  Esq.  of  Stoke  Damarell, 
in  Devonshire,  and  of  Anne,  second  daughter  of  John  Francis 
Buller,  Esq.  of  Morval,  in  Cornwall,  was  born  at  Stoke  on  the 
18th  of  January,  1757.  He  is  a  descendant  from  the  eminent 
family  of  Pole,  belonging  to  Shute,  in  Devonshire,  being  great 
grandson  of  Sir  John  Pole,  the  third  baronet,  and  of  Anne}/ 
youngest  daughter  of  Sir  William  Morice,  Krrt.  one  of  the  secre- 
taries of  state  to  Charles  II. 

Mr.  Charles  Pole  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education  at 
<he  grammar  school  at  Plympton,  and  thence  was  entered  at  tliti 
Royal  Academy  at  Portsmouth,  June  18,  1770.  After  having 
gone  through  the  plan,  which  is  prescribed  for  the  midshipmen 
brought  up  at  that  institution,  he  embarked  with  the  early  patron 
of  Nelson,  Captain  Locker,  in  his  Majesty's  ship  Thames,*  of  32 
guns,  in  which  he  served  until  December  1773  ;  when  he  was  dis- 
charged into  the  Salisbury.  It  was  on  board  this  ship  that  Sir 
E.  Hughes  afterwards  hoisted  his  broad  pendant,  Captain  G.  R. 
Walters,  and  proceeded  to  the  East  Indies  in  1774.  Previous  to 
the  sailing  of  the  squadron,  Mr.  Pole  commenced  an  intimate 
friendship  with  a  young  seaman,  Horatio  Nelson,  -who  was  then 
in  the  Seahorse.  Captain  Farmer.  —  Mr.  Pole  afterwards  received 
liis  first  commission  as  lieutenant  of  the  Seahorse,  then  commanded 
by  that  most  able  officer,  Captain  Panton.  Soon  after  Sir  Edward 
Vernon  arrived  in  India  to  supsrcede  Commodore1  Hughes,  a 
war  with  France  commenced,  when  Lieutenant  Pole  was  removed 

*  NAVAL  CHRONICLE,  Vol.  V.  page  112. 
Jfcac.  eijjron,  Slot.  XXL  w  M 


266  MEMOIR     OF    THE    PUBLIC     SERVICES     OF 

from  the  Seahorse  to  the  commodore's  ship  the  Rippon.  The  first 
operations  of  that  campaign  in  India  being  the  attack  of  Pondi- 
cherry,  the  squadron  proceeded  immediately  to  blockade  that  port 
by  sea,  whilst  the  army  under  Sir  Hector  Munro  completely  sur- 
rounded it  by  land.  On  Sir  Edward  Vernon's  approach,  the 
French  squadron,  under  the  command  of  Mons.  Tronjolly,  was 
descried  on  the  8th  of  August,  1778,  consisting  of  the  Brilliant, 
of  64  guns,  Pourvoyeuse,  of  36  guns,  eighteen-pounders,  the  Sar- 
tine,*  of  32  guns,  and  two  of  their  country  ships  armed  as  men 
of  war.  There  being  such  light  airs  of  wind,  they  could  not  near 
the  enemy  until  the  10th,  when  at  6  A.M.  they  saw  the  above- 
mentioned  five  ships,  bearing  down  in  a  regular  line  abreast.  Sir 
Edward  stood  for  them,  forming  his  line  ahead  with  the  Rippon, 
Coventry,  Seahorse,  and  Valentine  India  ship,  and  having  the 
Cormorant  sloop  in  company  ;  and  at  noon  brought  to,  ready  to 
receive  the  enemy.  At  three  quarters  past  noon,  the  breeze  shift- 
ing to  the  seaward  gave  Sir  Edward  the  weather  gage,  when  he 
immediately  made  the  signal  to  bear  down  upon  the  enemy,  who 
had  formed  upon  the  starboard  tack.  Mons.  Tronjolly  afterwards 
made  sail  upon  a  wind  to  the  S.W.  and  'nothing  decisive  was 
effected.  Mons.  Tronjolly,  however,  left  Pondicherry  and  tha 
coast  to  take  care  of  themselves.  Sir  Edward  then  anchored  on 
the  20th,  between  Pondicherry  and  Cuddajore,  and  on  the  25th 
the  Sartinc  frigate  was  captured  by  the  Seahorse.  During  the 
ensuing  siege,  Lieutenant  Pole  was  sent  on  shore  to  command  the 
seamen  and  marines  that  were  landed  to  assist  in  reducing  Pondi- 
clierry,  which  offered  to  surrender  on  the  16th  of  October,  1778, 
ami  the  articles  of  capitulation  were  signed  on  the  17th.  During 
the  siege  our  ships  took  three  small  vessels  bound  to  that  port. 
Lieutenant  Pole  was  immediately  afterwards  appointed  to  thu 
command  of  the  Cormorant,  which  sloop  brought  home  the 
despatches  to  England.  (  He  arrived  there  on  the  12th  of  March, 
1779.  On  the  2'2d  he  was  advanced  to  post  rank,  and  appointed 
to  his  Majesty's  ship  Britannia,  destined  for  Vice-admiral  Darby's 
flag ;  in  which  situation  Captain  Pole  remained,  until  a  favourable 

*  Another  French  ship  is  mentioned,  but  not  named  in  Sir  Edward  Ver- 
non's official  letter,  as  being  teen  wn  tlic  ptli,  but  sh«  did  ngt  bear  down, 
with  tl»e  rest. 


ADMIRAL   SIR    C.    M.    POLE,    BART.    M.P.  267 

opportunity  offered  of  obtaining  a  more  active  situation,  in  the 
command  of  the  Hussar,  of  28  guns.  When  on  a  cruise  near 
home,  Mr.  Beatson  in  his  Memoirs  *  informs  us,  that  the  Hussar, 
Captain  Pole,  in  1780,  fell  in  with  three  French  luggers,  to  which 
he  immediately  gave  chase.  He  took  two  of  them,  le  Jcune  Lion 
and  le  Renard,  and  having  twelve  guns,  eight  swivels,  and  44  men. 
Previous  to  this,  Captain  Pole  had  sailed  from  Corke,  as  convoy 
to  a  fleet  of  victuallers,  with  the  Charon,  of  44  guns,  and  Licorne 
frigate,  which  sailed  frv;n  that  port  on  the  20th  of  August,  Cap- 
tain Pole  was  afterwards  sent  in  the  Hussar  to  America,  and  was 
scarcely  arrived  on  that  station,  when  he  had  the  misfortune  to 
lose  the  Hussar  on  the  Pot-Rock  in  the  passage  of  Hell  Gates, 
whilst  under  the  charge  of  a  pilot.  The  passage,  so  called,  is  a 
narrow  part  of  the  channel  of  the  East  River,  which  communicates 
with  and  forms  the  passage  to  North  Island  Sound,  N.E.  from 
New  York.  Ott  his  return  thither,  the  Commander-in-chief, 
Vice-admiral  Arbulhnot,  delivered  his  public  despatches  to  Cap- 
tain Pole,  for  his  Majesty's  government. 

Soon  after  his  return  to  England,  Captain  Pole  was  appointed 
to  the  Success  frigate,  then  on  the  stocks  at  Liverpool,  which  ship 
he  commissioned;  and  in  1782  fought  a  most  gallant  action  in  her 
against  the  Santa  Catalina,  a  Spanish  frigate.  The  following  account 
of  which,  is  given  by  Mr.  Beatson  in  his  Naval  and  Military 
Memoirs  :  + 

"  At  daylight,  on  the  16th  of  March,  1782,  the  Success  frigate,  Captain 
Charles  Morice  Pole,  in  latitude  55  cleg.  40  min.  N.  Cape  Spartel  bearing 
E.N.E.  distant  eighteen  leagues,  and  the  wind  at  S.W.  was  standing  lor  the 
Gut,  and  had  the  Vernon  storeship,+  bound  for  Gibraltar,  under  his  con- 
voy, when  he  discovered  a  sail  ri^ht  ahead,  close  hauled  on  the  larboard 
tack.  The  weather  being  hazy,  she  appeared  to  be  a  ship  of  the  line.  The 
two  ships  made  sail  from  her,  on  which  she  gave  chase,  which  continued 
until  half-past  two  in  the  afternoou.  Captain  Pole  then  perceiving,  that  the 
strange  sail  gained  ground  on  the  ''ernon,  shortened  sail,  dropped  astern, 
came  nearer  tlie  ship  in  chase,  and  then  brought  to,  in  hopes  of  drawing  hei 

*  Vol.  V.  page  141. 

t  Vol.  V.  page  070. 

+  The  Vernon  carried  22  guns,  six-pounders,  and  had  on  board 
Lieutenant-colonel  Gladstone?,  four  captains,  seven  subalterns,  and  100 
privates,  belonging  to  the  reginieiiu  in  Gibraltar;  besides  her  captain,  Mr. 
John  Falconer,  two  mates,  and  3U  acumen. 


268  MEMOIR   Of   THE   PUBLIC    SERVICES   OF 

attention  from  the  storeship.  The  weather  clearing  up,  she  was  discovered 
to  be  a  large  frigate  with  a  poop  ;  and  a  little  after  five,  she  hoisted  a 
Spanish  ensign  with  a  broad  pendant,  and  fired  a  gun.  At  six,  being  within 
random  shot,  the  Success  wore,  and  stemmed  for  the  enemy's  lee-bow, 
until  she  had  just  distance  sufficient  to  weather  her,  then  hauled  close 
athwart  her  forefoot,  and  poured  her  whole  fire  into  her  within  half  pistol 
shot.  The  Success  passed  close  to  windward,  engaging,  while  the  Spaniards, 
having  expected  the  attack  to  be  made  to  leeward,  were  firing  their  lee  guns 
into  the  water.  The  enemy  were  thrown  into  great  disorder  by  the  first 
broadside  from  the  Success;  and  their  confusion  increased,  by  a  smart  fire 
from  the  Vernon,  which,  having  wore,  came  up  and  engaged  very  closely. 
Both  the  British  ships  got  into  most  advantageous  positions,  and  poured  into 
their  opponent  an  incessant  and  well-directed  fire  until  twenty  minutes  past 
eight,  when  she  struck.  They  then  took  possession  of  the  Santa  Catalina, 
a  frigate  belonging  to  the  King  of  Spain,  mounting  3-1  guns,  viz.  26  twelve- 
pounders  on  the  main-deck,  and  eight  six-pounders  on  the  quarter-deck, 
and  having  upwards  of  three  hundred  men.  She  was  commanded  by  Don 
Miguel  Tacon,  who  was  a  captain  in  the  line,  had  a  distinguishing  pendant 
as  such,  and  was  senior  officer  of  the  Spanish  frigates  cruising  off  the  Straits' 
mouth.  lie  had  been  furnished  with  a  very  particular  description  of  the 
Success,  for  which  he  was  particularly  instructed  to  look  out,  and  had  been 
cruising  for  her  three  weeks.  lie  had  seen  the  Success  and  Vernon  four 
times,  and  chased  them  twice  with  his  squadron,  which  then  consisted  of 
four  frigates  and  six  sail  of  xebeques,  from  which  he  had  parted  two  days 
before  he  was  taken.  He  spoke  with  much  displeasure  of  the  behaviour  of 
his  officers  and  men.  The  enemy  had  twenty-five  men  killed,  and  only 
eight  wounded  in  the  action  :  the  prisoners  amounted  to  two  hundred  and 
eighty-six.  The  Success  had  only  one  man  killed  and  four  wounded.  The 
Yernori  had  but  one  man  wounded.  Captain  Pole  was  extremely  well  pleased 
with  the  behaviour  of  his  officers  and  crew,  both  before  and  after  the  en- 
gagement. The  smallness  of  their  numbers  had  encouraged  the  prisoners 
to  form  a  plan  for  rising  on  them,  which  was  fortunately  discovered,  and, 
"by  their  alertness,  prevented  from  being  put  into  execution.  Lieutenant* 
colonel  Gladstanes,  of  the  72d  regiment,  who,  with  several  other  officers, 
and  about  one  hundred  recruits,  was  on  board  of  the  Vernon  storeship,  had 
very  great  merit,  as  well  as  Mr.  Falconer,  the  master  of  that  vessel,  and  his 
crew,  for  the  conspicuous  bravery  and  good  conduct  which  they  displayed 
in  the  action,  and  for  the  assistance  which  they  afforded  in  securing  the 
prisoners.  Captain  Pole  sent  his  first  lieutenant,  Mr.  Oakley,  to  take 
possession  of  the  Santa  Catahna,  which  had  suffered  severely  in  hull,  masts, 
and  rigging.  He  was  indefatigable  in  clearing  away  the  wreck.  Her  mizen- 
mast  had  fallen  a  short  time  before  she  struck  :  her  main-mast  fell  imme- 
diately after  that,  and  her  foremast  must  have  shared  the  same  fate,  if  the 
sea  had  not  been  remarkably  smooth.  Her  hull  was  like  a  sieve,  the  shot 
having  gone  through  both  sides.  From  the  disabled  state  of  the  prize,  small 
hopes  were  entertained  of  being  able  to  conduct  her  to  port.  On  the  18th 
at  daylight,  when  the  Success  had  scarcely  had  time  to  repair  her  own 
damages,  which  were  considerable,  in  her  yards,  masts,  and  sails,  and  wlnlaE 


ADMIRAL   SIR    C.    M.    POLE,    BART.    M.P.  269 

•borne  of  her  men  were  endeavouring  to  secure  the  foremast  of  her  prize,  six 
sail  appeared  in  sight:  from  these,  two  frigate-  had  been  detached  ahead, 
which  seemed  to  be  reconnoitring.  Captain  Pole,  unable  to  combat 
such  a  force,  ordered  the  Vernon  to  make  all  the  sail  she  could,  hoisted 
out  all  his  boats,  sent  on  board  the  Santa  Catalina  fjr  Lieutenant  Oakley 
and  the  seamen,  and  gave  orders  that  before  leaving  her  they  should  set  her 
on  fire.  She  blew  up  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour  :  she  was  coppered,  and  was 
the  largest  frigate  in  the  Spanish  navy.*  The  wind  being  at  S.E.  the  cap- 
tain made  sail  from  the  strange  ships  :  and,  as  the  Vernon  was  in  want  of 
water  and  provision?,  he  determined  to  proceed  with  her  to  Madeira.  From 
the  reports  marie  to  Captain  Pole,  of  the  state  of  the  Santa  Catalina,  it  ap- 
peared, that  if  he  had  not  been  obliged  to  set  her  on  fire,  she  must  have 
sunk  ;  for  a  gale  of  wind  soon  came  on,  which  obliged  the  Success  to  lay- 
to,  under  a  storm-stay-sail." 

The  strange  sail  afterwards  proved  to  be  his  Majesty's  ships 
the  Apollo,  and  Cerberus  frigates,  with  four  transports.  Captain 
Pole's  friend,  the  then  Captain  Sir  Horatio  Nelson,  on  perusing 
(he  unassuming  manner  in  which  the  captain  of  the  Hussar  spoke 
of  this  action  in  his  official  letter,  observed  (when  writing  to  theif 
former  commander,  Captain  Locker),  "  I  am  exceedingly  happy 
at  Charles  Pole's  success.  In  his  seamanship  he  shewed  himself  as 
superior  to  the  Don  as  in  his  gallantry,  and  no  man  in  the  world, 
•was  ever  so  modest  in  his  account  of  it."  And  afterwards,  in 
another  letter  to  Captain  Locker  (who  then  was  Lieutenant, 
governor  of  Greenwich  Hospital)  Captain  Nelson  added — Never 
icas  there  <i  young  man  zcho  bore  his  ozsn  merits  zcilh  so  muck 
modesty.  I  esteem  him  as  a  brother.  The  Success  afterwards 
made  sail  for  England. 

During  the  peace  which  commenced  in  1783,  Captain  Pole  com- 
inaiuled  the  Crown  guard-ship;  and,  upon  occasion  of  the  Spanish 
arm  am -.in,  was  appointed  to  the  Melampus,  at  that  time  the  largest 
and  most  approved  frigate  in  the  navy.  While  the  discussion* 
with  the  Spanish  government  existed,  he  was  wholly  employed  off 


*  Dimensions  of  the  Santa  Catalina. 

Fee/.  Inches. 

Length  of  the  keel 133  11 

Length  of  the  deck 3jl  1° 

Jixti erne  breadth ^9  4 

Height  of  the  middle  port,  when  victualled 

for  i'utir  month* 8  0 


270  MEMOIR    OF    THE    PUBLIC    SERVICES    OF 

Brest  to  watch  the  motions  of  the  French.  From  the  Mclampus 
he  went  into  the  Illustrious,  and  was  afterwards  appointed  to 
command  the  Colossus,  in  which  ship  he  accompanied  Lord  Hood 
to  the  Mediterranean,  and  was  present  at  the  surrender  of  Toulon. 
He  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  admiral  in  1795,  and  hoisted  his 
flag  on  board  the  Colossus. 

Admiral  Pole  afterwards  proceeded  to  the  West  Indies,  with 
his  flag  on  board  the  Carnatic,  as  second  in  command,  and  took 
an  able  part  in  the  various  important  services  on  which  that  squadron 
was  engaged.  After  his  return  home,  he  was,  in  1798,  appointed 
captain  of  the  Channel  fleet  under  Lord  Bridport;  and  the 
arrangements  made  by  Admiral  Pole  for  the  discipline,  health,  and 
support  of  the  fleet,  did  him  the  greatest  credit,  and  gave  general 
satisfaction.  On  the  27th  of  June,  1799,  when  Lord  Bridport 
struck  his  flag,  Admiral  Pole,  as  we  learn  from  Captain  Schom- 
berg's  Chronology,*  hoisted  bis  flag  on  board  the  Royal  George, 
and  put  to  sea  from  Cawsand  Bay,  in  company  with  the  Sulphur, 
Explosion,  and  Volcano  bombs.  "  On  the  1st  of  July  he  joined 
Admiral  Berkeley  off  the  Isle  of  Rhe,  and  the  next  day  proceeded 
to  the  attack  of  the  five  Spanish  ships  of  the  line,  which  had  taken, 
shelter  under  the  protection  of  the  batteries  on  that  island,  and  a 
floating  mortar  battery  which  was  moored  in  the  passage  between 
a  shoal  and  the  Isle  of  Oleron.  The  squadron  having  anchored 
at  eleven  o'clock  in  Basque  Road,  the  bomb  ketches  took  their 
stations  under  cover  of  the  frigatts,  commanded  by  Captain  Keates, 
and  opened  their  fire  upon  the  Spanish  ships,  which  was  continued 
with  great  briskness  for  three  hours  :  but  with  no  effect,  the 
Spanish  squadron  being  at  too  great  a  distance.  The  batteries 
from  the  Isle  of  Aix,  during  this  time,  kept  up  an  incessant  can. 
onade.  The  wind  dying  away,  and  the  enemy  having  brought 
forward  several  gun. boats,  the  admiral  called  off  the  ships  engaged, 
got  under  weigh,  and  stood  to  sea.  Soon  after  Rear-admiral 
Berkeley  returned  to  Plymouth  with  three  sail  of  the  line  and  the 
bomb  ketches,  whilst  Admiral  Pole  remained  off  Rochefort  to  pre- 
vent the  Spaniards  escaping." 

Admiral  Pole's  services  were  now  directed  to  another  object, 

*  Vol.  IK.  page  200. 


ADMIRAL  SIR  c.  M.  POLE,  BART.  M.P.  271 

on  being  appointed  governor  and  commander-in-chief  at  New- 
foundland, to  which  station  he  sailed  in  1800,  with  his  flag  on 
board  the  Agincourt,  of  64  guns,  as  vice-admiral  of  the  blue. 
From  this  duty,  he  was  called  on  to  succeed  his  early  friend, 
Lord  Nelson,  during  the  month  of  July,  1801,  in  the  important 
command  of  the  Baltic  fleet :  as  that  great  officer,  after  the  fatigue 
and  severe  service  he  had  experienced,  both  during  the  battle  of 
Copenhagen  and  afterwards,  had  transmitted  the  most  earnest 
solicitations  to  be  relieved.  To  succeed  such  an  officer,  who  was 
the  beloved  hero  of  that  fleet,  and  of  every  other  he  had  commanded, 
was  no  common  task,  nor  inconsiderable  honour.  Admiral  Pol* 
sailed  in  the  Blonde  frigate,  and  hoisting  his  flag  on  board  the  St. 
George,  executed  this  arduous  service  with  his  wonted  ability. 
During  the  performance  of  it,  he  rendered  an  essential  service  to 
his  country,  by  exploring  the  passage  of  the  Great  Belt,  which 
has  since  been  of  advantage  to  our  operations  in  those  seas.  Qu 
his  return  to  Spithead  with  his  fleet,  August  10,  1801,  his  Majesty 
on  the  18th  was  pleased  to  confer  on  him  the  honour  of  a 
Baronetcy,  as  a  mark  of  his  gracious  approbation  of  his  conduct. 
Sir  Charles  was  immediately  ordered  off  Cadiz,  where  he  arrived 
at  the  end  of  August,  and  where  nothing  material  *  occurred  until 
the  signing  of  the  preliminaries  of  peace,  when  he  returned  in  De- 
cember to  England. 

In  1802  he  was  elected  a  member  of  Parliament  for  Newark ; 
and  when  it  was  deemed  necessary  to  bring  in  a  bill  to  appoint 
commissioners  for  inquiring  into  the  abuse?  in  the  civil  branches  of 
the  navy,  Admiral  Sir  C.  Pole  was  named  by  the  House  of  Com- 
mons chairman  of  that  commission  ;  in  which  highly  distinguished 
and  important  situation  he  remained  until  February,  1806.  Of 
the  labours  of  that  valuable  commission  it  is  not  necessary  to  say 
more,  than  that  the  [louse  of  Commons  passed  a  vote  of  approba- 
tion of  the  conduct  of  its  members,  which  was  communicated  to 
them  by  the  Speaker  in  his  usual  handsome  manner. 

In  February  1S06  he  resigned  his  seat  as  chairman  of  the  Naval 
Inquiry,  being  called  by  Mr.  Grey  (now  Lord  Grey)  to  take  a 
place  at  the  Board  of  Admiralty,  where  Sit  Charles  rendered 

»  An  official  letter  ironi  him,  giving  an  account  of  two  captures  that  had 
been  made  by  his  squadron,  was  ituerteJ  in  Vol.  VI.  page  4.04. 


MEMOIR    OF   THE   PUBLIC    SERVICES    OP 

essential  service  to  his  profession,  and  increased  that  experience 
or  knowledge  of  the  interests  of  his  profession,  which  lie  has  since 
so  uniformly  supported  in  Parliament.  He  left  the  Admiralty  in. 
October,  on  the  change  which  then  took  place  in  the  administra- 
tion. Daring  the  short  period  in  which  he  had  remained  at  the 
Board,  it  afforded  his  noble  mind  particular  gratification  to  assist 
in  that  wise  measure  which  was  then  adopted,  of  increasing  tho 
petty  officers  of  the  navy,  and  augmenting  the  pay  of  every  class, 
It  was  during  this  time,  under  the  auspices  of  Mr.  Grey,  that  a 
considerable  superannuation  list  was  added  to  the  captains,  com- 
manders, and  lieutenants.  Under  the  same  auspices,  a  bill  was 
brought  into  Parliament  enabling  the  pensioners  of  the  chest  to 
receive  their  pay  at  their  own  homes,  as  had  been  recommended 
by  the  Commissioners  of  Naval  Inquiry ;  and  the  pay  of  this 
suffering  and  meritorious  class  of  men  was  augmented  from  71.  to 
181,  per  annum. 

We  come  in  the  next  place  to  consider  the  public  services  of 
this  officer,  as  an  eminent  and  most  valuable  naval  member  of  the 
House  of  Commons  ;  where  he  has  appeared  as  an  example  to  such 
of  his  profession,  as  may  there  wish  to  serve  its  interests  and  to 
support  their  own  independence.  The  continued  exertions  of  Sir 
Charles  Pole  in  the  House  on  naval  subjects,  have  acquired  him  a 
general  and  well  merited  popularity.  We  can  only  dwell  on 
some  of  the  most  important  of  his  speeches ;  and  this  we  are  the 
more  glad  to  do,  as  owing  to  the  press  of  other  matter  at  the  time, 
we  have  not  hitherto  been  able  to  notice  these  debates  as  they 
merited. 

In  the  debate  on  the  Droits  of  Admiralty  (February  11,  1808), 
on  the  motion,  that  there  be  laid  before  the  House  fin  account  of 
all  captures  made  at  sea  by  the  naval  forces  of  this  country, 
which  zcere  claimed  to  remain,  and  rchich  did  remain,  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  Crown,  since  the  year  1792,  specifying  each  capture 
and  its  amount,  Kith  the  particular  appropriation  of  the  proceeds 
thereof — Sir  Charles  observed,  ii  that  all  his  reflections  on  the  sub- 
ject convinced  him,  that  the  Admiralty  Court  ought  to  be  upon  a 
new  footing."  At  the  close  of  this  debate,  he  disapproved  of  both 
the  original  motion  and  the  amendment  by  Mr.  Huskisson,  and 
proposed  a  motion  of  his  own,  by  which  the  gross  proceeds*  and 

*  COBBETT'S  Debates,  Vol.  X.  pages  450,  and  460. 


ADMIRAL   SIR   C.   M.   POLE,   BART.   M.P.  275 

n*t  proceeds  were  required  to  be  stated  in  distinct  columns,  &c. 
Alluding  to  the  delay  in  the  distribution  of  prize  money,  he 
instanced  an  officer  who  had  received  only  in  the  month  of  May, 
1807,  his  share  of  prize  money  for  a  vessel  captured  twenty  years 
before. 

In  the  months  of  February,  and  March,  1808,*  Sir  Charlel 
endeavoured  to  call  the  attention  of  the  House  of  Commons,  to  the 
Appointments  in  Greenwich  Hospital  and  the  Nai-al  Asylum; 
and  proposed  to  bring  in  a  bill  to  preclude  the  chusing  of  any, 
but  persons  connected  with  the  naval  service,  or  holding  situations 
in  either.  In  this  measure  he  was  defeated.  The  following  is  the 
interesting  debate  which  took  place  on  so  important  a  moment 
to  the  navy  :— 

"  House  of  Commons,^  March  8.— Sir  C.  Pole,  pursuant  to  notice,  rose  to 
submit  his  motion  to  the  House,  founded  upon  the  14th  Report  of  the 
Commissioners  of  Naval  Inquiry.  The  object  of  the  bill  which  he  had  to 
propose,  was  to  carry  into  effect  both  the  spirit  and  letter  of  the  charter  of 
Greenwich  Hospital.  Before  he  proceeded  to  make  las  motion,  he  begged 
that  the  report  of  the  commissioners  who  had  been  appointed  on  a  former 
occasion  to  inquire  into  the  state  of  that  Hospital  should  be  read.  Bv  the 
charter  of  the  Hospital,  which  was  granted  in  the  IGth  Gco.  HI.  it  was  re- 
quired, that  all  the  officers  of  the  Hospital  should  be  persons  who  had 
served  his  Majesty  in  the  navy,  and  had  lost  limbs  or  been  disabled  in  the 
service.  The  provisions  of  the  charter  it  appeared  haci  not  been  complied 
with ;  but  it  was  not  the  object  of  his  bill  to  interfere  with  any  of  the 
existing  appointments  or  emoluments;  its  sole  purpose  being  to  provide 
that  the  charter  should  in  future  be  complied  with,  both  in  letter  and  in 
spirit.  .Another  part  of  his  bill  would  provide  for  a  public  saving,*  by  re- 
quiring persons  holding  such  offices  to  give  up  their  halt-pay.  His  bill  was 
also  to  extend  to  the  institution  of  the  Naval  Asylum,  which  had  been 
established  for  the  encouragement  of  the  naval  service :  and  if  ever  there 
had  been  a  time,  when  they  ought  to  do  every  thing  consistent  with  economy 
and  the  interest  of  the  service  for  that  object,  it  was  the  present.  These 
were  the  clau-es  which  he  intended  to  introduce  into  this  bill;  and  there 
was  also  another,  to  provide  that  the  bjll  should  not  extend  to  any  persons 
holding  offices  at  this  moment,  cither  in  the  Naval  Asylum  or  Greenwich 
Hospital,  though  it  was  to  provide,  that  in  future  no  persons  but  such  as 
had  served  a  certain  number  of  years  in  the  navy,  or  been  disabled  in  the 
service,  should  hold  any  office  in  either  establishment.  It  bad  also  been  hj& 

*  Sir  C.  Pole  was  twice  returned  member  for  Newark  ;    and  has  been 
twice  returned  for  Plymouth,  for  which  place  he  at  present  holds  his  seat, 

*  COBBETT'S  Debates,  Vol.  X.  page  97C. 

ol*  XXL  *  H 


274  MEMOIR    OP   THE    PUBLIC    SERVICES    O7 

intention  to  introduce  a  clause  to  provide,  that  all  sums  panted  for 
t'ic  use  of  Greenwich  Hospital,  should  be  paid  into  the  Bank  of  England;: 
but  as  he  understood  that  regulations  were  to  Be  adopted,  which  would 
render  that  clause  unnecessary,  Tie  should  not  press  it.  lie  therefore 
moved  for  leave  to  bring  in  a  bill  for  the  encouragement  of  his  Majesty7* 
naval  service,  by  regulating  the  appointment  to  officers  in  the  Naval  Asylum* 
and  in  Greenwich  Hospital. 

Mr.  Rose,  (Treasurer  of  the  Navy)  stated,  that  immediately  after  his 
appointment  to  the  office  he  then  held,  he  iiad  inquired  into  the  lacts  stated 
in  the  Report  of  the  Commissioners  of  Naval  Inquiry;  and  that  in  conse- 
quence of  the  representation  made  by  him  to  the  Admiralty,  prosecution* 
were  now  carrying  on  against  the  persons  who  had  l>cen  guilty-  of  wtalversw- 
tion  in  that  department.  But  having  said  this,  he  did-  not  think  that  the 
lion.  Baronet  had  made  out  any  case  to  induce  the  House  to  accede  to  his 
motion.  About  thirty  years  ago,  an  inquiry  had  been  made  into  the  state 
and  management  of  Greenwich  Hospital ;  but  no  legislative  enactment  wat 
thought  necessary.  There  were  various  offices,  such  as  that  of  Organist, 
Surveyor,  and  Architect,  which  persons  of  naval  education  would  not  be 
competent  to  fill*  The  Auditor  was  an  officer  who  required' a  competent 
skill  in  the  law.  The  noble  lord  who  now  held  that  office  had  succeeded 
Lord  Thurlow,  who  must  be  allowed  to  have  been  skilled  in  the  law. 
Besides,  the  revenues  of  the  Hospital  exceeded  760,0001.-  per  annum,  and 
the  receiver  would  require  other  qualifications  than  a  naval  education.  A» 
to  the  question  respecting  the  Naval  Asylum,  he  thought  that  the  Hoii. 
Baronet  would  do  well  to  wait  for  the  report  from  the  commissioners  oa 
that  head.  He  was  as  desirous  as  any  person,  that  none  bust  those  who 
had  served  in  the  navy,  should  be  employed  in  the  offices  of  that  institution, 

*  We  wonder  that  a  person  of  Mr.  Rose's  experience,  who  has  bee» 
acquainted  with  many  eminent  naval  characters;  and  from  his  situation  at 
Treasurer  of  the  Navy,  may  be  supposed  to  be  possessed,  of"  much  informa- 
tion on  such  a  subject,  should  have  advanced  such  an  opinion.  There  ace 
many  seamen,  who  from  having  been  in  the  various  bauds  belonging  to 
captains  of  ships,  possess  a  competent  knowledge  of  music,  and  would  cer- 
tainly fill  the  situation  of  Organist  with-  credit  ;  or  if  none  could  be  found 
amongst  the  common  men,  there  doubtless  might  amongst  superannuated 
•midshipmen,  or  even  the  lieutenants.  Some  of  our  great  Architects^  who 
have  figured  away  and  amassed  great  riches  in  the  fashionable  world,  hate 
been  carpenters ;  and  we  see  no  reason  why  lull  as  able  men  might  not  ba 
found  amongst  our  very  skilful  ship  carpenters,  when  they  arc  worn  out,  or 
liave  had  their  health  injured  in  the  service  of  their  country.  Many  of  tliiB 
masters  in  the  navy,  who  greatly  demand  attention,  would  make  excellent 
Hurvfi/ors.  Naval  situations  should  undoubtedly,  in^  point  of  justice,  he 
always  occupied  by  naval  men  ;  and  with  all  our  respect  for  the  HOIK  G. 
Rose,  we  think  that  the  situation  of  Treasurer  of  the.  Navy  should  be 
expressly  given  to  some  eminent  naval  servant  of  his  country.  Sir 
Nepean,  and  man;  others,  would  fill  it  wilh  jyeat  credit^ 


ADMHlAL    SIR    C.    M.    ?O1E,    BABT.    M.P.  275 

for  which  they  would  be  qualified ;  and  if,  when  the  regulations  of  tiie  com- 
missioner* should  he  produced,  the  Hon.  Baronet  should  not  be  satisfied 
with  them,  it  would  be  perfectly  competent  to  him  to  move  for  such  a 
measure  as  the  present. 

"  Mr.  Wliitbreud  was  of  opinion,  that  -many  musical  persons  were  disa- 
bled in  the  navy,  who  might  be  competent  to  the  office  of  Organist ;  and 
observed,  that  the  Right  Hon.  Gentleman  who  had  just  sat  down,  and 
another  Gentleman,  a  member  of  that  House,  were  proofs  that  a  naval 
education  did  not  vender  persons  unfit  for  such  offices  as  those  he  had  men- 
tioned At  any  rate  scctfuring  men  7iiigkt  /told  sinecure  offices  as  veil  as  any 
»!hcr  description  of  persone  ;  and  -it  appeared  that  the  barber  of  the  Hos- 
pital, Mr.  Henry  Clew,  a  Swiss,  employed  six  deputies,  and  derived  an 
income  of  1501.  per  annum  from  his  office,  without  any  duty  to  perform, 
bnt  the  superintendence  of  the  shaving  of  the  pensioners.  He  highly 
•praised  the  labours  of  the  Naval  .Commissioners,  and  of  the  Hon.  B:»ronet 
in  particular,  and  he  was  decidedly  of  opinion,  I/tut  no  person  should  be 
ailowed  to  hotd  any  office  in  either  the  Naval  Asylum,  or  Greenwich  Hos- 
Jh'ul,  wh'.i  a- 1 is  not  a  seafaring  mati. 

"  Mr.  Lwkiiurt  regretted  that  the  Hon.  Baronet  had  connected  the  two 
.establishments,  which  were  so  different  in  their  object  and  nature.  The 
Naval  Asylum  had  been  instituted  by  public  spirited  persons,  as  strongly 
attached  to  the  naval  service  as  the  Hon.  Baronet,  who  had  subscribed  a 
sum  of  50,0001.  for  the  establishment.  The  proposal  of  the  Hon.  Baronet 
went  to  shew  a  distrust  that  men  having  acted  under  such  motives,  would 
not  make  regulations  for  ks  management  in  the  same  spirit.  Such  distrust 
might  excite  discontent  in  the  navy,  and  a  lukevvarmness  in  those  who  had 
originated  and  promoted  the  institution.  The  commissioners  were  coin- 
j  .'•••  :i  of  17  gentlemen  of  the  navy,  and  11  who  had  not  been  of  that  pro- 
fcssion.  The  latter  could  not  dictate  anv  thing  inimical  to  the  interests  of 
the  navy;  ond  he  therefore  thought  that  those  who  had  framed  the  institu- 
tion in  favour  of  the  navy,  should  not  be  deprived  of  their  influence  upon  it 
ky  the  vote  of  the  Hon.  Baronet. 

"  3J.r.  pontonby  observed,  that  the  arguments  employed  applied  only  to 
that  part  of  the  motion  which  concerned  the  Naval  Asylum,  and  not 
against  that  which  applied  -to  the  carrying  into  effect  the  charter  of  Grcei> 
wirh  Hospital.  That  charter  had,  k  appeared,  been  departed  from,  and 
therefore  there  was  a  necessity  for  the  interference  of  Parliament.  He 
suggested  to  the  Hon.  Baronet,  whether  he  ought  not  to  separate  the  ob- 
jects of  his  bill,  and  move,  Jn  the  first  instance,  for  a  bill  to  regulate 
Greenwich  Hospital;  and  afterwards,  if  it  should  be  necessary,  bring  for- 
ward si  motion  to  regulate  the  Naval  Asylum. 

Sir  C.  Pole  acceded  tojhe  suggestion  of  the  Right  Hon.  Gentleman,  and 
«onfmcd  his  motion  to  the  first  object. 

"  The  CfunicelLn-  nf  the.  Exchequer,  as  the  question  had  been  narrowed, 
should  then  only  say,  with  respect  to  the  Naval  Asylum,  that  it  v/ould  be 
competent  to  the  Hon.  Baronet  to  move  an  address  to  his  Majesty  for  the 
regulations  of  the  comm'» -loners,  and  to  make  the  or  the  subject  of  any  tup. 


276  MEMOIR    OF    THE    PUBLIC    SEIlVICtS    OF 

ther  proceeding  be  might  think  necessary.  But  as  to  the  remaining  part  of 
his  motion,  he  did  not  think  the  House  could  agree  to  it,  without  having  the 
charter  of  the  Hospital  before  it.  It  was  as  much  the  duty  of  the  trustees, 
under  the  charter,  to  correct  any  abuses  that  might  exist,  as  it  would  if  an 
act  of  Parliament  were  to  pass  for  the  purpose.  But  the  question  was, 
whether  it  would  be  desirable,  if  only  a  single  candidate,  who  had  been  con- 
nected with  the  navy,  should  offer  for  an  oftice,  who  might  not  be  as  well 
qualified  as  other  candidates,  that  any  peremptory  order  for  his  appoint- 
ment should  be  enacted.  He  contended  that  there  was  no  necessity  for  an 
act  of  Parliament.  The  Hon.  Baronet  himself  had  been,  whilst  in  the 
office  of  a  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  in  a  situation  to  correct  these  abuses,  and 
if  he  had  not  done  so,  it  was  not  a  matter  of  blame  to  him,  as  he  had. 
followed  the  course  pursued  by  his  predecessors;  and  if  any  mischief  had 
arisen,  it  must  have  been  only  from  inadvertency  on  his  part.  The  House 
lie  was  sure  would  not  accede  to  the  motion,  until  it  should  have  the  charter 
of  the  Hospital  before  it. 

"  Sir  John  Nezrport  contended,  that  every  statement  of  the  Right  Hon. 
Gentleman  shewed  the  necessity  of  the  bill.  As  abuses  existed,  it  was 
highly  necessary  that  an  act  of  Parliament  should  be  made  to  correct  them. 
And  many  of  the  trustees  would  be  glad  to  be  protected  against  the  appli- 
cations of  their  frie'nds,  by  the  provisions  of  an  act  of  Parliament.  The 
IJon.  Baronet  appeared  to  him  to  deserve  the  thanks  of  the  House  and  the 
country,  fur  his  accurate  attention  to  the  interests  of  a  profession  to  which 
he  was  an  ornament;  and  as  to  the  unfitness  of  naval  men  for  the  offices  in 
the  Hospital,  he  never  could  forget  that  the  late  Lord  Chancellor  hud  been 
in  that  profession. 

"  Mr.  Pole  Curew  contended,  that  either  there  were  rules  in  the  charter 
requiring  persons  holding  offices  to  be  seafaring  men,  or  there  were  not  ; 
and  that  in  either  case  it  would  be  necessary  for  the  House  to  interfere,  to 
ailow  qualified  persons  to  be  appointed,  or  to  prevent  persons  not  qualified 
from  being  appointed. 

"  Admiral  Sir  John  Ord  could  not  agree  to  the  motion,  as  he  thought  it 
could  neither  be  consistent  with  justice,  nor  promote  the  advanlai>es  of  the 
institution,  to  take  it  out  of  the  hands  of  t lie  trustees, 

"  Sir  F.  Burdctt  was  extremely  surprised  at  the  opposition  given  to 
this  bill,  which  was  to  remedy  gross  abuses  acknowledged  to  be  existing. 
All  that  had  been  said,  applied  solely  to  the  bill,  the  exceptionable  parts 
of  which,  if  any,  might  be  left  out.  The  principal  object  he  had  in  rising, 
was  to  thank  the  lion.  Baronet  for  the  course  he  was  pursuing  in  spite  of 
all  obstacles.  He  could  not  suppose  that  the  House  could  object  to  the 
introduction  of  the  bill,  because  no  negative  had  been  given  to  the  state- 
ment of  the  Hon.  Baronet.  He  never  had  been  more  astonished,  than  at 
the  frivolous  objections  which  had  been  made  to  the  motion.  The  object 
of  the  bill  was  to  inflict  a  penalty  on  those  who  should  violate  the  pi  ^visions 
of  the  charter;  and  he  did  hope  that  the  House  would  never  come  to  any 
determination  that  would  preclude  the  Hon.  Baronet  from  bringing  forward 
his  bill.  A  division  then  look  place— For  the  motion,  52— .Against  it,  78. 
Majority,  2o." 


.   M-    POLE,    BAjaT.    M,P.  277 

This  measure  of  Sir  Charles  Pole  being  thus  defeated,  Ije  sooa 
afterwards  proposed,  and  carried  an  address  to  his  Majesty,  pray, 
jug,  he  would  be  pleased  to  dirept,  that  the  charter  of  Greenwich 
Hospital  should  be  so  amended,  or  a  new  charter  drawn,  which 
might  prevent  the  recurrence  of  abuses  now  complained  of.  The 
following  is  what  passed  on  that  occasion  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, March  22  (18Q8)  :— 

"  Sir  C.  Pole,  pursuant  to  notice,  called  the  attention  of  the  House  to 
some  appointments  on  the  establishment  of  Greenwich  Hospital,  in  which 
due  regard  was  not  had,  to  the  preference  that  ought  to  be  shewn  to  per- 
sons who  had  served  in  the  navy.  He  cited  all  the  commissions  relative  t9 
Greenwich  Hospital,  from  the  first  under  William  and  Mary,  to  shew  that 
such  a  preference  ought  always  to  be  given  ;  and  concluded  with  moving  an 
address  to  his  Majesty,  praying,  that  he  would  be  graciously  pleased  to  gir« 
directions,  that  all  appointments  belonging  to  the  said  Hospital,  should 
henceforth  be  filled  with  persons  who  had  served  in  the  navy. 

"  The  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  said,  it  must  be  the  object  of  .every 
one  to  promote  as  much  as  possible  what  the  Hon.  Baronet  was  desirous  to 
accomplish.  But  there  were  offices,  for  which  persons  properly  qualified 
could  not  be  found  in  the  navy,  such  as  Clerk  of  the  Works,  who  should  be 
an  architect;  Auditor,  who  should  be  a  lawyer;  Organist,  Brewer,  Clerk 
of  the  Cheque,  Surveyor,  and  other?.  Wich  these  exceptions,  lie  thought 
110  other  office  should  be  filled  otherwise  than  from  the  navy;  except  when 
after  a  months  notice  in  the  newspapers,  no  naval  person  should  present 
himself  with  proper  qualifications  to  fill  the  office  vacant.  He  should  pro- 
pose an  amendment,  adopting  the  Hon.  Baronet's  idea,  with  this  limitation; 
and  he  should,  in  the  event  of  the  amendment  being  adopted,  propose  an 
address  to  his  Majesty,  praying  that  he  would  cause  a  corresponding  altera- 
tion to  be  made  in  the  charter  of  Greenwich  Hospital. 

After  some  observations  from  Mr.  Whitbread,  Mr.  Rose,  Mr.  N.  Calvert, 
and  Mr.  R.  Ward,  Sir  C.  Pole  agreed  to  the  exceptions  proposed  by  the 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  and  the  motions  were  passed  accordingly."* 

."  House  of  Commons,  April  Jl.t— Sir  Charles  Pole  rose,  in  pursuance  of 
his  notice,  to  move  a  certain  Resolution  relative  to  the  Royal  Naval  Asylum, 
somewhat  similar  to  that  which  he  had  lately  proposed  as  to  Greenwich 
Hospital.  He  knew  it  would  be  objected  to  what  he  was  about  to  propose, 
that  this  charitable  institution  had  been  originally  supported  by  private 
voluntary  donations;  but  it  appeared  to  him  to  be  now  under  the  immediate 
management  of  government,  the  more  especially  as  Parliament  had  been 
cailed^on  to  vote  considerable  sums  of  money  for  its  support.  No  doubt 
the  private  donations  from  other  individuals  were  very  important;  but  still 

*  COBBETX'S  DEBATES,  Vol.  X.  page  1243.         i  Ibid.  Vol.  XI.  page  3. 


178  MEM01U   OF   THE   PUBLIC   SEAT  ICES   Of 

there  appeared  no  reason  for  separating  its  mode  of  management  from  that 
p{  Greenwich  Hospital,  as  described  in  the  charter.  Here  the  IIoiv 
Baronet  gave  a  statement  of  the  post  important  public  and  private  contrir 
billions  to  this  Asylum,  lie  observed,  that  a  very  large-  portion  of  that 
called  prhate  contribution,  was  given  from  the  Patriotic  Fund,  which  was 
avowedly  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  the  distresses  of  the  relations  of  thosa 
xvho  fell  in  the  naval  battles  of  their  country.  '  Surely,  then,'  heexclaimeo^ 
*  the  offices  of  this  charitable  and  naval  institution  could  not  be  better 
bestowed  than  upon  those  who  had  survived  these  battles,  but  unfortunately 
were  disabled.  The  sum  subscribed  by  the  Patriotic  Fund  amounted  to 
40,0001.  and  such  being  the  intention  of  that  fund,  it  surely  never  could  be 
supposed,  that  other  persons  subscribing  small  sums,  could  mean  that  their 
donations  should  be  bestowed  otherwise,  than  upon  individuals  connected 
•with  the  navy.  They  could,  never  imagine,  that  they  were  subscribing 
towards  the  relief  of  persons,  such  as  those  already  appointed  to  offices  in 
that  Asylum,  who  were  as  far  removed  from  the  naval  service  as  Jhe  Great 
.Mogul.  The  House  was  formerly  told,  that  the  office  of  Auditor  of  Green- 
\vich  Hospital  must  be  filled  by  a  lawyer,  that  Hospital  possessing  great 
sugar  estates,  and  also  great  estates  of  other  descriptions  in  the  north  ;  but 
in  the  present  case,  what  was  there  of  law  business  to  transact  for  the 
Naval  Asylum.  It  was  not,  however,  a  lawyer  that  had  been  appointed  to 
the  As\lum,  but  a  wealthy  clergyman,  who,  for  doing  little  or  nothing,  was 
to  enjoy,  in  addition  to  other  incoine,  a  salary  of  3001.  a  year  as  Auditor. 
Besides  which,  he  was  to  possess  a  free  house  and  garden,  and  a  very  large 
sum  of  money  had  been  laid  out  in  repairing  a  house  for  his  residence, 
amounting,  he  believed,  to  about  1,7001.  and  added  to  ajl  this,  even  furni? 
ture  to  the  house.  I  really,  Sir,  am  convinced  the  duties  of  the  office  I 
allude  to,  might  be  performed  by  some  poor  worn  out  or  disabled  naval  qr 
marine  officer,  at  a  salary  less  than  1001.  a  year ;  but  instead  of  this,  no 
less  than  7001.  was  thus  squandered  away  upon  a  spiritual  gentleman,  who 
had  no  occasion  for  any  assistance  whatever.  Another  thing  he  should  obr 
ject  to  upon  this  establishment,  was,  the  appointment  of  a  surgeon,  u'/io  had 
«ewr  been  at  sea  during  his  life,  and  inducing  him  by  a  great  salary,  to  give 
up  his  private  practice,  instead  of  appointing  a  naval  surgeon,  who  would, 
lie  less  expensive,  and  more  thankful  for  the  favour  bestowed  upon  him. 
There  were  various  other  appointments,  which  he  thought  objectionable, 
such  as  the  Clerk  of  the  Institution,  the  Clerk  of  Instructions,  &c.  but 
the  rhief  ones  were  those  I  have  mentioned,  the  Auditor  and  Surgeon.  I 
have  no  difficulty,  Sir,  in  saving,  that  the  persons  who  have  appointed  an 
Irish  clergyman  to  the  office  of  Auditor  of  the  Nava!  Asylum,  have  done 
wrong,  if  they  knew  that  he  was  already  possessed  of  four  church  livings  in 
Ireland,  and  a  glebe  land  so  extensive  as  to  contain  540  Irish  acres.  The 
gentleman  he  alluded  to  was  Dr.  Thomas  Brooke  Clarke,  to  whom  besides 
there  had  been  granted  several  very  large  sums,  by  resolutions  of  the  House, 
as  might  be  seen  by  their  journals.'  (Here  certain  resolutions  were  read 
by  the  clerk  at  the  desire  of  the  Hon.  Baronet.  Amongst  these  was  the 
'sum  of  5561.  grautcd  to  Dr.  Tljomas  Brooke  Clarke,  fur  his  trouble  in  en* 


ADMIRAL  siu  c.  M.  POLE,  BAIIT.  nr.p.  97$ 

Jtfrcing  tks  residence  of  the  Clergyi  whilst  he  himself  hi 'ended  lo  establish 
hi*  residence  at  tlit  N&vai  Asylum,  instead  of  biing  at  air/  <f  liis  li;-i:igs  in 
Ireland.)  Had  all  this  been  known,  continued  Sir  Charles,  when  thii 
reverend  divine  was  rccommeiuled,  I  certainly  do  thin!;  he  could  not  have 
been  appointed  to  that  .lucrative  situation".  There  are  many  of  the  old 
disabled  oriicers  of  the  navy,  with  lar^e  families,  who  would  have  been  most 
thankful  and  grateful  for  the  appointments  of  Auditor,  Surgeon,  or  Clerks 
to  the  Institution.  I  shall  now,  Sir,  sit  down,  with  the  hope  that  the  Reso- 
lution which  I  shall  propose  may  meet  with  some  consideration;  for  in  doing 
this  we  are  saving  the  public  money,  and  adding  to  the  comforts  of  those 
really  entitled  to  relief,  and  who  would  ever  be  grateful  for  the  favour 
bestowed.-  It  is  with  this  view  that  I  propose  this  Resolution — That  it  ap- 
pears to  this  House,  that  the  ajipointinent  of  competent  and  qualified  pcrsunt 
from  the  naval  and  marine  service,  to  hold  offices  and  employment*  in  the 
ttterul  departments  of  the  Royal  Naval  Asylum,  will  le.  productive  vf  much 
advantage,  to  the  empire,  by  materially  encouraging  tite  naral  service,  and 
diminishing  the  public  expenditure. — This  Resolution  the  Hon.  Baronet  said, 
if  acceded  to,  he  should  follow  up  with  another,  for  an  address  to  hi* 
Majesty,  praying  that  he  would  be  graciously  pleased  to  take  the  most  sum- 
mary ineaus  of  carrying  that  object  into  effect." — After  a  long  debate  the 
H.OUSC  divided,  for  the  Resolution,  46,  against  it,  78.  Majority,  25. 

Previous  to  the  debate*  on  the  Rochfort  squadron  (May  9th, 
I  SOS)  which  succeeded  what  had  passed  in  the  House  ou  the  samo 
evening,  respecting  the  expedition  to  the  Dardanelles,  Sir  Charles 
Pole  had  shewn  a  laudable  anxiety  for  the  fame  of  a  brother 
officer,  by  observing,  That  the  question  respecting  the  Rochfort 
squadron,  ought  not  to  be  brought  on  in  the  absence  of  S/r 
H.  Strachan,  or  of  some  person  qualified  and  authorised  lo  defend. 
his  conduct,  as  far  at  it  might  be  implicated  in  the  question. 
Mr.  Calcraft,  in  rising  to  bring  forward  the  motion  of  which  he 
had  given  notice,  declared  that  nothing  was  more  distant  from  his 
intention,  than  to  throw  out  the  slightest  reflection  upon  the  con- 
duct of  Sir  Richard  Strachan,  for  whose  character  both  as  a  naval 
officer  and  a  man,  he  entertained  the  highest  veneration;  and 
nothing  which  had  fallen  from  the  Right  Hon.  Baronet  went  to 
impute  to  him  any  such  intention.  All  that  the  Hon.  Baronet  had 
said  was,  that  the  testimony  of  Sir  R.  Strachan  would  be  very 
material  in  guiding  the  decision  of  the  House  upon  the  question 
which  he  was  now  bringing  before  it,  and  in  this  he  perfectly  agreed 
with  him.  After  going  at  large  into  the  state  of  Sir  R.  Strachan's 
squadron,  as  to  iis  means  not  only  of  remaining  on  the  blockading 

*  COLBBTT'S  Debates,  Vol.  XI.  page  13?. 


28O  WEMOItl    Ot    filt    PUBLIC    SEUTICES    Of 

service  on  which  it  had  been  employed,  but  also  of  following  ff?« 
enemy  ;  Mr.  Calcraft  declared  that  Sir  R.  Strachan  wds  reduced  to 
such  distress  for  provisions,  that  instead  of  addressing  his  letters, 
as  he  had  been  in  the  habit  of  doing,  lo  Lord  Gardner,  lie  wrote 
directly  to  the  Admiralty,  to  make  his  distress  knoivrn  to  that 
Board  j  a  state  of  distress  to  which  lie  could  not  IUITC  been  reduced 
tvithout  the  grossest  negligence  in  that  department  of  government. 
Mr.  CaJcraft,  after  fully  discussing  this  subject,  moved  fire  Resolu- 
tions, rising  out  of  the  question  he  had  brought  forward.  When, 
after  Mr.  Wellesley  Pole  had  spoken  in  defence  of  the  conduct  of 
the  Admiralty,  and  been  called  to  order  by  Mr.  Tierney,  for 
offering  to  read  a  paper  not  regularly  before  the  House,  and  Mr. 
"VV.  Pole  had  replied, 

"  Sir  Charles  Pole  arose, — He  totally  differed  from  the  Hon.  Gentleman 
who  had  just  sat  down,  both  as  to  the  facts  themselves,  and  the  inferences 
which  he  drew  from  them.  He  read  extracts  from  many  different  letters  on 
the  tahle,  by  which  he  shewed  that  the  fleet  off  Ilochfort  was  very  badly 
provided,  and  could  not  have  followed  the  enemy  more  than  three  or  four 
days.  The  power  of  despatching  ships  to  relieve  Sir  R.  Strachan,  it  wa& 
plain,  was  not  vested  in  Lord  Gardner;  else  he  surely  would  not  have  sent 
oiF  five  different  and  anxious  letters  to  the  Admiralty  on  the  subject,  lie 
read  extracts  from  a  letter  dated  11th  of  December,  stating  to  the  Admi- 
ralty the  distress  of  the  fleet,  which  letter  was  answered  by  the  Admiralty 
on  the  18th,  sending  a  supply  of  provisions  in  one  victualling  ship : 
although  this  ship  was  intended  for  the  supply  of  three  squadrons,  namely, 
that  off  L 'Orient,  off  Ferrol  and  Ilochfort,  yet  she  did  not  convey  more  than 
sixteen  days  bread  for  the  line-of-battle  ships  off  Ilochfort  alone.  He  said, 
if  every  pound  of  bread  which  had  been  so  sent,  had  been  received  by  the 
Ilochfort  fleet  alone,  it  would  not  have  put  it  in  a  situation  to  follow  the 
enemy.  Such  inattention  on  the  part  of  the  Admiralty  was  the  greatest 
blow  England  could  receive,  as  it  would  be  the  greatest  triumph  the  enemy 
could  obtain.  That  day  was  perilous  to  us  indeed,  when  we  found  our- 
selves unable  to  furnish  seven  sail  of  the  line  sufficiently  to  keep  their  sta- 
tion. He  could  not  conceive  what  was  meant  by  sending  one  store-ship  out 
to  supply  such  a  fleet  with  bread,  wine,  and  water.  He  could  not  foretel 
what  would  be  the  decision  of  the  House,  but  he  knew  well  what  would  be 
the  sense  of  the  country  on  such  conduct.  The  House  might  divide  threo 
to  one  in  its  favour,  but  the  nation  would  not  be  a  whit  the  more  con- 
•unced.  He  then  read  an  extract  from  a  letter  to  the  Board  of  Admiralty, 
dated  the  loth  December,  in  which  it  was  declared,  that  the  fleet  was  in 
total  waut  both  of  sails,  water,  and  every  other  necessary  with  which  a  fleet 
should  be  provided.  In  consequence  of  such  a  situation,  Sir  Richard 
Strac'lmn  was  compelled  to  quit  his  anchorage,  to  look  out  for  victuallers. 
"What  was  the  event?  The  enemy,  taking  the  advantage  of  his  absence^ 


AHMIUAf.    SIR    C.    M.    POLE,    BAUT.    M.P*  281 

escaped  out  of  Rochforr,  which  tliev  never  could  have  done,  nor  would 
have  attempted,  had  Sir  Richard  heen  sufficiently  provided  to  have  kept  his 
station  in  Basque  Road*.  At  length,  however,  lie  did  obtain  a  supply  of' 
340  tons  oi' water,  which  exactly  provided  his  fleet  for  26  days;  and  although 
he  admitted  that  the  Superb  and  Colossus  further  increased  his  store,  stiil 
they  did  not  so  increase  it,  as  to  enable  him  to  pursue  the  enemy  with 
safety.  On  the  2Cth  the  Admiralty  had  an  acknowledgment  from  the  fleet 
of  23  days  bread,  45  days  water,  and  24  days  wine;  this  supply  added  to 
the  former  supplies,  made  a  total  of  right  weeks  and  three  days  provisions; 
awd  he  would  ask,  was  that  a  sufficiency  for  a  pursuit,  for  instance,  to  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  ? — The  present  Board  of  Admiralty  might  be  actuated 
by  as  pure  and  praise-worthy  a  zeal  as  possible;  but  he  lamented  their 
talents  were  not  equal  to  their  zeal.  He  said  as  to  Sir  Richard  StrachanV 
squadron  quitting  Basque  Roads,  he  believed  there  was  a  reason  for  it,  but 
too  serious  for  him  to  state  in  that  House.  As  to  the  transports  which  it 
had  been  stated  were  sent  to  relieve  the  squadron,  although  three  had  been, 
sent,  still  but  one  arrived.  He  complained  loudly  of  the  mischief  which 
would  ensue,  from  keeping  ships  at  sea  on  urgent  duty,  waiting  for  the 
arrival  of  transports ;  they  should  be  so  situated  as  totally  to  feel  abova 
contingencies;  but  here  so  fatal  was  the  adoption  of  a  contrary  course,  that 
even  had  our  blockading  admiral  seen  the  fleet  which  he  blockaded  standing 
out  to  sea  on  the  21st  of  January,  he  could  not  have  chased  them  twenty 
leagues  from  land !  From  the  very  weekly  accounts  laid  upon  the  table  for 
the  perusal  of  the  country,  it  appeared  that  there  was  at  that  time  on  board 
the  fleet,  only  bread  for  1 6'days,  and  water  for  25  days  ! — The  Hon.  Baronet  - 
declared  he  did  not  wish  idly  to  declaim  against  the  measures  of  any  man, 
or  set  of  men,  but  he  solemnly  did  assert,  that  had  a  charge  of  the  nature 
of  this  inquiry,  been  brought  before  a  court  martial,  with  no  other  justifica- 
tion than  what  the  papers  on  the  table  of  the  House  offered,  he  shouid  have 
no  hesitation  in  deciding  on  his  oath,  that  the  British  squadron  otfRochfort 
had  not  been  supplied  in  the  manner  in  which  the  exigency  of  the  service 
required,  and  the  safety  of  the  country  demanded.  He  could  not  conceive 
how  men  could  bring  themselves  lo  sport  thus  with  the  feelings  of  a  gallant 
and  deserving  officer.  What  must  those  feelings  have  been,  when,  after 
all  his  hope,  his  anxiety,  and  fatigue,  he  had  seen  the  French  stealing  out  of 
llochfort,  unable  to  follow  and  defeat  them  from  the  unmerited  neglect 
with  which  he  had  been  treated.  The  arrival  of  the  Colossus  and  Superb, 
had,  however,  been  much  dwelt  upon  ;  and  after  all,  even  when  they 
divided  their  supplies  among  the  fleet,  what  provision  had  it  ?  Exactly  seven 
days  bread,  63  days  wine  and  spirits,  and  40  days  water!  He  was  ashamed 
to  take  up  the  time  and  trouble  of  the  House  in  detailing  such  broad  and 
simple  facts  as  these,  when  in  truth  any  observation  on  the  subject  was  ren- 
dered quite  unnecessary,  by  the  able  statement  of  the  Hon.  Gentleman  who 
opened  the  debate.  This  was  a  question  to  which  the  House  should  give 
all  its  attention.  It  involved  the  dearest  interests,  of  the  country,  whose 
•afety  was  identified  with  the  welfare  of  the  fleet.  As  to  the  new  system 
which  the  Hon.  Gentleman  (Mr.  Yv .  Pole)  had  broached  to-night,  he  was  . 

/Rat!,  fffcron.  tBof,  XXI.  o  o 


282  MEMOHl    OF   THE    PUBLIC    SERVICED  OP 

sorry  to  see  any  such  attempted;  if  its  effects  were  to  be  the  allowing  a  sliip 
to  remain  at  sea  for  eleven  months,  and  when  she  had  remained  at  home 
only  as  many  days,  sending  her  out  again — if  such  were  to  be  its  effects,  he 
disclaimed  and  denounced  such  a  measure :  the  name  of  the  ship  so  treated 
•was  the  Defiance.  He  deprecated  leaving  ships  so  long,  and  so  ill  provided' 
at  sea,  for  such  a  length  of  time..  He  did  not  profess  himself  friendly  to- 
a  vote  of  censure  on  the  Admiralty,  however  ho  might  have  thought  them 
inefficient;  before  such  a  measure  was  adopted,  evidence  should  be  heard 
tit  the  bar  of  the  House;  and  then,  and  not  until  then,  a-censure  could  be 
warrantably  passed  on  so  public  and  respectable  a  Board ;  but  what  must 
the  squadron  off  Rochfort  think,  what  must  be  the  feelings  of  the  whole 
British  fleet,  and  of  the  country  at  large,  when  an  impartialand  temperate 
examination  of  the  papers  laid  on  the  table  of  the  House  by  the  Admiralty, 
proved,  that  the  blockading  squadron  had  been  cruelly  neglected?  And 
admitting  for  the  sake  of  argument,  that  every  pound)  of  bread,  and  every 
gallon  of  wine,  and  spirits,  which  reached  Sir  Richard  Straohan  before  the 
departure  of  the  French  squadron,,  had  been  correctly  distributed,  still  ic 
WRS  most  notorious,  that  the  British  squadron  would  not  have  been  in  astute 
to  have  followed  the  enemy.'' 

After  a  speech  from  Mr.  Ward  in  defence  of  the  Board,  Mr. 
G.  Ponsonby  closed  the  debate  by  observing,  That  the  Resolution 
went  to  say,  that  Sir  R.  Strachan  was  not  supplied  with  provisions, 
and  that  was  proved  by  the  documents  ou  the  table  beyond  a 
question.  Mr.  Ponsonby  concluded  a  very  spirited  speech  by 
declaring,  that  he  did  not  charge  the  Board  of  Admiralty  with  in- 
tentional neglect,  but  he  charged  them  with  want  of  judgment.— 
The  House  then  divided  on  the  previous  question. — Ayes^  146. 
Noes,  69.  Majority  against  the  Resolution,  77. 

In  the  same  session  this  indefatigable  guardian  of  the  welfare  of 
the  British  navy,  on  the  14th  of  June,  1808,  endeavoured  to  call 
the  attention  of  the  House  of  Commons  to  the  office  of  King's 
Proctor;  and  moved  an  adiltess  to  his*  Majesty,  praying,  that  he 
would  appoint  two  or  more  proctors,  in  order  that  the  naval  service 
might  have  an  option.  y  The  following  is  the  speech  which  he  made- 
on  that  occasion  : — 

"  He  declared,*  thnt  ke  rose  in  pursuance  of  the  notice  which  he  had 
given,  to  call  the  attention  of  the  House  and  the  country  to  the  mode  of  coiv 
ducting  the  business  of  the  jiavy  in  the  High  Court  of  Admiralty.  It  was  a 
subject  which  he  had  considered  of  the  first  importance  tO'  his  Majesty's 
naval  service,  and  on  which  he  had  more  than  once  endeavoured  to  express 
iis  sentiments  to  the  House,  ami  to  urge  ancl  pray  for  amendment;  but  he 
was  sorry  to  say,  the  influence  which  the  Right  Hon.  and  Hon.  Member 

*  COBBHTI'S  Debates,  Vol.  II.  page  8vO. 


AUMIRAL    Sill    C.    M.    frOLT,    BART.    M.P.  283 

<«onnected  whli  that  Court  possessed,  had  hitherto  effectually  prevented  the 
alteration  required.  Yet  thisshould  not  deter  him  from  exerting  his  utmost 
to  correct  evils  which  were  notorious,  and  which  must  continue  to  exist 
whilst  the  Court  was-conducted  as  at  present. — It  was  his  intention  to  move 
two  Resolutions,  the  one  purporting  that 'the  duties  of  the  King's  Proctor, 
or  Procurator  General  were  so  numerous,  that  no  one  perion  was  equal  to 
discharge  them;  tl>e  other  that  an  humble  address  be  presented  to  his 
Majesty,  praying  that  he  would  appoint  three  or  more  persons  to  be 
employed  as  Proctors  in  the  High  Court  of  Admiralty,  and  High  Court  of 
Appeal.  It  would  require  little  argument  to  satisfy  any  impartial  mind, 
with  the  necessity  of  these  Resolutions,  without  meaning  to  cast  the  smallest 
censure  on  the  character  of  the  individual  who  held  the  office  of  proctor,  or 
those  connected  with  him.  On  the  -contrary,  he  was  ready  to  give  them 
due  credit  for  exerting  themselves  to  the  utmost ;  but  the  business  of  that 
Court  was  so  increased  since  the  establishment  of  one  proctor  was  deemed 
sufficient,  that  it  was  impossible  it  could  be  executed  in  a  manner  to  do 
justice  to  the  individuals  in  his  Majesty's  navy.  Great  delays,  enormous 
charges,  and  injustice,  must  be  the  natural,  and  is  the  actual  consequence. 
In  the  course  of  the  last  four  years,  more  than  3000  ships  have  beea 
;libelled  by  the  King's  Proctor;  on  an  average,  each  of  those  ships  may  be 
5aid  to  produce  three  distinct  causes,  which  would  encrease  them  to  9000. 
Be  it  always  remembered  by  the  House,  that  the  whole  of  what  he  was  now 
stating,  and  about  to  state,  is  the  special  duty  of  the  King's  Proctor,  ztr.'io  is 
.exclusively  employed  for  the  whole  navy  of  England  in  all  matters  of  prize, 
.•besides  all  cases  in  uliich  the  interest  of  Ids  Majesty  is  agitated ;  in  all 
appeals  to  the  privi/  council,  as  well  a$  in  all  memorials  and  reports :  the 
number  of  appeal  cases  in  the  last  four  years  have  not  been  less  than  500, 
.all  of  which  are  under  his  immediate  direction,  and  on  many  of  them  very  in- 
.tricate  and  diilicult  questions  arise;  the  papers  upon  the  table  of  the  House 
shew  the  number  of  ships  Hbelled  in  the  last  four  years  by  the  King's  proc- 
,tor,  are  above  3000  ;  there  are  other  papers  on  the  table  which  shew  the 
-amount  of  the  proctor's  bills  on  ships  condemned  as  droits.  If  Gentlejnen 
will  take  the  trouble  to  average  those  bills,  they  will  find  them  to  give -an 
average  of  951.  on  each  case;  but  faking  the  average  profit  of  the  proctor's 
bill  at  less  than  a  moiety  of  that  sum,  the  .500  appeal  cases  at  an  average  of 
1001.  would  produce  a  sum  which  he  was  satisfied  the  House  would  deem 
sufficient  for  at  least  three  or  foqr  King's  proctors.  To  the  cases  of  ships 
libelled,  and  appeals  to  the  privy  council,  must  be  added  the  numerous  list 
of  memorials  and  reports,  which  make  a  large  portion  of  the  profits  of  the 
office.  But  it  was  not  the  enormity  of  the  sum  that  he  so  much  objected 
.to,  it  was  the  impossibility  of  justice  being  rendered  to  the  British  navy,  by 
the  system  now  persevered  in,  that  induced  him  to  offer  his  Resolutions  ; 
and  if  he  were  not  so  fortunntu  as  to  succeed  this  day,  he  still  flattered  him- 
self the  period  was  not  far  oiF,  when  his  Majesty's  government  would  see 
the  necessity  of  revising  this  Court.  He  was  aware  he  should  be  told,  that 
vessels  captured  by  men  of  war,  did  not  belong  to  the  captors,  but  to  the 
erovvn,$  therefore  his  Resolution  and- Address  were. an  improper  iitter£erciu» 


281  MLMOIK    OF    THE    1'DBLIC    SERVICES    01' 

with  the  prerogative.  Most  sincerely  should  he  regret  such  an  objection  to 
rendering  justice  to  a  most  valuable  portion  of  his  Majesty's  subjects.  The 
delays  and  cxpences  of  the  Admiralty  Court,  and  the  numerous  evils  and 
abuses  which  have  occurred,  were  so  well  known  to  almost  every  individual 
connected  with  the  navy,  that  he  had  not  troubled  the  House  with  a  long  list 
of  them  in  detad,  meaning  to  rest  the  expediency  of  his  motion  on  what 
must  be  obvious  to  every  impartial  man,  in  or  out  of  that  House  ;  namely, 
the  impossibility  of  one  Proctor  executing  the  duties  allotted  to  him.  He  had 
uever  been  able  to  collect  any  substantial  objection  to  the  appointment  by 
Lis  Majesty  of  three  or  more  learned  and  discreet  proctors,  ft)  officiate  as 
King's  proctors  in  the  said  Courts.  With  this  view  of  the  subject,  he 
should  take  the  liberty  of  moving  the  Resolution  and  Address  as  before 
recited." 

The  Advocate  General  feltit  necessary  to  oppose  the  Resolutions, 
as  injurious  to  the  interests  of  the  nation  and  of  the  navy  itself.  Mr. 
II.  Martin  supported  the  motion.  Neither  the  prerogative  of  the 
crown,  nor  the  interests  of  the  nation,  would  be  at  all  injured  by  the 
appointment  of  more  than  one  proctor,  for  all  the  proceedings  would 
be  as  much  under  the  eye  of  government  a^  before.  The  proctor 
considered  himself  as  totally  independent  of  the  captors  :  it  would 
be  much  better  for  the  navy  that  they  should  be  enabled  to  choose 
a  proctor  who  would  be  responsible  to  themselves.  Mr.  Stephens 
observed,  that  the  business  could  not  be  better  managed,  than  it 
vas  by  the  King's  proctor  and  his  assistants.  Mr.  Bastard,  in  the 
course  of  his  speech,  replied  to  some  arguments  adduced  on  the 
opposite  side,  "It  has  been  said,  Sir,  that  the  interests  of  the  navy 
itself  were  better  provided  for  by  the  present  practice;  but  the 
contrary  was  the  impression  universally  felt  in  the  navy,  though 
most  unwarrantable  measures  had  been  employed  by  the  Admiralty 
to  stille  their  complaint*.  I  know  the  fact^  because  a  petition  has 
been  put  into  my  hands,  complaining  of  gross  abuses,  and  signed 
by  many  of  the  most  respectable  persons  in  the  navy  ;  some  of 
ivhora  had  withdrawn  their  names,  in  consequence  of  their  having 
been  menaced  with  the  vengeance  of  the  Admiralty,  and  I  refused 
to  present  the  petition  afterwards,  lest  I  should  thereby  draw  down 
that  vengeance  on  the  parties."  Mr.  Whitbread  spoke  in  support 
of  the  Resolutions.  Sir  Samuel  Romilly  thought  that  the  best 
time  to  reform  the  constitution  of  a  court  of  justice  was  "when  the 
offices  in  the  court  were  respectably  and  unexccptionaWy  filled; 
because,  at  such  a  time)  all  personal  and  parly  motives  must 


ADMIRAL  sift  c.  M.  POLE,  BART.  M.P.  285 

necessarily  be  excluded.  He  did  not  pretend  to  be  intimately  ac- 
quainted with  the  mode  of  proceeding  in  the  Admiralty  Courts  ; 
but  he  conceived  it  to  be  a  very  extraordinary  principle,  and  one 
contrary  to  that  which  was  recognised  in  all  other  courts,  that  one 
person,  however  able  and  however  distinguished,  cither  by  his 
talents  or  integrity,  should  engross  the  whole  practice  of  the 
Court. 

Sir  Charles  Pole  made  a  short  reply,  in  which  he  stated,  that 
some  causes  had  been  pending  in  the  Admiralty  Courts  more  than 
ten  years  ;  and  that  a  majority  had  been  pending  more  than  seven 
years.  He  should  think  that  he  was  wanting  in  his  duty,  if  he  did 
not  take  the  sense  of  the  House  upon  the  motion  -which  he  had  the 
honour  to  have  proposed.  The  House  then  divided  upon  the  Hon. 
Barojiefs  motion,  Ayes,  16,  Noes,  35.  Majority,  19. 

The  next  instance  in  which  this  valuable  and  patriotic  officer 
displayed  his  political  courage  and  vigilance  was  on  the  succeeding 
17th  of  July,  (  1808)  when  opposing  the  Grant  moved  for  by  the 
Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  "  Towards  carrying  on  the  building 
of  the  Naval  Asylum  at  Greenwich." 

Sir  C.  Pole  opposed  the  Grant;  for  which  he  said  the  trustees  ought  not 
to  have  applied  to  Parliament  whilst  they  had  in  their  hands  a  sum  of 
50,0001.  towards  carrying  on  the  purposes  of  that  Institution;  no  account 
of  the  application  of  which  was  laid  before  the  House,  nor  the  interest  of 
that  sum,  which  ought  also  to  be  applied  to  the  purposes  of  the  establish- 
ment. He  said,  that  a  great  wast£  of  public  money  already  granted  had 
been  committed,  in  paying  a  large  salary  and  allowances  to  an  useless  and 
unnecessary  officer,  namely,  the  Auditor  ;  and  expended  in  building  for  him 
a  house,  with  extensive  gardens,  and  ounces.  There  was  no  such  officer  in 
the  military  Asylum,  and  he  thought  this  a  wasteful  profusion  of  public 
money  ;  and  towards  a  clergyman  too,  who- possessed  two  valuable  livings 
in  Ireland,  upon  which  it  was  his  duty  to  reside,  and  which  in  the  spirit  of 
the  Act  lately  passed  in  that  House,  he  ought  to  be  obliged  to  reside.  He 
objected  also  to  the  employment  of  a  surgeon  with  a  large  saliiry,  house,  and 
othces,  who  never  had  been  in  the  navy;  because  he  thought  that  all  officer* 
of  a  naval  in-»titut:on  ought  to  be  naval  men,  and  that  this  institution,  by 
employing  men  wholly  unconnected  with  the  navy,  was  rather  a  discou- 
racement  to  the  navy  than  otherwise, 

"  Mr.  Roue  expressed  his  astonishment,  that  the  Hon.  Baronet  could 
expect  that  a  sum  of  50,0001.  which  was  the  donation  of  private  persons, 
and  i^iven  expressly  on  the  condition  of  providing  for  such  children  of  sea- 
men^s  they  should  recommend,  was  to  be  applied,  in  the  first  instance, 
for  the  quite  different  purpose  of  carrying  on  the  building  now  adopted  bv 


MEMOIK   OF    THE    1'UBLI*    SERVICES    O7 

tiis  Majesty,  and  sanctioned  by  Parliament.  lie  was  ready  to  give  the  Hes. 
Admiral  credit  for  the  .friendship  he  had  always  professed  towards  the 
navy ;  but  was  utterly  at  a  loss  to  reconcile  that  profession  with  the  Hon. 
Admiral's  opposition  to  the  means  of  carrying  on  the  building  of  an  Institu- 
tion, where  a  thousand  children,  the  orphans  of  seamen,  were  to  be  pro. 
vided  for,  and  which  must  actually  be  stopt,  if  the  means  were  not  imme- 
diately granted  for  continuing  the  business  of  architecture  ;  and  this  merely 
because  two  gentlemen  were  employed  as  officers  in  the  Institution,  who 
were  not  actually  naval  men.  He  was  utterly  at  a  loss  to  account  for  thi* 
persevering  opposition  from  the  Hon.  Admiral,  who,  while  he  professed  a 
jreal  for  the  interests  of  officers  in  the  navy,  was  actually,  in  effect,  endea- 
vouring to  impede  objects  most  interesting  to  the  feelings  of  those  officers. 
There  was  a  •school  instituted  at  Greenwich  Hospital,  designed  originally 
for  the  tons  of  naval  officers,  to  the  number  of  200.  That  school  was  now 
full,  but  nol  entirely  with  the  children  of  officers,  of  whom  there  were  but 
73,  the  rest  being  the  son*  of  common  seamen ;  an-d  for  want  of  room,  the 
son  of  an  Admiral  was  now  obliged  to  sleep  in  the  same  bed  with  one  of 
those  common  boys.  It  was  designed  to  remove  from  the  school  to  tho 
Asylum,  all  the  children  of  common  seamen,  so  as  to  leave  the  Institution 
free  for  the  full  number  of  officers'  children  ;  and  yet  to  this  intention,  the 
Hon.  Admiral  was,  in  effect,  offering  every  opposition  in  his  power.  As  to 
the  gentleman  who  filled  the  office  of  auditor,  he  was  not  employed  by  the 
present  Commissioners,  they  found  him  in  the  employment,  while  under 
private  direction,  and  they  thought  it  not  right  to  discontinue  him.  But  he 
begged  leave  to  s:iy,  there  was  an  officer  in  the  Military  Asylum  to  execute 
the  same  duties,  but  he  was  under  the  denomination  of  treasurer.  The 
auditor  was  personally  quite  a  stranger  to  him,  except  in  his  official  capa- 
city, and  he  had  himself  inspected  the  house  and  garden  allotted,  ami 
thought  them  by  no  means  unreasonable  for  the  person  who  filled  the 
situation.  But  as  to  his  livings  in  Ireland,  and  his  own  residence  there,  it 
had  nothing  to  do  with  this  question,  so  long  as  he  was  obliged  by  the  strict 
rules  of  the  Asylum,  to  be  constantly  resident  there,  or  resign  his  situation. 

"  The  House  then  resolved  into  the  Committee,  and  on  tlie  Chancellor 
•of  the  Exchequer  moving  for  the  sum  of  3o,000l.  for  the  Asylum, 

"  Sir  C.  Pole  said,  that  his  motives  for  persevering  were  the  same  which 
had  actuated  him  with  respect  to  Greenwich  Hospital;  namely,  to  preserve 
the  exclusive  right  of  the  navy  to  the  official  appointments  originally  intended 
for  them,  but  which  principle  had  been  shamefully  violated  in  the  case  of 
Greenwich  Hospital.  The  like  violation  of  principle  had  commenced  in 
the  Naval  Asvlum,  and  if  it  were  not  resisted  in  the  outset,  he  should  expect 
shortly  to  see  the  governorship  there,  conferred  perhaps  upon  some  Ger- 
man captain  of  cavalry,  and  the  minor  situations  filled  by  Hanoverian 
subalterns  or  Serjeants,  instead  of  British  naval  officers.  He  would  not, 
however,  divide  the  committee, 

"Mr.  Windliam  vindicated  the  motives  of  the  lion.  Admiral,  withouf 
entering  into  the  examination  of  his  objections.  The  Resolution  was  then 
put  and  carried.'' 


ADMIRAL    SIH    C.    M.    POLK,    BAUT.    M.f.  287 

On  the  16th  of  March,  in  the  present  year,  1809,  Mr.  Robert 
Ward  rose  to  answer  somc'-observations  made  by  Sir  C.  Pole  ou  a 
former  night,  respecting  the  Pay  Captains  of  the  Marines. 

"  The  statement  of  the  Hon.  TCaronet  was  totally  fallacious.  Those  pay- 
masters were  established  under  the  administration  of  Earl  St.  Vincent  ; 
they  were  selected  fraia  the  oldest  raptaius  in  that  service ;  and  in  considera- 
tion of  the  duty  of  paymaster  allotted  them,  tliey  were  exempted  from  all 
duty  afloat,  and  had  nothing  else  to  do  than  merely  to  attend  courts  martial 
til  the  places  where  they  were  quartered  ;  and  instead  of  having  imposed 
on  them  the  duty  of  paying  tlie  whole  body  of  marines,  amounting  to  32,CGQ 
men,  t!;cv  had  not  ahove  one-fourth,  OH  perhaps  one-sixth  of  the  wh.>le,  for 
the  remainder  were  always  afloat,  and  the  pay  was  only  to  be  issued  to 
division;  01  rationally  landing  :  even  for  this  purpose  (hey  had  payraasters'- 
serjeaius  allowed  them,  and  had  only  to  controul  their  accounts.  Willi 
refptct  to  the  stoppages  of  one  day's  pay  in  a  year  from  the  marines  t» 
(.  i.:'i=ea  Hospital,  from  which  they  derived  no  advan'aae,  he  found  no  stop- 
page whatever  was  made  from  the  privates,  except  for  Greenwich  Hospital, 
to  the  benefits  of  which  they  were  entitled,  in  common  with  seamen  ;  and 
as  to  the  stoppage  of  a  day's  pay  in  each  venr,  and  the  poundage  of  five  per 
ceut.  upon  the  pay  of  officers,  it  was  handed  over  to  the  War  Office  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Widow's  Fund  ;  which  the  relicts  of  marine  officers  enjsyed 
in  common  with  those  of  officer*  of  the  line ;  but  those  stoppages  had  never 
been  made  since  the  year  180G,  as  the  pay  was  issued  net,  to  all  officers 
under  the  rank  of  colonel,  on  the  same  footing  as  the  other  officers  of 'the 
army. 

"  Sir  Charles  Pole  said,  if  the  Hon.  Gentleman  had  given  this  exphmatioa 
as  to  the  stoppages  of  pay  before,  it  would  have  altered  his  own  view  of  the 
subject.  But  he  still  held  the  same  opinion  with  respect  to  the  situation  of 
the  Pay  Captains.  He  was  wall  informed  they  had  a  regulaj-  ledger  account 
Co  keep  with  every  mm  and  boy  in  the  marine  sen  ice,  for  which  they  hnd 
BO  remuneration,  although  the  captain?  of  marine  artillery,  for  only  paying 
their  own  companies,  had  2s.  per  day  additional  pay.  Besides  those  old 
officers,  in  any  branch  of  the  service,  would  have  been  entitled  to  majorities, 
and  many  of  them  now  would  have  been  old  field  officers.  Any  advantage, 
therefore,  which  could  be  given  them,  without  great  expence  to  the  public, 
ought  not  to  be  withheld  from  a  brave  class  of  men,  whose  existence  was 
scarcely  known  to  their  country  except  by  their  brilliant  services  in  he* 
cause. 

"  Mr.  Ward  explained. 

"  Mr.  Calcraft  felt  it  his  duty  to  state,  that  it  wns  understood  rery 
generally,  that  the  stoppages  from  the  marine  troops  were  as  stated  by  th» 
Hon.  Baronet;  and  it  now  seemed  the  power  actually  did  exist  for  leaking 
those  stoppages,  although  it  was  not  exercised  to  the  extent  supposed,  but 
confined  to  Marine  officers  and  towards  the  Widow's  Fund.  But  he  saw 
no  reason  why  U*e  Marine  Oaioers  should  not  have  a  distinct  Widow's  Fund 
9*  their  ywa. 


288  .MEMOIR    OF    THE    PUULIC   SERVICES    OF 

"  Mr.  Wclleslf.)/  Pole,  said,  it  was  the  intention  of  the  present  Bonn?  of 
Admiralty  to  afford  to  the  marine  corps  every  practicable  and  reasonable 
indulgence.  But  there  was  a  mistake  with  respect  to  the  stoppages  from 
the  pay  of  marjne  officers  in  general  for  the  Widow's  Fund.  No  such  stop- 
pages were  now  made  but  from  officers  who  retired  on  full  pay  ;  and  the 
widows  of  the  marine  officers  received  their  pensions  at  the  War  Office,  paid 
by  the  public.  With  respect  to  the  situation  of  the  Pay  Captains,  he  begged 
leave  to  refer  the  lion.  Baronet  to  a  petition  presented  by  those  very  officers 
to  the  Admiralty,  when  he  himself  was  at  that  Board,  praying  for  this  very 
allowance,  which  the  Hon.  Baronet  now  sought  to  obtain  for  them,  and  the 
answer  then  given  to  their  petition  was,  that  the  berth  was  a  pretty  good 
one,  and  it  was  very  desirable  it  should  continue  to  exist;  but  if  they  did 
not  like  it  with  full  pay,  and  exemption  from  all  other  duty,  they  might 
take  their  turns  of  service  :  ever  since,  they  had  been  pretty  well  satisfied 
to  remain  as  they  were.  With  respect  to  the  Compassionate  List,  for  which 
there  was  a  bill  now  in  progress,  it  was  only  for  such  widows  and  orphans 
as  were  not  entitled  to  any  provision  otherwise,  nor  was  it  ever  thought  of 
before  the  establishment  of  the  present  Admiralty  Board;  and  it  was  his 
intention  in  the  committee  on  this  bill,  to  place  the  widows  of  marine  officer* 
on  the  same  footing  in  this  respect  with  thost;  of  the  officers  of  the  navy  and. 
army. 

"  Sir  C.  Po/t'had  no  recollection  of  the  petition  from  the  pay  captains  just 
mentioned. 

"  Mr.  Hutc/iinson  said,  that  an  opinion  had  been  very  generally  enter- 
tained by  marine  officers,  that  the  corps  !md  contributed  by  stoppages, 
some  30,0001.  to  Chelsea  Hospital,  without  receiving  any  advantage. 

"  Mr.  Ward  said,  that  no  trace  of  such  stoppages  could  be  found  in  thq 
navy  books  since  the  year  175.5. 

"  After  some  further  conversation,  in  which  Mr.  Pole,  Colouel  Bastard, 
nnd  Sir  Charles  Pole  spoke,  the  House  went  into  committee  on  the  bill, 
made  several  amendments,  and  it  was  ordered  to  be  reported  on  the  next 
day." 

On  the  2Ist  of  March,  Sir  Charles  Pole  brought  another 
important  object  before  the  House,  which  again  shewed  a  neglect 
of  naval  officers  in  those  {situations  at  the  Victualling  Board,  which 
they  had  generally  been  allowed  to  occupy,  and  which  Sir  Charles 
•was  particularly  induced  to  make,  from  circumstances  that  had 
been  brought  to  light  by  the  report  of  the  Commissioners  of  Naval 
Revision. 

"  House  of  Commons,  March  21,  1809.— -Sir  C.  Pole,  pursuant  to  notice, 
rose  to  call  the  attention  of  the  House  to  the  necessity  which  existed  on  the 
part  of  the  Board  of  Admiralty,  of  selecting  such  members  only  for  appoint- 
ment to  this  Bo.Td  as  were  men  of  professional  experience,  ability,  integrity, 
and  indefatigable  industry,  in  the  duties  of  their  office;  and  to  the  inc.onvc- 
iiienceii-aud  losses  whigh  obviously  had,  and  unavoidably  must  continue  to 


ABMIRAL   BIR    C,    M,    POLE,    BAIIT.    M.F.  289 

accrae  to  the  public  service,  and  to  the  country,  from  the  want  of  due 
attention  to  this  salutary  principle.  The  lion.  Baronet,  in  support  of  his 
position,  recurred  to  a  long  series  of  documents  in  the  Reports  of  the  Com- 
mittees of  Finance  and  of  Naval  Revision,  and  took  an  historical  view  of 
the  state  of  the  navy  at  different  periods,  in  order  as  well  to  shew  that  that 
state  was  always  affected  either  by  the  possession  or  the  want  of  pro- 
fessional experience  in  those  who  at  different  times  undertook  its  manage- 
ment, and  directed  its  operations,  as  to  prove,  that  within  the  present  reign, 
for  the  want  of  such  experience,  ability,  and  industry  in  those  who  at 
different  periods  superintended  the  various  branches  of  naval  expenditure, 
the  most  gross  and  flagitious  profusion,  improvidence,  and  peculation  had 
prevailed  in  our  dock-yards  at  home,  and  our  fleets  in  foreign  service;  and 
that  the  public  accounts  in  that  department  had  been  suffered  to  run  into 
such  arrear  and  confusion,  a»  to  render  the  audit  of  them  totally  imprac- 
ticable, for  a  series  of  twenty  years  together,  to  the  preclusion  of  all  effectual 
means  to  check  the  progress  of  peculation  .and  fraud.  In  no  one  branch  of 
the  naval  department  had  tkis  system  of  inefficiency  more  mischievously 
prevailed  than  in  that  of  the  Victualling  Board,  where,  it  appcaif-J  by  one 
©f  the  latest  Reports  of  the  Commissioners  of  Naval  Revision,  that  accounts 
to  a  very  considerable  extent  had  continued  in  arrear  for  above  twenty  years 
without  liquidation.  But  it  was  not  merely  of  late  years  that  such  com- 
plaints had  existed  in  this  department;  for  ever  since  the  reign  of  Queen 
Anne  t!»e  Victualling  Office  accounts  had  been  always  in  arrear,  and  at  the 
time  of  the  last  Report  of  tlie  Commissioners  of  Naval  Revision,  there 
were  actually  accounts  to  die  amount  of  nine  millions  unsettled.  He 
trusted,  however,  that  since  that  Report  had  been  laid  upon  the  table,  no 
new  arrears  of  account  had  been  suffered  to  accumulate.  At  a  time  when 
tlie  urgent  affairs  of  this  country  called  for  great  expenditure,  and  conse- 
quently for  a  heavy  pressure  of  taxation  on  the  people,  it  was  but  right  and 
reasonable  that  the  people  should  be  convinced  that  a  scrupulous  and  effi- 
cient vigilance  was  exerted  in  every  department  of  office,  in  order  to  secure 
the  fair  application  of  every  shilling  granted  for  the  public  service  ;  and  his 
principal  motive  for  BOW  calling  the  attention  of  the  House  to  this  subject, 
•was,  not  to  cast  any  blame  oa  the  present  Board  of  Admiralty,  but  in  order 
to  record  on  the  Journals  of  the  House  a  resolution  which  he  should  have 
the  honour  to  propose  now,  before  the  Navy  Estimates  came  to  be  voted, 
in  order  to  prove  that  die  House  coincided  with  the  recommendation  stated 
in  thd  Reports  of  the  Commissioners  of  Naval  Revision.  He  concluded-by 
moving  a  Resolution,  "  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  tl-js  House  that  neither  live 
plan  recommended  by  the  Commissioners  of  Naval  Revision,  respecting  the 
Victualling  Board,  nor  any  other  plan  can  be  effectual,  if  that  Board  be 
.composed  of  any  other  than  men  of  extensive  experience,  knowledge, 
ability,  integrity,  and  indefatigable  j>erseverance  in  their  duties." 

"  Mr.  R.  Ward  spoke  at  considerable  length,  in  answer  to  the  lion. 
Baronet.  He  said  that  he  should  be  totally  at  a  loss  to  understand  the  real 
.object  of  the  Honourable  Baronet's  motion  from  his  speech  this  night,  if  h« 
Jia'd  not  heard  the  conversations  both  within  and  without  those  walls,  which 

el.  XXI,  P  *• 


2DO  MEMOIll    OF   THE    PUBLIC    8EIIVICES    OF 

had  their  origin  in  the  suggestions  of  the  lion.  Baronet,  and  were  calculated 
to  throw  blame  on  the  present  Board  of  Admiralty.  This,  he  conceived,  to 
be  the  true  motive  of  the  Hon.  Baronet  for  wishing  now  to  enter  upon  the 
Journals  of  the  House  the  Resolution  which  he  proposed  ;  the  truth  of 
which  no  man  cr-uld  deny,  and  which  was  the  very  ground  laid  for  what 
the  present  Board  of  Admiralty  had  done,  towards  the  very  system  of  reform 
in  the  naval  department,  now  urged  by  the  Honi"  Baronet.  lie  must,  there- 
fore, be  excused  from  imputing  the  motion  of  the  Hon.  Baronet  merely  to 
the  motives  he  avowed.  He  must  call  tilings  by  their  right  names,  and 
freely  avow  his  own  conviction,  that  the  true  object  of  the  Hon.  Baronet's 
motion  was  to  cast  an  indirect  censure  on  the  Board  of  Admiralty;  and, 
therefore,  without  dissenting  from  the  truth  of  the  Resolution,  he  would 
oppose  it  by  the  previous  question.  It  would  have  been  more  honourable 
and  manly  to  name  the  persons  to  whose  appointments  he  had  objected,  and 
thereby  give  to  the  friends  of  those  gentlemen  the  opportunity  of  defending 
them  fairly  and  openly.  The  Hon.  Member  then  named  severally  the 
different  Members  of  the  Victualling  Board,  to  whose  characters  he  paid 
hi^h  encomiums,  and  wished  the  lion.  Baronet  to  state  to  which,  if  to  any 
of  them,  he  could  personally  object.  The  persons  at  that  Board,  against 
whom  he  conceived  the  Hon.  Baronet's  motion  chiefly  directed,  were 
Colonel  Welsh  and  Captain  Stuart,  and  this  for  no  other  cause  than  that 
they  were  military  men,  and  therefore  in  the  Hon.  Baronet's  estimation 
unfit  to  sit  at  the  Victualling  Board.  He  (Mr.  Ward)  however  conceived 
that  military  experience  was  as  necessary  as  naval  experience  to  the 
efficiency  of  that  Board;  inasmuch  as  ever  since  the  year  1793,  by  a  new 
arrangement  of  the  Board,  with  increased  salaries,  additional  clerks,  and  the 
appointment  of  a  military  inspector  of  provisions,  the  duty  of  purchasing 
victualling  stores  for  the  army  in  foreign  stations,  as  well  as  for  the  navy, 
devolved  upon  them,  although  the  victualling  of  both  branches  of  the  public 
force  was  carried  on  under  distinct  departments,  was  different  in  kind,  and 
distributed  differently  on  shipboard,  and  in  garrison.  The  Commi-.sioners 
of  Revision  had  said  there  should  be  some  military  and  some  civilians. 
There  could  be  no  objection,  nor  was  there  any  to  Colonel  Welsh,  other 
than  his  being  appointed  by  Lord  Mulgrave,  and  every  one  but  the  Hon. 
Baronet  allowed  his  merits.  All  he  had  said  of  Colonel  Welsh  was  equally 
applicable  to  Captain  Stuart;  and  in  point  of  justice  the  Hon.  Baronet 
ought  to  get  up  and  state,  that  they  have  no  abilities  and  no  integrity,  if  he 
wished  to  throw  blame  on  the  Admiralty  for  these  appointments.  The 
motion  went  to  charge  the  Admiralty  with  blame,  without  a  single  argu- 
ment in  support  of  it.  He  was,  therefore,  compelled  to  move  the  previous 
question. 

Mr.  H.  Martin  said  he  had  never  heard  more  warmth  nor  less  argument 
than  in  the  speech  just  delivered  by  the  Hon.  Gentleman.  The  fact  was, 
the  Admiralty  had  dismissed,  or  allowed  to  retire,  Mr.  Marsh,  who  pre- 
sided at  the  Victualling  Board,  under  the  pretence  of  his  age  and  in- 
firmities, because  the  accounts  were  in  a  mar,  and  had  appointed  a  person 
hmch  the  senior  of  him  they  had  removed:  and  the  person  so  appointed. 


ADMIllAZ.    SIR    C.    M.    POLE,    BART.    M.P.  291 

had  been  longer  in  the  Victualling  Office  than  any  other,  so  that  if 
bad  habits  were  an  objection,  they  applied  in  full  force  to  him.  Mr. 
Budge  had  also  been  removed,  without  any  application  on  his  part; 
and  Mr.  Moody,  who  was  allowed  to  be  one  of  the  best  accountants  in  the 
country;  and  if  it  were  true  that  the  accounts  of  the  office  were  so 
tremendously  in  arrear  as  had  been  represented,  it  was  very  extraordinary 
they  should  grt  rid  of  such  a  man,  who  was  in  all  respects  so  capable 
of  forwarding  them. 

Mr.  Bus'anl  said  he  could  not  but  feel  indignant  at  the  manner  in  which 
the  Hon.  Gentleman  (Mr.  Ward)  had  treated  the  motion  of  the  Hon, 
Baronet,  to  whom  he  thought  the  House  and  the  country  were  highly  in- 
debted for  bringing  it  forward,  as  well  as  for  many  other  services  he  had 
done  to  the  puhlic.  Public  Boards  were  not  the  masters  of  that  House, 
but  ought  to  be  their  servants,  and  liable  to  their  controul;  and  the  Hon. 
Gentleman  would  have  done  well  to  have  recollected  the  benefits  the 
country  had  received  from  a  Board,  of  which  the  Hon.  Baronet  had  been 
an  active  member.  The  Commissioners  of  Naval  Inquiry  had  said 
many  reports  had  been  made  a->  to  the  conduct  of  the  Victualling  Board, 
but  not  one  had  been  acted  on.  It.  was  the  duty  of  the  House  to  enforce 
such  a  resolution  as  the  present,  which  might  probably  prevent  such 
neglects  in  future.  It  was  not  the  Hon.  Baronet,  but  the  Naval  Commis- 
sioners who  asserted  this  to  be  necessary;  and  though  it  might  be  a 
truism,  it  came  before  the  House  in  a  much  more  apposite  shape 
than  many  others  had  done.  In  saying  this,  he  meant  no  slur  on  the 
Admiralty,  and  the  Hon.  Gentleman  hud  gone  very  far  out  of  his 
way  in  saying  so  much  on  the  appointment  of  Colonel  Welsh.  He  thought 
the  Hon.  Baronet  was  actuated  by  the  best  motives:  he  hoped  he  would 
persist  in  his  present  conduct,  and  he  should  give  the  motion  his 
cordial  support. 

Mr.  Welksley  Pole  defended,  at  considerable  length,  the  several 
removals,  and  the  appointments  made  in  their  stead.  He  thought,  however, 
that  what  the  Hon.  Baronet  had  now  brought  forward  did  not  call  for  what 
his  Hon.  Friend  (Mr.  Ward)  had  said  upon  it.  He  was  glad  the  Hon. 
Baronet  had  stated  the  matter  as  he  had  done,  which  allowed  that 
the  system  of  the  Victualling  Board  was  so  vicious  as  loudly  to  call 
for  alteration  and  reform.  There  was,  however,  another  Report,  which  the 
Hon.  Baronet  ought  to  attend  to,  viz.  the  llth,  which  particularly  related 
to  the  outports,  and  which  stated  that  in  the  Victualling  Board  at  Plymouth 
he  had  been  charged  with  4000  tons  of  casks  more  than  by  his  account  he 
ought  to  be  charged  with,  and  another  with  4000  tons  of  casks  less  than  he 
ought,  and  yet  both  accounts  had  been  passed  as  right.  When  the  Hon. 
Baronet  looked  to  the  various  Boards  with  so  jealous  an  eye,  he  could  have 
wished  the  Hon.  Baronet  had  not  suffered  his  own  Report,  as  a  Com- 
missioner of  Naval  Inquiry,  to  remain  for  ten  months  a  mere  dead  letter, 
though  he  was  all  that  time  in  office,  and  might  have  brought  it  into  action; 
and  during  that  period  there  were  no  less  than  eleven  millions  of  accounts 
i«  his  o2ke  which  were  never  looked  to  by  the.  Board.  Many  of  tUos« 


MEMOIR    OF    THE    PUBLIC    StUVICES    OP 

accounts  had  been  standing  25  years,  and  many  nearly  that,  and  those  of 
16  had  been  reported  ready  for  inspection,  but  no  notice  had  been  taken 
of  them  by  that  Board,  of  which  the  Hon.  Barowet  was  a  member.  Mr. 
Marsh,  the  Deputy  Chairman  of  the  Victualling  Board,  had  been  allowed 
to  retire  at  his  own  request  on  three-fourths  of  his  salary.  Mr.  Moody  was 
as  incapable  of  discharging  the  duties  of  his  office,  as  if  he  was  defunct. 
From  all  the  inquiries  he  had  made,  it  was  universally  agreed  that  he  was 
incapable  of  leading  the  Board  to  carry  into  effect  those  reforms  which  had 
been  recommended  by  the  Naval  Commissioners.  He  had  also  been 
allowed,  after  49  years  service,  to  retire  on  three-fourJhs  of  his  salary;  and 
the  Victualling  Board  was  at  present  constituted  in  the  exact  manner 
recommended  by  the  Commissioners  of  Revision.  The  lion.  Gentleman 
concluded  by  saying,  that  as  there  appeared  no  shadow  of  ground  for 
the  present  motion,  he  would  vote  for  the  previous  question. 

Mr.  Wlndham  said,  in  his  opinion,  the  whole  case  lay  in  th*  short 
compass  of  how  far  it  was  necessary  to  remove  some  officers,  and  put  others 
in  their  place;  he  could  not  see  the  necessity  of  this;  but  it  seemed 
the  Hon.  Gentleman  thought  a  reform  necessary,  and  so  he  began,  not  by 
changing  principles,  but  by  changing  men — a  very  commodious  system 
of  reform;  he  knew  none  of  the  officers-  but  Mr.  Marsh,  sind  coukl  see 
no  change  in  him  which  could  warrant  his  removal ;  time,  however,,  might 
have  an  effect  on  his  mind,  which  it  had  not  on  his  body.  He  defended  tlis 
motion  of  Sir  C.  Pole. 

The  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  denied  that  a  change  of  persons 
only  was  intended,  but  a  radical  reform  of  system  in  the  most  economical 
way  possible.  He  contended  the  Right  Hon.  Gentleman  hatl  formed  his 
opinion  on  partial  parts  of  the  report  and  deduced  therefrom  general 
propositions,  which  could  not  be  denied  in  the  abstract,  bat  which,  when 
particularly  applied,  were  defective.  He  would,  therefore,  support  the 
previous  question.  He  believed  Mr,  Marsh  was  a  very  zealous  officer,  but 
he  was  incapacitated  by  age  from  active  service.  This  was  also  the  case 
with  respect  to  Mr.  Moody. 

Mr.  Whitkread  defended  the  motion  of  the  Hon.  Baronet,  and  said 
he  had  never  heard  the  present  Board  of  Admiralty  praised  by  any 
but  themselves,  with  whose  testimony  on  the  subject  it  was  not  to 
be  expected  he  should  be  satisfied.  They  abused  the  Hon.  Baronet  for  not 
doing  every  thing  in  ten  months,  and  yet  they,  at  the  end  of  two  years,  had 
only  commenced  a  reform. 

Mr.  Peter  Moore  panegyrised  the  Hon.  Baronet,  and  defended  his 
motion. 

Admiral  Markfiam  supported  the  Hon.  Baronet's  motion,  as  he  thought 
hit  arguments  fully  bore  him  out. 

Sir  C.  Pole  shortly  replied,  and  the  previous  question  was  then  carried 
without  a  division. 

In  the  present  Session,  this  truly  independent  and  patriotic 
Member  has  been  also  occupied;  with  endeavouring  to  call  tho 


ADMIRAL   SIR   C.    M.    POLE,    BART.    M.P.  293 

attention  of  the  House  of  Commons  to  a  subject,  which  was  parti- 
cularly recommended  to  him  by  his  late  friend  Admiral  Lord  Nel- 
son, The  encouragement  of  a  Marine  Corps  of  Artillery^  to  avoid 
a  return  of  those  quarrels  which  had  prevailed  in  the  Mediterra- 
nean,  whilst  Lord   Nelson  had  the  command  in  1803  :  in  conse- 
quence of  some  young  artillery  officers  refusing  to  allow  such  of 
their  men  as  were  embarked  on  board  the  bombs,  to  assist  in  case 
of  emergency  to  support  the  labours  of  the  crew.  Sir  C.  Pole's  ob- 
ject also,  in  calling  the  attention  of  Parliament  to  the  Marine  Corps, 
is  to  establish  a  Fund  for  the  orphans  of  its  officers,  to  augment 
the  field  officers,  and  to  put  the  Royal  Marine  Artillery  on  a  more 
rational  and  respectable  plan;  endeavouring  that  some  young  men 
should  be  purposely  educated   at  Woolwich   for   that  purpose* 
We  trust  that  we  shall  have  very  considerable  additions  to  add  to 
this  memoir,   both  as  regarding  his  professional  and  senatorial  du- 
ties, in  which  we  have  endeavoured  to  direct  the  attention  of  our 
readers  to  a  subject,  already  glanced  at  by  our  sensible  and  worthy 
Correspondent,    E.  G.  F.   The  Parliamentary  Duties  of  Naral 
Officers.     The  subject  at  the  present  moment,  particularly,  is  of 
vast  importance,  and  of  great  national  interest :  and  we  trust  our 
Correspondent  will  direct  and  confine  his  attention  to  naval  par- 
liamentary subjects  alone,  and  a  discussion  of  the  various  specche* 
that  have  been  thus  made  by  officers  in  both  Houses. 

Such  has  been,  and  such  we  trust  will  long  continue  Admiral 
Sir  C.  Pole.  The  early  associate  and  intimate  friend  of  the  ever 
to  be  lamented  Nelson  ;  the  great  example  to  all  naval  officers  in 
Parliament,  to  whom  the  profession  and  ftie  country  may  safely 
look  up  for  integrity  and  independence.  By  principle  a  strict 
disciplinarian,  by  nature  brave  and  enterprising,  yet  unassuming  ; 
simple  in  his  manners,  open  in  his  character,  and  uniform  in  his 
friendship.  This  may  be  the  language  of  eulogy,  but  it  is  also  the 
language  of  truth.  We  trust  he  will  resolutely  stem  the  current  he 
has  so  nobly  opposed,  and  support  the  hitherto-neglected  interests 
of  the  British  navy  in  the  House  of  Commons.  And  instead  of 
crouching,  like  too  many  whom  we  could  mention,  to  men  in 
power  for  professional  employment,  or  holding  a  situation  in  Par. 
liament  from  motives  of  party  or  self  interest,  will  keep  on  his 
steady  course  with  a  press  of  canvass ;  and  though  unfavourable 


MEMOIR     OF    THE     PUBLIC     SERVICES     OF 

winds  may  sometimes  retard  Ms  progress,  or  the  three  deckers  oT 
ministry  may  open  their  broadsides  upon  him,  and  fire  stink  pots 
into  his  rigging  ;  still  we  trust,  like  an  experienced  and  able  sea- 
man as  he  is,  he  will  luff  up  and  rake  his  opposcrs.  We  trust 
that  dijring  many  succeeding  sessions,  he  will  continue  to  burn 
blue  lights  to  caution  other  officers,  when  he  thinks  the  good  old 
ship  is  standing  into  danger;  or  her  crew,  like  that  of  a  privateer, 
becoming  slovenly  and  thinking  only  of  prize  money,  fall  to 
squabling  amongst  themselves ;  and  thus  forget  to  scrub  the  decks, 
and  to  square  the  yards,  and  allow  the  purser  to  serve  out  oakura 
for  tobacco,  and  the  dust  of  corrupted  maggots  for  burgoo. 

*».*  Sir  Charles  Pole  has  been  many  years  one  of  the  Grooms 
of  the  Bedchamber  to  Admiral  his  Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of 
Clarence. 

HERALDIC    PARTICULARS. 

The  family  of  Pole  is  of  great  antiquify  in  Devonshire.  Sir 
John  Pole,  of  Shute,  in  that  county,  was  created  a  Baronet  by 
patent  dated  12th  September,  Ui2S.  His  grandson,  Sir  John 
Pole,  married  Anne,  youngest  daughter  of  Sir  William  Morice,  of 
Werington,  Knight,  and  had  issue,  1st,  William,  his  successor  in 
the  title  of  Baronet ;  2d,  John,  an  officer  in  the  army,  who  died 
unmarried;  3d,  Charles,  who  died  young;  and  4th,  the  Rev. 
Carolus  Pole,  rector  of  St.  Breoch,  in  Cornwall,  grandfa- 
ther of  the  present  Admiral ;  which  Carolus  married  Sarah,  daugh- 
ter of  Jonathan  Rashleigh,  of  Meuabilly,  in  Cornwall,  Esq.  by 
Jane,  daughter  and  at  length  coheir  of  Sir  John  Carew,  of 
Anthony,  in  the  same  county,  and  by  her  had  issue  a  daughter, 
Jane,  who  married  Philip  Rashleigh,  of  Menabilly,  Esq.  and  two 
sons,  viz.  1st,  Reginald;  2d,  John,  rector  of  Faccumb  cum  Tang- 
ley,  Southampton,  who  died  unmarried  in  1750. 

Reginald  Pole,  the  eldest  son,  father  of  the  subject  of  this 
memoir,  was  of  Stoke  Damarell,  in  the  county  of  Devon,  and  died 
1 1th  November,  1769,  at  the  age  of  53,  leaving  issue  by  Anne  his 
wife  (2d  daughter  of  John  Francis  Buller,  of  Mortal,  Esq.  which, 
lady  died  25th  April,  1758)  three  sons  and  two  daughters,  of 
whom  Anne  was  2d  wife  of  Charles  Cox,  Lord  Sommers,  and 
Sarah,  married  Henry  Hippesley  Coxe,  Esq.  of  Stone  Easton>  in 
Somersetshire,  and  died  iu  August  1787.  The  sons  were,  1st,  the 
Right  Honourable  Reginald  Pole  Carevr,  of  Anthony,  in  t«* 


ADMIRAL  SIR  C.  M.  POLE,  BART.  M.P. 

county  of  Cornwall,  one  of  his  Majesty's  most  honourable  Privy 
Council,  and  M.P.  for  Fowey,  who  was  born  28th  July,  1753, 
and  assumed  the  surname  and  arms  of  Carcw,  by  Act  of  Par- 
Jiament,  pursuant  to  the  will  of  Sir  Coventry  Carcw.  He  married 
iu  November,  1784,  Jemima^  only  child  of  the  Hon.  John  Yorke, 
4th  son  of  Philip,  1st  Earl  of  Hardwicke?  by  whom  he  had  several 
children. 

2d,  Sir  Charles  Morice  Pole,  Baronet,  (so  created  by  patent 
dated  12th  September,  1801)  an  Admiral  in  the  Royal  Navy, 
born  18th  January,  1757,  married  8th  June,  1792,  Henrietta,  3d 
daughter  of  John  Goddard,  Esq.  formerly  of  Rotterdam,  and  late 
of  Woodford  Hall,  in  Essex,  and  niece  of  Henry  Hope,  Esq.  late 
of  Amsterdam,  but  now  of  Harley  Street,  and  by  her  has  issue5 
Henrrietra-Maria-Sarah,  born  7th  November,  1799. 

3d,  Edward  Pole,  Fellow  of  All  Souls  College,  Oxford.  , 

ARMS. — Azure )  a  lion  rampant,  argent,  within  an  orle  of  9 
Fieurs  de  15s,  or. 

SUPPORTERS. — Granted  by  his  Majesty's  Especial  Royal  War. 
rant,  dated  2d  November,  1801.  On  the  dexter  a  stag,  gules^ 
attired,  or ;  and  on  the  sinister  a  griffin,  atrwre,  beaked,  legged, 
and  ducally  gorged,  or. 

MOTTO. — Pallet  Virtus. 


NAVAL  ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL  HINTS,  RECOLLECTIONS, 


NANTES    IN    GURGITE    VASTO. 


GALLANTRY    OF    THE    SANDWICH    LUGGER. 

ON  New  Year's  Day,  a  very  gallant  and  severe  actios  was 
fought  by  the  Sandwich  lugger.  She  fell  in  with  a  large 
JFrench  lugger,  soon  after  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  off  the 
Isle  of  Bass,  which  she  engaged  nearly  two  hours ;  and  so  close 
was  the  contest,  that  the  enemy's  main-sail  caught  fire  two  or  three 
times,  from  the  fire  of  the  Sandwich  :  it  was  evidently  the  intention 
of  the  enemy  to  board,  being  full  of  men  (it  is  supposed  nearly 
100),  and  for  that  purpose  she  ran  her  bowsprit  between  the 
Sandwich's  fore  and  main-masts;  but  the  brisk  fire  of  round  and 
cannister  kept  up  by  the  brave  crew  of  the  Sandwich,  prevented 
her  accomplishing  this  design.  At  length  she  disengaged  herself, 


295  KAVAI.    ANECDOTES, 

and  sheered  off:  the  Sandwich  pursued  her,  bat  the  weather  being 
dark  and  heavy,  and  the  wind  failing,  she  out  with  her  sweeps, 
and  made  her  escape.  The  long  and  brisk  cannonade  kept  up  by 
the  Sandwich  must  have  made  great  havoc  among  the  enemy's 
crew,  and  it  is  certain  she  must  have  been  so  much  shattered  as  to 
reach  the  shore  with  difficulty.  The  Sandwich  had  cm-,  n  iiii  killed 
and  seven  wounded  :  two  of  them  so  dangerously  iLit  th^y  are  not 
expected  to  live.  Lieutenant  Atkins,  the  brave  ..^inmander  of  the 
Sandwich,  received  a  ball  in  the  upper  part  of  his  right  arm,  near 
the  shoulder;  but  it  has  been  extracted.  Mr.  Phillips,  the  master, 
was  dangerously  wounded  ;  a  musket  ball  entered  his  right  breast, 
and  passed  out  at  his  back.  The  first  mate  was  wounded  by  a 
ball  passing  through  his  leg. — The  Sandwich  mounts  14  guns,  and 
had  50  men  on  board. 

PRESENT    STATE    OF    MALACCA. 

THE  fort  wails  at  Malacca,  were  built  by  a  colony  from  China, 
at  least  three  centuries  before  the  Portuguese  obtained  possession 
of  the  place  in  1512.  They  are  by  no  means  so  strong  as  has  been 
generally  supposed,  but  they  serve  to  strike  terror  into  the  Malays, 
•who  have  a  superstitious  veneration  for  them.  Preparations  are 
now  making  to  blow  up  the  works  ;  mines  are  excavated  along  the 
side  facing  the  sea,  some  of  which  are  charged.  Two  were  ex- 
ploded with  great  skill  and  precision,  on  the  16th  of  October,  1807. 
The  wall  was  completely  overturned  on  both  sides,  with  a  very 
trilling  explosion,  and  without  injuring  a  building  or  a  tree.  The 
country  round  Malacca  to  the  distance  of  eight  or  ten  miles  from 
the  fort,  is  a  pleasant  and  most  productive  spot.  The  rising 
grounds  are  barren  and  rocky,  and  the  acclivities  have  been  used 
by  the  Chinese,  for  places  of  sepulture.  Redoubts  are  also  raised 
on  the  Bocca  China,  and  St.  Jonas.  On  the  sides  of  the  hills  are 
innumerable  trees  of  a  variety  of  species,  including  the  sepharce 
and  the  arcca,  or  betel-nut  tree  ;  other  fences  of  the  fields  are 
bamboo,  rattan,  acacia,  &c.  Since  the  English  took  possession 
of  the  place  in  1793,  the  vajlies  produce  rice  and  sugar  canes  in. 
great  abundance,  the  cultivation  of  which,  under  a  settled  and 
permanent  government,  might  be  much  extended.  The  revenues 
bring  to  the  Company  80,000  dollars  a  year  for  land  rents,  taxes, 
and  customs.  The  latter  are  farmed,  and  there  is  a  considerable 
trade  with  the  buggesses  from  Borneo,  in  the  season  between  the 
monsoons.  They  also  trade  with  Sumatra,  Rhio,  and  many  of 
the  rivers  of  the  Peninsula,  both  to  the  east  and  west,  and  hays 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,     RECOLLECTIONS,    &C,  297 

frequent  communications  with  Java ;  whence  they  import  teak- 
wood,  pepper,  and  other  productions.  They  procure  spars  fit  for 
masts  from  Stack  and  Arroes,  but  these  growing  in  a  low,  marshy 
country,  are  of  inferior  quality.  In  the  river  which  runs  close  by 
the  walls  of  the  fort,  small  vessels  of  120  tons  have  been  built. 
They  have  good  timber,  including  what  they  procure  from 
Samarang  and  Java,  and  skilful  carpenters.  Under  the  lee  of  the 
island  nearest  to  the  fort,  there  is  a  kind  of  harbour,  where  in  the 
south-west  monsoon,  they  can  carry  and  secure  vessels  drawing 
16  feet.  The  cultivators,  sugar-makers,  distillers,  and  farmers  of 
the  customs  are  Chinese. 

IMPROVEMENTS     IN    THE    SANDWICH    ISLANDS. 

AMONG  the  extraordinary  phenomena  of  the  present  age,  so  fer. 
tile  in  revolutions  political  and  national,  may  be  justly  reckoned 
the  formation  of  a  new  empire,  and  the  introduction  of  European 
civilization  into  the  remote  islands  scattered  over  the  yast  expanse 
of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  We  are  assured  that  Tahama,  chief  or 
sovereign  of  the  island  O-Avy-hee,  has  not  only  subjected  to  his 
dominion  the  surrounding  islands,  but  is  actively  employed  in  ex. 
tending  his  power  on  every  side.  This  chieftain,  the  Buonaparte 
of  the  Pacific,  though  he  can  neither  write  nor  read,  is,  neverthe- 
less, endowed  with  distinguished  abilities,  energy,  and  ambition. 
Numbers  of  British  and  of  French  renegadoes,  or  deserters,  are 
employed  in  facilitating  his  projects  of  commerce  and  of  conquest. 
Already  it  is  certain  that  he  carries  on  a  trade  with  China,  with 
some  of  the  dependencies  of  Japan,  with  the  Ladrone  islands,  and 
Tinian  ;  nor  is  it  doubted  that  he  will  soon  navigate  the  South  Sea 
in  the  opposite  direction,  to  the  western  shores  of  Mexico,  Peru, 
and  Chili.  However  incredible  it  may  appear,  we  are  assured  that 
he  possesses  a  marine  consisting  of  nine  vessels  ;  among  which  are 
two  armed  and  copper-bottomed.  Tahama,  it  is  believed,  will 
subject  the  Society  and  Friendly  Islands,  as  well  as  many  of  the 
others  in  that  quarter  of  the  globe.  When  we  reflect  on  the 
geographical  position  of  the  Sandwich  islands,  placed  as  it'were  by 
nature,  to  connect  America  with  Asia;  and  competent  to  carry  on 
the  most  extensive  commerce  at  once  with  the  Philippines,  China, 
and  Japan,  on  one  hand  ;  no  less  than  with 'California,  Acapulco, 
Lima,  and  the  parts  of  Chili  on  the  other  side  of  the  Pacific ;  w« 
are  lost  in  contemplating  or  calculating  the  results  which  may  take 
place  in  the  course  of  a  few  years  from  this  event.  0-wy-hee  and 

t  C$nm»®»I«  XXI.  Q  « 


298 


NAVAT,    ANECDOTEi, 


Hayti,  may  both,  in  (he  lapse  of  the  IDth  century,  occupy  a  dis- 
tinguished place  in  the  history  of  the  world  ;  and  the  dynasties  of 
Tahama  or  of  Pction,  like  those  of  Buonaparte  and  Murat,  may 
arise  to  replace  the  distinguished  families  that  antecedently  ruled 
in  Europe  or  in  America, 

ADDITIONAL   HONOURS  CONFERRED  ON  SIR  SIDNEY  SMITH  BY 

THE    COURT    OF    PORTUGAL. 

THE  public  papers  have  lately  contained  many  contradictory 
accounts  of  the  state  of  afiairs  at  the  court  of  Brazil,  but  we  arc 
as  yet  very  scantily  supplied  with  genuine  intelligence ;  we  therefore 
Conceive  the  following  document  will  be  read  with  interest,  as 
authentic  testimony  of  the  sentiments  of  that  court  relative  to  the 
person  and  services  of  the  British  admiral  commanding  in  those 
seas.  It  is  somewhat  singular  that  Sir  Sidney  Smith's  conduct 
should  be  viewed  in  so  different  a  light  at  the  Admiralty  from 
what  it  is  by  our  ally,  that  he  has  just  been  unexpectedly  super- 
seded in  a  manner,  which  we  fear  will  be  considered  by  the  Avorthy 
admiral  as  the  most  abrupt. 

"  Palace  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Glh  August,  1808. 
(COPY.) 

"  His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Regent,  our  Sovereign  Lord,  being 
desirous  to  shew  the  estimation  in  which  he  holds  the  high  merit,  abilities, 
and  valour  of  Sir  Sidney  Smith,  rear-admiral  and  commander.in-chicf  of  his 
Britannic  majesty's  naval  forces  in  the  Southern  Seas;  his  royal  highness  has 
been  pleased  to  grant  him  the  honour  of  enabling  him  to  bear  the  arms  of 
Portugal,  quartered  with  his  own,  and  to  bear  them  as  the  French  express 
it,  oti  shield  and  banner,*  that  he,  and  his  descendants,  may  use  them,  and 
in  default  of  issue,  his  representatives  in  both  the  male  and  female  lines  : 
but  as  the  said  Sir  Sidney  Smith  cannot  do  this  without  his  Britannic 
majesty's  licence,  his  royal  highness  orders  that  your  excellency  will  request 
this  faculty  through  Mr.  Canning,  his  minister  of  state  for  foreign  affairs, 
signifying  the  great  pleasure  and  satisfaction  his  royal  highness  will  receive 
by  his  Britannic  majesty's  being  pleased  to  accede  to  this  his  particular 
desire.  Your  excellency  will  make  known  this  minister's  answer  as  soon 
as  possible.  His  royal  highness  flattering  himself  that  this  just  request  will 
not  meet  any  difficulty.  God  preserve  your  excellency. 

"  D.  RODRIGO  DE  SOUZA  CONTINHO." 

*'  To  Don  Domingos  Antonio  de 
Souza  Continho.     London. 

*  En  (tusson  ft  banniere. 


COMMERCIAL    HINTS,    RECOLLECTIONS,    &C.  299 

•INSCRIPTION'    AND    DIMENSIONS  OF  THE  LOWLSTOFF  UNIMMERGIBLE 
LIFE-BOAT.* 

Feet.     Inches, 
0 
0 

Breadth  a-raidships 10         0 

Depth 3         6 

Exclusive  of  amoveable  wash  strakeof       O         8 
The  form  the  same  as  the  yawls  of  that  coast ;  the  stern  post 
nearly  upright. 

External  gunwales  hollow,  forming  an  oblique  section  of  a 
parabola  with  the  side  of  the  boat,  and  projecting  nine  inches  from 
it  on  each  side  :  these  gunwales  are  reduced  a  little  in  their  pro- 
jection towards  their  ends,  and  are  first  formed  by  brackets  and 
thin  boards,  covered  at  top  and  bottom  with  one  thickness  of  good 
sound  cork,  and  the  extremity  or  apex  of  the  projection  having 
two  thicknesses  of  cork,  the  better  to  defend  it  from  any  violent 
blows  it  may  meet  with  in  hard  service.  The  depth  of  these  gun. 
wales  from  top  to  bottom  was  fifteen  inches,  and  the  whole 
covered  with  very  strong  canvas,  laid  on  with  strong  cement  to 
resist  the  water,  and  that  will  not  stick  to  anything  laid  upon  it. 

A  false  keel  of  wrought  iron  three  inches  deep,  made  of  t'nrerc 
bars  rivetted  together,  ami  bolted  under  the  common  keel,  which 
it  greatly  strengthens,  and  makes  a  very  essential  part  of  her 
ballast;  b.'ing  fixed  so  much  below  the  floor,  it  has  nearly  double 
the  power  the  same  weight  would  have  if  laid  on  the  floor,  and 
therefore  much  preferable  to  any  other  ballast  that  can  be  used  for 
sailing  boats. 

Thwarts  and  gang-board  as  usual  :  three  masts  and  lugg  sails, 
and  twelve  short  oars. 

In  this  state,  this  boat  is  much  safer  than  any  common  boat  of 
the  same  dimensions,  will  carry  more  sail,  and  bear  more  weather  : 
but  to  make  it  completely  unimmergible,  empty  casks,  of  about 
twenty-two  inches  diameter,  were  ranged  along  withinside  of  the 
gunwales,  lashed  firmly  to  the  boat,  lying  even  with  the  tops  of 
the  gunwales,  and  resting  upon  brackets  fastened  to  the  timbers 
for  that  purpose ;  also  two  such  casks  in  the  head,  and  two  in  the 
stern,  and  all  removable  in  a  short  time,  if  desired ;  there  were 
also  some  empty  casks  placed  under  the  gang-board;  these  woul 
be  an  addition  to  the  boat's  buoyancy  if  empty,  and  an,  increase  to. 
her  ballast  if  full. 

*  For  an  account  of  the  first  launching  of  the  kowestoff  life-boat,  on  the 
1 9th  of  Nov<jmber;  1607,  vide  NAVAL  CuRCWCLfi,  Vol.  XIX.  page  458., 


SCO 


PLATE  CCLXXXL 

THE  Island  of  Bombay,  about  seven  leagues  in  circumference, 
is  situated  in  longitude  72  cleg.  38  min.  east  of  Greenwich, 
latitude  18  deg.  57  inin.  north.  It  was  first  settled  by  the  Portu- 
guese, who  gave  it  to  Charles  II.  King  of  England,  as  a  marriage 
portion  with  the  infanta  Catherine.  Its  trade  flourished  exceed- 
ingly; but  its  revenues  were  inadequate  to  the  expence  of  keeping 
it;  in  consequence  of  which,  and  of  other  political  and  commercial 
reasons,  the  crown  made  it  over  to  the  East  India  Company,  in 
whose  hands  it  remains. 

The  principal  town  is  nearly  a  mile  long  ;  and,  within  these 
few  years,  the  general  appearance  of  the  houses  has  been  con- 
siderably improved.  The  soil  is  barren,  and  the  water  is  bad ; 
notwithstanding  which,  there  are  some  fine  groves  of  cocoa-nut 
trees  on  the  island,  and  the  gardens  produce  inargoes,  jacks,  and 
other  Indian  fruits. 

Salt,  in  large  quantities,  is  made  at  Bombay,  by  letting  the  sea 
into  pits,  and  suffering  it  to  evaporate  by  the  heat  of  the  sun. 

The  air  and  climate 'of  iliis  island  are  rather  unhealthy,  subject- 
ing  Europeans,  on  their  first  arrival,  to  fevers,  fluxes,  scrophulous 
disorders,  &c.  Persons  seasoned  to  the  country,  however,  fre- 
quently live  to  a  good  old  age.  Afte»  the  rains,  a  number  of 
venomous  creatures  appear,  and  attain  an  extraordinary  size. 

Bombay  Castle,  of  which  the  annexed  engraving,  by  Baily,  from 
a.  drawing  by  W.  Westal,  is  an  accurate  representation,  stands  in, 
and  forms  part  of  the  Fort  of  Bombay,  which  is  by  far  the  strongest, 
and  the  most  regular  fortification  in  India.  All,  the  arms,  and 
naval  stores,  for  the  Malabar  coast,  are  kept  in  this  castle. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

MR.    EDITOR, 

AS  you  profess  to  be  a  faithful  chronicler  of  naval  events  for 
the  future  historian,  you  should  candidly  insert,  as  indeed 
you  have  often  done,  the  different  naval  documents  that  have  cir- 
culated amongst  us  in  manuscript,  but  are  in  general  little  known 
to  the  public.  In  your  second  volume,  ,page  500,  you  inserted 
Lord  Nelson's  remarks  on  his  ship  the  Captain,  February  14, 
1797}  which  first  appearedjn  the  Sun :  but  you  have  never  in. 


CORUESPONDENCE.  301 

sorted  the  letter  which  those  remarks  produced  from  Admiral  W. 
Parker,  of  the  St.  George.     I  have  therefore  sent  you  a  copy. 

LIEUTENANT  H. 

"  DEAR  BiNGir.vxr,  "  Blenheim,  off" Cadiz,  September  1,1797. 

u  I  have  heard  some  time  back,  by  some  of  my  friends  in 
England,  that  from  a  statement  of  the  action  of  the  14th  February, 
by  then  Commodore  Nelson,  I  had  not  that  credit  that  properly 
belonged  to  ran. 

"  I  have  had  no  power  to  do  myself  the  justice  I  might  be  en-* 
titled  to,  for  want  of  a  sight  of  that  letter,  which  I  did  not  get 
until  the  20th  of  July. 

*'  It  is  of  no  moment  to  me  to  make  any  observations  further 
than  concerns  myself;  I  have  written  to  him  upon  the  subject, 
which,  least  any  of  my  friends  may  not  have  considered  me  in  the 
situation  I  really  stood,  in  the  success  of  that  day  from  that  cause 
also,  I  here  send  you  the  copy  of  what  I  have  written,  with  his 
answer. 

"  lie  was  absent  from  the  fleet  at  the  time  I  wrote,  and  when 
he  returned  had  lost  his  arm.  I  had  no  immediate  answer ;  it  was 
left  with  the  commander-in-chief,  by  whom  he  de<ired  it  to  be 
delivered  to  me  after  he  was  gone  to  England,  as  I  was  told  to  pre- 
vent a  rejoinder ;  but  with  assurances  that  no  offence  was  meant 
by  him  to  me,  and  (hat  he  never  thought  it  could  be  understood 
that  both  ships  had  struck  to  him. 

"  This  answer  is  little  to  the  purpose,  though  after  what  he  had 
written  it  could  not  be  much  otherwise.  He  has  got  my  observa- 
tions as  far  as  respects  myself;  and  I  receive  in  words  what  I  sup- 
pose was  thought  he  should  not  commit  to  paper,  for  I  believe  he 
had  advice  upon  the  occasion. 

"  1  have  no  other  object  or  wish  than  to  be  considered  by  my 
friends  in  the  way  I  am  entitled,  or  any  intention  of  making  com- 
ments upon  Admiral  Nelson's  letter,  but  what  concerned  my  own 
situation,  and  the  ships  he  did  not  mention. 

u  Dear  Bingham, 
"  Your  friend  and  well-wisher, 

«  W.  PARKER." 

"  P.S.  You  may  shew  this,  with  its  enclosure,  to  any  of  my 
friends  w-ho.m  you  may  suppose  have  read  Admiral  Nelson's 
letter." 


302  CORRESPONDENCE. 

"  MY  DEAR  SIR,  "  Blenheim,  off  Cadiz,  25th  July,  1797. 

<c  It  was  not  until  the  21st  of  this  inst.  July,  that  I  saw  the 
letter  in  the  Sun,  dated  the  20th  March,  with  remarks  upon  the 
proceedings  of  his  Majesty's  ship  the  Captain,  in  the  action  of  the 
14th  February,  to  the  whole  of  which,  from  a  near  situation,  J 
was  an  eye  witness. 

"  I  very  readily  admit  that  you  have  all  the  credit  (hat  belongs 
to  an  able  officer  and  a  brave  man  ;  but  in  support  of  myself,  the 
officers  of  the  Prince  George,  and  Orion  (and  Blenheim,  previous 
to  your  acknowledging  her)  I  cannot  but  express  my  surprize  at 
the  statement  contained  in  your  letter. 

"  You  say,  after  wearing,  that  at  a  quarter  past  one  o'clock 
you  were  engaged,  and  immediately  joined,  and  most  nobly  sup- 
ported by  the  Cullodcn,  Captain  Troubridgc,  for  near  an  hour. 
Did  the  Culloden  and  Captain  support  this  apparently,  though 
not  really,  unequal  contest,  when  the  Blenheim  passing  between 
you  and  the  enemy,  gave  you  a  respite',  &c. 

"  I  must  here  take  the  opportunity  of  pointing  out  to  you,  that 
after  passing  through  the  tnemy's  disordered  line  upon  the  star- 
board tack,  viz.  the  Culloden,  Blenheim,  Prince  George,  Orion, 
and  Colossus,  the  Culloden  and  Colossus  more  to  windward  than 
the  other  three  ships,  which  were  in  an  exact  line  close  to  each 
other,  tacked  per  signal  in  succession,  and  stood  after  the  enemy 
upon  the  larboard  tack  in  the  following  order,  viz.  Culloden, 
Blenheim,  Prince  George,  and  Orion,  the  Colossus  having  lost  her 
fore  and  fore-top-sail  yards,  missed  stays,  and  remained  astern  ; 
during  the  progress  towards  tho  enemy  upon  the  larboard  tack, 
you  were  observed  to  wear  from  the  rear  of  our  line,  and  stand 
towards  the  enemy  also,  the  Culloden  by  the  minutes  on  board  the 
Prince  George,  began  to  engage  first,  viz.  twenty  minutes  past  one 
o'clock,  and  you  fell  in  ahead  of  her  some  time  after,  and  began 
to  engage  at  hall-past  one.  Soon  after  you  began,  the  Blenheim, 
•was  advanced  upon  the  Culloden's  larboard  quarter  as  far  ahead 
as  she  could  be,  keeping  out  of  her  fire,  and  began  also;  and  not 
Iftng  afterwards  the  Prince  George  was  the  same  with  respect  to 
the  Blenheim,  and  Orion  with  respect  to  the  Prince  George. 
The  Prince  George  began  at  thirty-five  minutes  past  one,  but  for 
some  time  could  not  get  advanced  enough  to  bring  her  broadside 
to  bear  without  yawing,  occasionally ;  the  Orion  in  the  Prince 
George's  rear  began  as  soon  as  she  could  get  sufficiently  advanced ; 
therefore,  so  different  to  your  statement,  very  soon  after  you 
commenced  your  fire,  you  had  four  ships  pressing  on,  almost  oa 


CORRESPONDENCE.  303 

board  of  each  other,  close  in  your  rear ;  but  the  ships  thus  prcssino- 
upon  each  other,  and  the  two  latt